• Title, Summary, Keyword: Black Goat Kids

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Effect of Feeding Sesame Hull on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Carcass Characteristics of Black Goat Kids

  • Obeidat, Belal S.;Gharaybeh, Firas F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2011
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing barley and soybean meal in finishing diets with sesame hull (SH) on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Black goat kids. Twenty-one Black goat kids were assigned randomly to 0%, 10%, or 20% SH diets (7/diet). The study lasted for 63 d. Intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) of kids fed the 10% diet were greater (p<0.05) than for the 0% and 20% SH diets (p<0.10). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were highest (p<0.05) for kids fed the 10% SH diet when compared to 0% and 20% SH diets. Ether extract (EE) intake was greater (p<0.05) for kids fed 10% and 20% SH diets when compared to 0% SH. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF were similar among all diets. However, sesame hull inclusion increased (p<0.05) EE digestibility. Final body weight, total gain, average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio were comparable among all diets. Cost of gain was lower (p<0.05) in kids fed 20% SH than the 0% SH diet, while there was no difference between the 10% SH diet and the other two diets. Dressing percentage, hot and cold carcass weights, non-carcass components, carcass cut weights, and meat quality parameters were not influenced by SH. Total fat percentage in the leg was greater (p<0.05) on 0% SH than on the 10% SH diet. Results of this study demonstrated that inclusion of sesame hull at levels of 10 or 20% did not influence the performance of Black goat kids, but the cost of gain was lower.

Feeding Black Bengal Goat under Intensive Management : Milk Feeding in Pre-weaned Kids

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Faruque, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2004
  • Despite higher fecundity, Black Bengal goat generally has lower milk production, which is often insufficient for their multiple kids. However, milk requirement of Black Bengal kids is poorly defined. Present trial was thus designed to determine the requirement and intake of milk of pre-weaned Black Bengal kids in relation to their growth rate age and sex. Thirty, one month old Black Bengal kids of either sex divided into two groups were allocated to two groups, suckling alone (T1) or suckling along with teat-bottle feeding of milk (T2). Ten kids were allocated for the T1 and 20 kids were allocated for the T2. Digestibility of milk was also determined in T2 animals. Average daily consumption of milk, milk energy and milk N were 773 and 722 g, 1,170 and 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ and 1,552 and 1,462 mg N/kg $W^{0.75}/d$, respectively. During 9 weeks trial period, male kids had significantly higher live weight (4.32 vs. 4.20 kg; p<0.01) and intake of milk (773 vs. 722 g/d; p<0.05), energy (117 vs. 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}$/d; p<0.01) and N (1,552 vs.1,462 mg/k $W^{0.75}/d$; p<0.01) than the female. Milk consumption and the corresponding milk energy and milk N intake increased linearly up to 5th week of the trial, which, then decreased quadratically up to 9th week i.e., up to the weaning. Overall milk DM intake during this period was 2.58% (range 1.5-3.0%) of live weight or about 36 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ (range 29-45 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$). Pre-weaned Black Bengal kids of about 4.5 kg weight, growing at the rate of 60 g weight daily requires at least 750 g milk daily. Daily live weight gain, estimated as the regression between the live weights over time, was 60 g ($r^2$=0.99) and 55 g ($r^2$=0.99), respectively, for the male and female kids. Efficiency of milk energy utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 (mean 0.81) for the male kid and 0.75 to 0.91 (mean 0.82) for the female kids. Efficiency of milk protein utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.46 to 0.70 (mean 0.61) for the male kid and 0.51 to 0.81 (mean 0.64) for the female kids. Additional teat-bottle feeding of suckling kids had no significant effect on their growth rate (54vs. 57 g/d). Average digestibility of milk DM, OM and N was 98.85, 98.99 and 98.69%, respectively and they were slightly (p>0.05) higher in the male than the female kids. Results suggest that the requirement of energy and protein and their utilization efficiency in Black Bengal kids is not different from that of the other breeds of goat.

