• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bladder neoplasms

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Are Bladder Neoplasms More Aggresive in Patients with a Smoking-related Second Malignancy?

  • Otunctemur, Alper;Koklu, Ismail;Ozbek, Emin;Dursun, Murat;Sahin, Suleyman;Besiroglu, Huseyin;Erkoc, Mustafa;Danis, Eyyup;Bozkurt, Muammer;Gurbuz, Ahmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.4025-4028
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    • 2014
  • Background: Relationships between smoking and bladder neoplasms, one of the common malignancies, are well-known. Different smoking-related malignancies may occur together. In this study, we evaluated the stage and grade of bladder neoplasms in patients also featuring lung or larynx cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to February 2012, patients who underwent surgery for bladder neoplasms in our clinic were screened retrospectively. In the evaluation, 5 patients had larynx cancer and 20 patients have lung cancer in addition, all having been smoking for a long time. The bladder tumor stage and grade were investigated in these 25 cases. Results: Mean age of patients was 66.8 (49-78). In the evaulation, all of 5 patients who had larnyx cancer also had high grade urothelial cancer. One had T2 urothelial, and 3 T1 urothelial cancer. In the same way, all of the 20 patients with lung cancer also have high grade urothelial cancer, three T2, and 13 T1. Bladder cancer stage and grade were determined to be significantly increased in patients with concomitant bladder and lung or larynx cancer. Conclusions: In the patients who have smoking releated second malignancy, bladder cancer prognosis appears more aggressive. We now need a larger series and multi-center studies for understanding relevant pathophysiology.

Immunohistochemical Differentiation between Urothelial Papillomas and Papillary Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential of the Urinary Bladder

  • Alrashidy, Mohammed;Atef, Aliaa;Baky, Tarek Abdel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1769-1772
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    • 2016
  • Background: Urothelial papilloma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma are common neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Distinguishing papillomas and papillary carcinomas, especially the low grade type, is often debatable on the basis of histological features alone. Materials and Methods: We investigated immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53, and Ki-67 in a group of 20 urothelial papilloma cases and 30 noninvasive papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) of the urinary bladder. Whole tissue sections were examined. Results: Among the 30 carcinoma cases, 12 (40%) showed strong reactivity for the whole panel, 16 (53%) reacted positively for two markers, and 2 (7%) reacted just to one of them. Ki-67 was considered positive in 27 cases (90%) and p53 in 24 (80%), CK20 showed positive reactivity in 21 cases (70%). Only small percentages of papillomas were positive, and then only weakly. Conclusions: We concluded that the intense positivity of suspicious cells for at least one of these markers would confirm the presence of malignant changes and favours the diagnosis of carcinoma.

Apoptin Induces Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer EJ and BIU-87 Cells

  • Zhan, Hui;Wang, Jian-Song;Wang, Hai-Feng;Zuo, Yi-Gang;Wang, Chun-Hui;Ding, Ming-Xia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.135-138
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To investigate whether apoptin is a apoptosis-inducing protein with a potential for bladder cancer therapy. Methods: We constructed a PCDNA3/Apoptin eukaryotic expression vector, and transfected this vector into bladder cancer cell lines BIU-87 and EJ, then observed the results by RT-PCR, transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay and the flow cytometry (TUNEL method). Results: PCDNA3/Apoptin successfully induced a high level apoptosis in both bladder cancer cell lines, compared with the controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: Apoptin can induce high level apoptosis in human bladder cancer EJ and BIU-87 cells, which suggests a potential for human bladder cancer therapy.

Assessment of inter- and intra-fractional volume of bladder and body contour by mega-voltage computed tomography in helical tomotherapy for pelvic malignancy

  • Kim, Sunghyun;You, Sei Hwan;Eum, Young Ju
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We describe the daily bladder volume change observed by mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) during pelvic radiotherapy with potential predictors of increased bladder volume variations. Materials and Methods: For 41 patients who received pelvic area irradiation, the volumes of bladder and pelvic body contour were measured twice a day with pre- and post-irradiation MVCT from the 1st to the 10th fraction. The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 18 to 30 Gy) up to a 10th fraction. The upper and lower margin of MVCT scanning was consistent during the daily treatments. The median age was 69 years (range, 33 to 86 years) and 10 patients (24.4%) were treated postoperatively. Results: Overall bladder volume on planning computed tomography was 139.7 ± 92.8 mL. Generally, post-irradiation bladder volume (POSTBV) was larger than pre-irradiation bladder volume (PREBV) (p < 0.001). The mean PREBV and POSTBV was reduced after 10 fraction treatments by 21.3% (p = 0.028) and 25.4% (p = 0.007), respectively. The MVCT-scanned body contour volumes had a tendency to decrease as the treatment sessions progressed (p = 0.043 at the 8th fraction and p = 0.044 at the 10th fraction). There was a statistically significant correlation between bladder filling time and PREBV (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Daily MVCT-based bladder volume assessment was feasible both intra- and inter-fractionally.

Immunohistochemical study on the p53 and Rb In bladder tumor (방광암에서 p53 Rb 의 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ju;Lee, Myung-Hwan;Youn, Nae-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to evaluate whether the loss or overexpression of Rb, and overexpression of p53 were prognostic indicators for bladder neoplasia, 52 tumor specimens from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were from 42 male and 10 female patients whose age ranged from 30 to 83 years old(mean age; 63,5 years old), This group included 36 superficial and 16 invasive stage bladder tumors, and grades 16-25, p53 was significantly associated with tumor stage and grade(p<0,05 in each), but not with tumor recurrence. Loss of Rb gene expression or Rb overexpression was correlated with stage, but not grade. These results suggested that changes of Rb and p53 expression might play an important role in assessing the aggressiveness of human neoplasms.

