• Title, Summary, Keyword: Blood Amino Acids

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Changes in Blood and Tissue Free Amino Acid Concentrations in Cats Adapted to Low-and High-protein Diets (단백질 섭취 수준에 따른 고양이의 혈액 및 조직의 유리 아미노산 농도의 변화)

  • Park, Tae Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.976-985
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    • 1995
  • Changes in free amino acid concentrations is blood and various tissues were evaluated in cats adapted to the low-protein diet(20% protein, LPD) or the high-protein diet(60% protein, HPD) for 5 weeks. Cumulative body weigth gain for the 5 week period was 463$\pm$43g, and -128$\pm$40g for cats fed HPD and LPD, respectively. Feeding HPD significantly increased the size of liver and kidney. Cats adapted to HPD for 5 weeks have significantly elevated plasma concrntrations of essential amino acids (branched-chain amino acides, threonine, trytophan, phenylalanine and methoionine), whereas plasma levels of non-essential amino acids(alanine, asparagine, glycine, glutamine and serine) were significantly reduced in animals adapted to HPD(p<0.01, or p<0.001) compared to the values for the cats fed LPD. Changes in free amino acid concentratioks in whole blood induced by the variations in dietary level of protein closely reflect the pattern seen in plasma. Amino acids such as branched-chain amino acids, proline and threonine were most difficult to maintain homeostasis and consistantly elevated in lever, kidney, skeletal muscle and brain, as well as in blood of cats adapted to HPD(p<0.01 or p<0.001). All of the free amino acids in jejunum, excluding taurine and ornithine, were significantly elevated in animals adapted to HPD, most probably due to the rapid absorption of large amount of amino acids across the epithelium of small intestine.

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Effects of Popped Soybean on Concentration of Ruminal Peptide and Blood Amino Acids in Holstein Calves

  • Kim, H.D.;Ha, J.K.;Itabashi, H.;Kim, S.W.;Kim, W.Y.;Ko, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 1998
  • This study conducted to evaluate effects of popped soybean on levels of ruminal peptides and blood amino acids in Holstein calves fed sudan grass hay as a forage source and popped (PSB) soybean as a concentrate supplement. At 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after feeding, rumen fluid and blood samples were collected from the rumen and jugular vein, respectively, and amino acids, peptides and other nitrogen-containing compounds in the rumen were analyzed. Ruminal pH tended to be higher in the RSB than in the PSB treatments, and declined upto 4 h after feeding, since then increased in both treatments. The concentrations of ammonia-N in all treatments increased upto 2 h after feeding, and then decreased gradually with time after feeding. The concentrations of ammonia N in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments, however, those in RSB treatment appeared to be higher. Also, protein concentrations in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments. Peptide productions were the highest at 2 h after feeding in the group fed RSB which is rapidly degradable in rumen, whereas those in the group fed PSB which is slowly degradable in rumen were maximized at 4 h after feeding. The concentration of total free essential amino acids in plasma was higher in the RSB treatment than in the PSB, but disappearance rates of these amino acids out of plasma was higher in the PSB treatment than in the RSB treatment. Disappearance rates of free non-essential amino acids in plasma were not significantly different between the treatments. Consequently, this study implies that the production of peptide and utilization of blood amino acid may be controlled by the modification of protein degradability.

A Comparison of the Intestinal Absorption of Amino Acids in Piglets When Provided in Free Form or as a Dipeptide

