• Title/Summary/Keyword: Boar

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Crop Loss Survey by Wildlife in National Parks of Korea (한국 국립공원 내 야생동물과 농작물 피해)

  • Yoon, Seong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2007
  • Crop loss and damage by wildlife are becoming more serious to residents inside and around National Parks of Korea annually. It could be caused by small size of Parks, which is couples of ten $km^2$ only, and more than a third of total parks' areas are belonging to privates. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most harmful pests in nationwide. Treading down crop field using as bedding or resting site are major damaged types and foraging behavior is following. Besides of boars, Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis), racoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and badger (Meles meles) are another serious pests. Mainly, farm products planted in upland, such as corns, sweet potatoes, cabbages, etc. are harmed easily, a rate reaches up to 76.9% of whole losses. 92.4% (n=187) of interviewees, who are mostly seniors, cultivate small crop fields smaller than 1 ha. Crop damage would be started from June to late November, time differences are happened due to latitude, climate condition, and crop differences of National Parks. Dusting animal repellents are easier and widespread methods to prevent animal foraging to crop fields and installing noisy makers using gun powder and setting up scarecrows are traditional methods for repelling animals. Nevertheless, effects of these self-defence are turned out to be useful soon after labors done only. Since legal compensation for crop damages by wildlife are not prepared systematically so far, crop loss are rarely reported to local government by most farmers. Systematic and objective methods for quantifying of crop loss by wildlife and population managements system should be offered urgently to well-managed animals habitat and residents' living inside National Parks.

The establishment of Digital Image Capture System(DICS) using conventional simulator (Conventional simulator를 이용한 Digital image capture system(DICS)의 구축)

  • Oh Taesung;Park Jongil;Byun Youngsik;Shin HyunKyoh
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : The simulator is used to determine patient field and ensure the treatment field, which encompasses the required anatomy during patient normal movement such as during breathing. The latest simulator provide real time display of still, flouroscopic and digitalized image, but conventional simulator is not yet. The purpose of this study is to introduce digital image capture system(DICS) using conventional simulator and clinical case using digital captured still and flouroscopic image. Methods and materials : We connect the video signal cable to the video terminal in the back up of simulator monitor, and connect the video jack to the A/D converter. After connection between the converter jack and computer, We can acquire still image and record flouroscopic image with operating image capture program. The data created with this system can be used in patient treatment, and modified for verification by using image processing software. (j.e. photoshop, paintshop) Result : DICS was able to establish easy and economical procedure. DCIS image was helpful for simulation. DICS imaging was powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning. Conclusion : Because the commercialized simulator based of digital capture is very expensive, it is not easily to establish DICS simulator in the most hospital. DICS using conventional simulator enable to utilize the practical use of image equal to high cost digitalized simulator and to research many clinical cases in case of using other software program.

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Effect of Artificial Insemination Frequency on Reproductive Performance in Sows (인공수정 횟수가 모돈의 번식성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Jin-su;Jin, Song-san;Fang, Lin-hu;Kim, Yoo-yong
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2016
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of artificial insemination(AI) frequency on reproductive performance of sows. A total of 48 F1 sows(Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments using completely randomized design(CRD). Four experimental treatments were AI frequency from one to four times(AI1, AI2, AI3, AI4) respectively. Estrus detection was done at approximately 09:00 and 21:00 daily by applying back pressure to females with the presence of a mature boar and the weaning to estrus interval(WEI) of all sows were 5~6 day. Sows detected in estrus were mated at 12 hour after and mating interval was 12 hour by treatments. This experiment demonstrated that the lowest farrowing rate was observed AI3 treatment. Frequency of AI did not influence on reproductive performance when WEI was 5-6 day. No significant differences were observed on litter size, born alive and litter birth weight. Consequently, decreased AI frequency did not have any detrimental effect on reproductive performance when estrus detection was adequate. Decreased AI frequency could reduce cost of production of pigs when sows showed normal reproductive performance.

Nitric oxide(NO) mediating non-adrenergic non-cholinergic(NANC) relaxation in the boar retractor penis muscle II. Comparison of the relaxant properties induced by nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve stimulation and S-nitrosothiols in the porcine retractor penis muscle (Nitric oxide에 의한 수퇘지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린 동작성 이완 II. 비아드레날린 비콜린성 신경의 전장자극과 S-nitrosothiols에 의한 돼지 음경후인근의 이완 효과 비교)