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Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

  • Chang, Jee Suk;Yoon, Hong In;Cha, Hye Jung;Chung, Yoonsun;Cho, Yeona;Keum, Ki Chang;Koom, Woong Sub
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Results: Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

Improving the diagnosis of high grade and stage bladder cancer by detecting increased urinary calprotectin expression in tumor tissue and tumor-associated inflammatory response

  • Sahin, Yusuf;Yucetas, Ugur;Ates, Huseyin Aytac;Erkan, Erkan;Yucetas, Esma;Temiz, Mustafa Zafer;Toktas, Mahmut Gokhan;Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa;Topkaya, Birsen Cigdem
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate whether measurement of urinary calprotectin can serve as a biomarker in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer and to confirm its diagnostic role in determining high grade and stage disease. Materials and Methods: Urinary calprotectin was measured in spot urine samples from patients with primary bladder cancer and control subjects. To confirm levels in urine, tissue samples were also obtained from bladder tumor and healthy trigone of bladder by transurethral resection in both groups. Finally, calprotectin levels in tissue and urine of the patients and control subjects were compared and their diagnostic potential was investigated in high grade and stage bladder cancers. Results: Of 82 participants, 52 were patients with bladder cancer and 30 were control subjects. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, smoking status, and comorbidities. Tissue and urinary calprotectin levels were significantly higher in the bladder cancer group. In subgroup analyses, urinary calprotectin levels were significantly higher in patients with high-grade, muscle-invasive tumors. After receiver operating characteristic analyses, the sensitivity and specificity of urinary calprotectin was 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. High grade and stage bladder cancers were detected with sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 74.2%, and 80% and 84.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary calprotectin may be a valuable parameter in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it may be useful in the prediction of high grade and stage disease. However, more investigations are needed.

Dose comparison between prescription methods according to anatomical variations in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

  • Choi, Euncheol;Kim, Jae Ho;Kim, Ok Bae;Byun, Sang Jun;Kim, Jin Hee;Oh, Young Kee
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We compared how doses delivered via two-dimensional (2D) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and three-dimensional (3D) ICBT varied anatomically. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients who received 30 Gy of 3D ICBT after external radiotherapy (RT) were enrolled. We compared the doses of the actual 3D and 2D ICBT plans among patients grouped according to six anatomical variations: differences in a small-bowel V2Gy, small bowel circumference, the direction of bladder distension, bladder volume, sigmoid V3.5Gy, and sigmoid circumference. Seven dose parameters were measured in line with the EMBRACE recommendations. Results: In terms of bladder volume, the bladder and small-bowel D2cc values were lower in the 150-250 mL bladder volume subgroup; and the rectum, sigmoid, and bladder D2mL values were all lower in the >250 mL subgroup, for 3D vs. 2D ICBT. In the sigmoid V3.5Gy >2 mL subgroup, the sigmoid and bladder D2mL values were significantly lower for 3D than 2D ICBT. The bladder D2mL value was also significantly lower for 3D ICBT, as reflected by the sigmoid circumference. In patients with a small bowel V2.0Gy >10 mL or small bowel circumference >15%, most dose parameters were significantly lower for 3D than 2D ICBT. The bladder distension direction did not significantly affect the doses. Conclusion: Compared to 2D ICBT, a greater bladder volume can reduce the internal 3D ICBT organ dose without affecting the target dose.

Interfraction variation and dosimetric changes during image-guided radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients

  • Fuchs, Frederik;Habl, Gregor;Devecka, Michal;Kampfer, Severin;Combs, Stephanie E.;Kessel, Kerstin A.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify volume changes and dose variations of rectum and bladder during radiation therapy in prostate cancer (PC) patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 20 patients with PC treated with helical tomotherapy. Daily image guidance was performed. We re-contoured the entire bladder and rectum including its contents as well as the organ walls on megavoltage computed tomography once a week. Dose variations were analyzed by means of Dmedian, Dmean, Dmax, V10 to V75, as well as the organs at risk (OAR) volume. Further, we investigated the correlation between volume changes and changes in Dmean of OAR. Results: During treatment, the rectal volume ranged from 62% to 223% of its initial volume, the bladder volume from 22% to 375%. The average Dmean ranged from 87% to 118% for the rectum and 58% to 160% for the bladder. The Pearson correlation coefficients between volume changes and corresponding changes in Dmean were -0.82 for the bladder and 0.52 for the rectum. The comparison of the dose wall histogram (DWH) and the dose volume histogram (DVH) showed that the DVH underestimates the percentage of the rectal and bladder volume exposed to the high dose region. Conclusion: Relevant variations in the volume of OAR and corresponding dose variations can be observed. For the bladder, an increase in the volume generally leads to lower doses; for the rectum, the correlation is weaker. Having demonstrated remarkable differences in the dose distribution of the DWH and the DVH, the use of DWHs should be considered.

c-KIT Positive Schistosomal Urinary Bladder Carcinomas are Frequent but Lack KIT Gene Mutations

  • Shams, Tahany M.;Metawea, Mokhtar;Salim, Elsayed I.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2013
  • Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.