  • Li, Defa;Zhao, X.H.;Yang, T.B.;Johnson, E.W.;Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.939-943
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    • 1999
  • Three 28 day-old $Duroc{\times}Large$ $White{\times}Landrace$ litter mate gilts weighing an average of 6.5 kg were used to study the intestinal absorption of amino acids when provided in dipeptide form or in the form of a free amino acid mixture. The pigs were given one of three treatments. The control involved a duodenal infusion containing no amino-acids (phosphate buffer plus 5% sorbitol) while the remaining two treatments involved either a duodenal infusion containing a glycine-lysine dipeptide (1 g) or a mixture of the free amino acids glycine and lysine at the same concentration as in the dipeptide. Blood was drawn from a cannula inserted in the portal vein, at 5 to 20 minute intervals, for two hours following infusion. The concentration of intact dipeptide as well as free glycine and lysine in the portal blood was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The intact dipeptide was never detected in the portal blood at any time after infusion. Lysine appeared in the portal blood more rapidly after infusion of dipeptide than after infusion of free lysine and the concentration of lysine in portal blood was higher in the pig infused with the dipeptide than after infusion of free lysine at almost all time points measured. The cumulative absorption of lysine and glycine from the intestine during the two hour period after infusion was greater in the pig infused with dipeptide than in the pig infused with free amino acids. The results suggest that although intact dipeptide did not reach he portal circulation, a special transport mechanism for absorption of dipeptide by intestinal cells appears to be present in pigs similar to that observed in other species.

Quantitative analysis of lee Amino Acids in Human Blood Seum by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

  • Seo, Bae-Seok;Kim, Ui-Rak;Lee, Kyu-Yong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 1975
  • The quantitative analysis of various kinds of free amino acids contained in blood serum of patients with chronic mandible ostities, epidermic hemorrhagic fever, chronic renal failure and liver cirrhosis were measured with the gas-liquid chromatography (G. L. C.). The results compared with the quantity of free amino acids of healthy persons. It was found that the quantity of free amino acids were differently contained in blood serum in accordance with kinds of patients.

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Portal Absorption of Feed Oligo-peptides in Chickens

  • Wang, Lijuan;Ma, Qiugang;Cheng, Ji;Guo, Baohai;Yue, Hongyuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1277-1280
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    • 2004
  • The effect of duodenal infusion with feed oligo-peptide solution on portal absorption of amino acids was investigated in poultry under unanaesthetized conditions. Four peptide solutions were used in the experiment: enzymatic hydrolysates from fish meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal proteins with average molecular weights less than 3,000 Da and 1,000 Da, respectively. Intestinal absorptions of these oligo-peptide solutions were compared by determining the concentration of free amino acid (FAA) in portal blood after the duodenal administrations of oligo-peptide solutions. Absorptive intensity and balance were used to estimate the intestinal absorption rate of amino acids. The absorptive intensities of amino acids were highest for the fish and soybean meal oligo-peptides. The ratios of amino acids absorbed in the portal blood from fish and soybean meal oligo-peptides were more similar to the composition of the infused amino acids than that observed from the cottonseed and rapeseed meal oligo-peptides. A positive correlation was found between absorption rate and proportion of PAA in the oligo-peptides. The higher absorption rate could be contributed to the higher proportion of peptide bound amino acids (PAA). The results suggest that fish and soybean meal protein are significantly more easily hydrolyzed into oligo-peptides (p<0.05) in the gastrointestinal tracts of poultry and as such can be utilized more effectively by body tissues.

Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

  • Lee, Dong-Hoon;Lim, Seong-Ryul;Ra, Chang-Six;Kim, Jeong-Dae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1419-1429
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    • 2012
  • A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (${\mu}IU$/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

Blood amino acids profile responding to heat stress in dairy cows

  • Guo, Jiang;Gao, Shengtao;Quan, Suyu;Zhang, Yangdong;Bu, Dengpan;Wang, Jiaqi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of heat stress on milk protein and blood amino acid profile in dairy cows. Methods: Twelve dairy cows with the similar parity, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into two groups with six cows raised in summer and others in autumn, respectively. Constant managerial conditions and diets were maintained during the experiment. Measurements and samples for heat stress and no heat stress were obtained according to the physical alterations of the temperature-humidity index. Results: Results showed that heat stress significantly reduced the milk protein content (p<0.05). Heat stress tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.09). Furthermore, heat stress decreased dry matter intake, the concentration of blood glucose and insulin, and glutathione peroxidase activity, while increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde (p<0.05). Additionally, the concentrations of blood Thr involved in immune response were increased under heat stress (p<0.05). The concentration of blood Ala, Glu, Asp, and Gly, associated with gluconeogenesis, were also increased under heat stress (p<0.05). However, the concentration of blood Lys that promotes milk protein synthesis was decreased under heat stress (p<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study revealed that more amino acids were required for maintenance but not for milk protein synthesis under heat stress, and the decreased availability of amino acids for milk protein synthesis may be attributed to competition of immune response and gluconeogenesis.