  • Mun, Kyu-whan;Kim, Tae-wan;Kang, Tong-mook;Lee, Wan;Yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.459-469
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    • 1995
  • As S-nitrosothiols were proposed as nitrergic carriers in vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, we have investigated the relaxant properties of several S-nitrosothiols in the porcine retractor penis(PRP) muscle and compared them with the effects of exogenously added NO, electrical field stimulation(EFS) of NANC nerves and sodium nitroprusside(SNP). Also the influences of oxyhemoglobin and hydroquinone on the relaxant responses were investigated. In addition, effects of NO on membrane potentials and its involvement in the generation of inhibitory junction potential(IJP) were investigated with conventional intracellular microelectrode technique. The results were summerized as follows. 1. Frequency-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle were induced by EFS to NANC nerve. Tetrodotoxin($1{\times}10^{-6}M$) abolished the relaxations of PRP muscle induced by EFS, and L-NAME(($2{\times}10^{-5}M$) and methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) inhibited the relaxations. L-NAME-induced inhibition of the relaxations was reversed by L-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$), but not by D-arginine. 2. Exogenous NO($1{\times}10^{-5}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$), sodium nitroprusside(($1{\times}10^{-7}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) induced dose-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle. All S-nitrosothiols($1{\times}10^{-7}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) tested relaxed the PRP muscle in dose-dependent manner and the potency order was SNAP>GSNO>CysNO>SNAC. 3. Oxyhemoglobin($5{\times}10^{-5}M$) blocked the relaxation induced by exogenous NO and inhibited EFS-, S-nitrosothiols-, and SNP-induced relaxation. 4. Hydroquinone($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) also abolished the relaxations induced by exogenous NO, and reduced the relaxations induced by S-nitrosothiols, but did not affect EFS- and SNP-induced relaxations. 5. SNP($2{\times}10^{-6}-5{\times}10^{-6}M$) relaxed muscle strips but the membrane potentials were not affected. 6. EFS with several pulses(1ms, 2Hz, 80V) produced an inhibitory junction potential(IJP) with muscle relaxation. They were abolished by TTX($2{\times}10^{-6}M$). $N^G$-nitro-$_{\small{L}}$-arginine(L-NNA, $2{\times}10^{-5}M$) abolished the muscle relaxation, but had no effect on IJP.

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Nitric oxide(NO) mediating non-adrenergic non-cholinergic(NANC) relaxation in the boar retractor penis muscle I. Mediators of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of porcine retractor penis muscle : nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (Nitric oxide에 의한 수퇘지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린 동작성 이완 I. 돼지 음경후인근의 비아드레날린 비콜린성 이완을 매개하는 신경전달물질 : nitric oxide와 vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)

  • Mun, Kyu-whan;Kim, Jeum-yong;Kim, Tae-wan;Kang, Tong-mook;Yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.447-458
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to characterize nonadrenergic, noncholinergic(NANC) relaxation of porcine retractor penis(PRP) muscle induced by electrical field stimulation(EFS) and to investigate the actions of niric oxide(NO) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(VIP) as candidates for NANC neurotransmitters. Biphasic relaxations of PRP muscle were induced by EFS to NANC nerve. Rapid-phase relaxation was observed at low frequency(0.5-16Hz) and slow-phase relaxation followed during high frequency(8-60Hz). Both relaxations were frequency-dependent and TTX($1{\times}10^{-6}M$)-sensitive. L-NAME($2{\times}10^{-5}M$) inhibited the rapid-phase relaxation, but not the slow-phase relaxation. The inhibition of the rapid-phase relaxation with L-NAME was reversed by L-arginine ($1{\times}10^{-3}M$) but not by D-arginine($1{\times}10^{-3}M$). Methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) reduced the rapid-phase relaxation. Exogenous No(ExoNO, $1{\times}10^{-5}-1{\times}10^{-4}M$) induced dose-dependent relaxations of PRP muscle. Oxyhemoglobin($5{\times}1^{-5}M$) blocked the relaxation induced by ExoNO and inhibited EFS-induced relaxation. Hydroquinone($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) also abolished the relaxation induced by ExoNO, but did not affect EFS-induced relaxation. L-NAME resistant slow-phase relaxation to EFS was inhibited by ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin(2.5 U/ml). Both methylene blue($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) and Nethylmaleimide($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) reduced the slow-phase relaxation by EFS. [4-Cl-D-$Phe^6$, $Leu^{17}$]-VIP($3{\times}10^{-6}M$) inhibited the slow-phase relaxation by EFS. External applications of VIP ($1{\times}10^{-7}M$) caused relaxations that were simillar to the L-NAME resistant slow-phase relaxations induced by EFS, and relaxant effects of exogenous VIP were blocked by ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin(2.5 U/ml).

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Studies on In Vitro Fertilization and Development of In Vitro Matured Porcine Follicular Oocytes I. Effect of Media and Capacitation Procedure on In Vitro Fertilization (체외성숙 돼지난포란의 체외수정과 배발달에 관한 연구 I. 배양액, 수정능획득 방법이 체외성숙 난포란의 체외성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • 정형민;엄상준;승경록;이훈택;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 1993
  • These experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal culture systems for in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequently embryonic development of porcine immature follicular oocytes isolated from the ovary of slaughtered pigs. Porcine ovaries were brought to the laboratory from local slaughter house within 1 hour after slaughtering and cumulus oocytes complexes were recovered from antral follicles (3~5mm) with 23 gauge needle. To maturate follicular oocytes, cumulus oocytes complexes were washed three times with TCM-199 containing 25mM HEPES and incubated (39$^{\circ}C$, 5% CO2 in air) for 42hrs. Ejaculated and liquid storaged boar spermatozoa capacitated with different sperm capacitation methods and media were prepared forfertilizaing of matured follicular oocytes in vitro. Fertilization was performed by adding 5~10${mu}ell$ of capacitated spermatozoa containing 1~5$\times$105 sperm/ml to droplets. Eighteen to twenty-eight hours after sperm insemination, fertilized eggs were washed three times with culture media and transferred to the culture media. The fertilization rates of in vitro matured follicular oocytes cultured in B. O., TCM-HEPES, m-KRB, and TALP-II media were 61.3%, 83.0%, 88.9% and 89.2%, respectively. In addition, the polyspermy rates were 60.7%, 66.5%, 53.8%, and 43.9%, respectively. These data indicated that the highest of fertilization and the lowest of polyspermy rate was shown in TALP-II medium. Spermatozoa capacitated by caffeine, heparin, and percoll density gradient treatment in the 4 different media, the fertilization rates were 33.0~57.2%, 39.9~90.2%, and 52.6~92.8%, respectively, showing the lowest rate in caffeine treatment. The development rate of follicular oocytes, fertilized with the spermatozoa capacitated by caffeine, heparin, and percoll gradient in the TALP-II medium, upto 2 to 4-cell stages were 32.6%, 74.5% and 70.9%, respectively. Finally, fertilization rates of follicular oocytes cultured with follicular fluid containing medium from 10 to 100% were 61.2~94.1% and the rates (90~94%) with 10~20% follicular fluids were significantly higher than those (85.3%) of cultured in the media without follicular fluid. In addition, the rates of pronucleus formation were also higher in follicular fluid treated group (73.1~83.0%) than those (64.7%) of oocytes cultured without follicular fluid. The highest fertilization and pronucleus formation rates was found in oocytes cultured with 10% follicular fluid. These results suggest that the addition of heparin or percoll density gradient method is better capacitation method. Furthermore, the addition of porcine follicular fluid to the fertilization medium may improve the fertilization rates and formation of pronucleus.

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Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, Amino Acids Contents, and Fatty Acid Profiles of Korea Native Pig by Gender (한국재래돼지의 성별에 따른 도체 특성, 육질, 아미노산 및 지방산 조성 비교)

  • Kim, Du Wan;Kim, Ki Hyun;Hong, Joon Ki;Cho, Kyu Ho;Sa, Soo Jin;Park, Joon Cheol;Choi, Sun Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2013
  • A total of 30 Korean native pigs (gilt 15, boar 15) were used to investigate the carcass characteristics, meat quality, amino acid, and fatty acid composition by gender. The carcass weight of boars were significantly higher than gilts, whereas the carcass yield of gilts had significantly higher than boars (p<0.01). Boars had significantly higher moisture contents in loin muscle than gilts, whereas the protein contents of loin muscle had significantly higher in gilts than boars (p<0.01). In the results of meat quality analysis, the cooking loss (p<0.01), shearing force (p<0.05), lightness (L) and yellowness (b) in meat color (p<0.05) were significantly higher, but the pH was significantly lower (p<0.01) in gilts compared with boars. Arginine (p<0.05), alanine, aspartic acid, histidine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and tyrosin (p<0.01) for gilts were significantly higher than those for boars. The results of fatty acid composition showed that gilts had significantly higher contents of C16:1n7, C18:1n9, C20:1n9 (p<0.01) than boars in intramuscular fat, whereas boars had significantly higher contents of C18:2n6, C20:4n6 (p<0.01) and C18:3n3 (p<0.05) than gilts in intramuscular fat.