The uptake of basic amino acids into fibroblasts was enhanced by PCA.

  • Ogasahara, Kazuko;Takino, Yoshinobu;Sakamoto, Kazutami
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.145-148
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    • 2003
  • Previously, we reported that L-PCA enhanced blood circulation by modulating constitutive NO production. It was that L-PCA increased L-Arg uptake into endothelial cell, followed by the enhancement of NO production. Then we recommended the use of L-PCA for cosmetics, not only as humectants but also as enhancer of blood circulation. Since L-Arg is transported into endothelial cells by CAT (cationic amino acid transporter), it is expected that L-PCA also increase the uptake of basic amino acid, L-Lys. In this study, the uptakes of some amino acids into cells were evaluated by using 3H-labelled amino acid. Then we found the tendency that the uptake of L-Lys into endothelial cells was also enhanced by L-PCA. And the evident effect was observed in the epidermal fibroblasts, which had also CAT. Furthermore, it was found that the transportation of the other type of amino acids were not enhanced by L-PCA. That is to say, a famous moisturizer, L-PCA, has some effects on basic amino acid transport into cells.

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Free amino acids of brown rice in relation to specific gravity grade (비중선별(比重選別) 현미중(玄米中) 유리 Amino산 함량)

  • Park, H.;Chun, J.K.;Cho, I.H.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 1972
  • The contents of free amino acids in deembryod brown rice of two varieties were investigated by amino acid autoanalizer in relation to specific gravity grade. The analytical methods of free amino acid were also discussed. 1) The lower the specific gravity of the unhulled rice the higher the content of total free amino acids in the deembryod brown rice, and the similar trend appears to hold on each amino acids. 2) Main free amino acids were serine+asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and valine, and maximum values of them were 7.3, 5.1, 4.0, 3.4, 0.9mg/100g rice, respectively. They consist about 85% of total free amino acids in most cases. 3) The contents of soluble nitrogen and free amino acids appear to be lower in high protein variety (IR 667) than in low protein variety (Jinhung). The percentage of free amino acid nitrogen to soluble nitrogen, however, appears to be higher in high protein variety (IR 667). 4) Alanine was much lower than aspartic acid in IR 667 having Indica blood while alanine appears to be higher than aspartic acid in Jinhung (Japonica rice) suggesting varietal difference in amino acid metabolism. 5) Threonine peak was overlaped with glutamine, and serine was with asparagine in this study.

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Functional Amino Acids and Fatty Acids for Enhancing Production Performance of Sows and Piglets

  • Kim, Sung Woo;Mateo, Ronald D.;Yin, Yu-Long;Wu, Guoyao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.295-306
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    • 2007
  • The growth and health of the fetus and neonate are directly influenced by the nutritional and physiological status of sows. Sows are often under catabolic conditions due to restrict feeding program during pregnancy and low voluntary feed intake during lactation. The current restrict feeding program, which aims at controlling energy intake during gestation, results in an inadequate supply of dietary protein for fetal and mammary gland growth. Low voluntary feed intake during lactation also causes massive maternal tissue mobilization. Provision of amino acids and fatty acids with specific functions may enhance the performance of pregnant and lactating sows by modulating key metabolic pathways. These nutrients include arginine, branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, tryptophan, proline, conjugated linoleic acids, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which can enhance conception rates, embryogenesis, blood flow, antioxidant activity, appetite, translation initiation for protein synthesis, immune cell proliferation, and intestinal development. The outcome is to improve sow reproductive performance as well as fetal and neonatal growth and health. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids and fatty acids holds great promise in optimizing nutrition, health, and production performance of sows and piglets. (Supported by funds from Texas Tech, USDA, NLRI-RDA-Korea, and China NSF).