Use of a Xanthine-Xanthine Oxidase System on in vitro Maturation and Fertilization in the Pig (돼지난자의 체외성숙과 수정에 있어서 Xanthine-Xanthine Oxidase System의 이용)

  • Sa, S. J;H. T. Cheong;Lee, S. Y.;Lee, J. H.;I. S. Ryu;B. K. Yang;Kim, C. I.;Park, C. K.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2003
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of catalase using xanthine (X)-xanthine oxidase (XO) system on in vitro maturation and fertilization in the pig. When follicular oocytes were cultured with X or XO, the maturation rates were not significantly different between in medium with and without catalase despite of different culture periods. However, significantly (P<0.05) higher maturation rates were obtained in culture with X-XO-catalase system. The rates of degenerated oocytes were increased with culture periods prolonged, and were significantly (P<0.05) higher in medium without that than with catalase at 120 h of culture. On the other hand, the parthenogenetic oocytes were observed with high proportions at 72 h of culture, but were not different between the medium with and without catalase at various times of culture. In another experiment, the frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa treated with X-XO system for in vitro fertilization. The penetration rates were higher in medium with that than without catalase during the in vitro fertilization with none (P<0.05), XO and X+XO. On the other hand, when sperm were treated with none, X, XO and X+XO, lipid peroxidation were produced with higher rates in medium without that than with catalase, and consequently the changes in sperm penetration and lipid peroxidation showed opposite patterns. Under the above all conditions, however, sperm-SH group were higher detected by catalase. When the activity of sperm binding to zona pellucida was evaluated through binding to salt-stored porcine oocytes, sperm binding to zona pellucida in control group were higher than in medium with X, XO and X+XO groups. No significant differences, however, were observed between medium with and without catalase. In conclusion, the exposure of follicular oocytes and spermatozoa to X-XO-catalase system may be caused stimulating in vitro maturation and fertilization in the pig.

The Tresnds of Artiodactyla Researches in Korea, China and Japan using Text-mining and Co-occurrence Analysis of Words (텍스트마이닝과 동시출현단어분석을 이용한 한국, 중국, 일본의 우제목 연구 동향 분석)

  • Lee, Byeong-Ju;Kim, Baek-Jun;Lee, Jae Min;Eo, Soo Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2019
  • Artiodactyla, which is an even-toed mammal, widely inhabits worldwide. In recent years, wild Artiodactyla species have attracted public attention due to the rapid increase of crop damage and road-kill caused by wild Artiodactyla such as water deer and wild boar and the decrease of some species such as long-tailed goral and musk deer. In spite of such public attention, however, there have been few studies on Artiodactyla in Korea, and no studies have focused on the trend analysis of Artiodactyla, making it difficult to understand actual problems. Many recent studies on trend used text-mining and co-occurrence analysis to increase objectivity in the classification of research subjects by extracting keywords appearing in literature and quantifying relevance between words. In this study, we analyzed texts from research articles of three countries (Korea, China, and Japan) through text-mining and co-occurrence analysis and compared the research subjects in each country. We extracted 199 words from 665 articles related to Artiodactyla of three countries through text-mining. Three word-clusters were formed as a result of co-occurrence analysis on extracted words. We determined that cluster1 was related to "habitat condition and ecology", cluster2 was related to "disease" and cluster3 was related to "conservation genetics and molecular ecology". The results of comparing the rates of occurrence of each word clusters in each country showed that they were relatively even in China and Japan whereas Korea had a prevailing rate (69%) of cluster2 related to "disease". In the regression analysis on the number of words per year in each cluster, the number of words in both China and Japan increased evenly by year in each cluster while the rate of increase of cluster2 was five times more than the other clusters in Korea. The results indicate that Korean researches on Artiodactyla tended to focus on diseases more than those in China and Japan, and few researchers considered other subjects including habitat characteristics, behavior and molecular ecology. In order to control the damage caused by Artiodactyla and to establish a reasonable policy for the protection of endangered species, it is necessary to accumulate basic ecological data by conducting researches on wild Artiodactyla more.

Association Study of Zygote Arrest 1 on Semen Kinematic Characteristics in Duroc Boars (두록 정자 운동학적 특성과 Zygote arrest 1 유전자 변이와의 연관성 분석)

  • Lee, Mi Jin;Ko, Jun Ho;Kim, Yong Min;Choi, Tae Jeong;Cho, Kyu Ho;Kim, Young Sin;Jin, Dong Il;Kim, Nam Hyung;Cho, Eun Seok
    • ANNALS OF ANIMAL RESOURCE SCIENCES
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2018
  • The Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) gene is known to affect early embryonic development in various vertebrates. In this study, we performed the association analysis to check whether there is any significant relationship between semen kinematic characteristics and the ZAR1 gene. To determine semen kinematic characteristics, we measured motility (MOT), straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and beat cross frequency (BCF) of spermatozoa in boars. In order to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we extracted genomic DNA from multiple Duroc boars, and then subsequently used them in sequencing reactions. As a result, three SNPs were detected in the intronic region of ZAR1 gene (g.2435T>C in intron 2, g.2605G>A and g.4633A>C in intron 3 ). SNPs g.2435T>C and g.2605G>A were significantly associated with MOT (p<0.01) and VSL (p<0.05), and g.4633A