Embryo transfer in Korean Native Black Goat: Embryo recovery and transfer for the production of transgenic goat (한국재래흑염소 수정란의 이식: 형질전환 흑염소 생산을 위한 수정란의 채취와 이식)

  • 신상태
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.64-75
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    • 2000
  • During the last three decades considerable advances has been made in goat embryo production and transfer technology. The Korean native black goat is the most useful domestic ruminant in this country for biological investigation and application because it has a lot of merits such as relatively short generation period(1 vs 2 year for a cow), easy of handling, well adaptation, high fertility, convenient and inexpensive. This article covers the methods of superovulation, estrus synchronization, embryo collection and transfer techniques, pregnancy diagnosis and subsequent pregnancy and kidding rates for the production of transgenic Korean native black goats. More than one hundred goat kids have been produced as a result of our transgenic goat project via microinjection of foreign gene into pronuclei, in vitro culture, transfer of various stages of fresh and frozen-thawed microinjected embryos into oviducts or uteri of recipient does. We have got two transgenic goats carrying a transgene targeting the expression of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor(hG-CSF) to the mammary gland so far. Since collection and transfer of embryos in this species is usually accomplished by laparotomy, exteriorization of the reproductive tract for surgical embryo collection leads to the formation of post-operative adhesions. Nonsurgical or laparoscopic technique to reduce adhesions from repeated surgeries has great advantages in improving embryo production and transfer especially from valuable donors. We will discuss this later.

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Embryo transfer in Korean Native Black Goat;Embryo recovery and transfer for the production of transgenic goat (한국재래흑염소 수정란의 이식;형질전환 흑염소 생산을 위한 수정란의 채취와 이식)

  • Shin, Sang-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.64-75
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    • 2000
  • During the last three decades considerable advances has been made in goat embryo production and transfer technology. The Korean native black goat is the most useful domestic ruminant in this country for biological investigation and application because it has a lot of merits such as relatively short generation period (1 vs 2 year for a cow), easy of handling, well adaptation, high fertility, convenient and inexpensive. This article covers the methods of superovulation, estrus synchronization, embryo collection and transfer techniques, pregnancy diagnosis and subsequent pregnancy and kidding rates for the production of transgenic Korean native black goats. More than one hundred goat kids have been produced as a result of our transgenic goat project via microinjection of foreign gene into pronuclei, in vitro culture, transfer of various stages of fresh and frozen-thawed microinjected embryos into oviducts or uteri of recipient does. We have got two transgenic goats carrying a transgene targeting the expression of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) to the mammary gland so far. Since collection and transfer of embryos in this species is usually accomplished by laparotomy, exteriorization of the reproductive tract for surgical embryo collection leads to the formation of post-operative adhesions. Nonsurgical or laparoscopic technique to reduce adhesions from repeated surgeries has great advantages in improving embryo production and transfer especially from valuable donors. We will discuss this later.

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Polymorphism of Exon 2 of BMP15 Gene and Its Relationship with Litter Size of Two Chinese Goats

  • Wang, Yuqin;Yuanxiao, Li;Nana, Zhang;Zhanbin, Wang;Junyan, Bai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.905-911
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    • 2011
  • Polymorphisms of BMP15 gene exon 2 and its relationship with prolificacy of goats were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in Chinese two local goat breeds. The results showed that the product amplified by the primers displayed polymorphisms. Three genotypes (AA, BB and AB) were detected in Funiu white goats, and their frequency was 0.071, 0.715, 0.214, respectively. Two genotypes (AB and BB) were detected in Taihang black goats, and their frequency was 0.342 and 0.658, respectively. Sequencing revealed that four mutations (456T${\rightarrow}$G, 466C${\rightarrow}$G, 510C${\rightarrow}$T, 511T${\rightarrow}$C) occurred in genotype BB of Funiu white goat, which resulted in amino acid substitution of V155G and S171P. No mutation was detected in Taihang black goat. The Funiu white goat with genotype BB had 0.91 or 0.82 kids, more than those with AB or AA, respectively. The difference of the least squares means for litter size between BB and AB was not significant (p>0.05) in Taihang black goat. It is concluded that the BMP15 gene may be a major gene which affects the prolificacy in Funiu white goats. This study could provide basic molecular data on the reproductive characteristics of local breeds of Henan province in China, and a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of those two goat breeds.

Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Characteristics of Black Goat Kids Fed Sesame Hulls and Prosopis juliflora Pods

  • Abdullah, Abdullah Y.;Obeidat, Belal S.;Muwalla, Marwan M.;Matarneh, Sulaiman K.;Ishmais, Majdi A. Abu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1217-1226
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    • 2011
  • Finding alternative feeds, such as sesame hulls and Prosopis juliflora species can attenuate difficulties of feed shortage and reduce the cost of animal feed in arid and semi-arid countries. Thirty-two Black male kids with similar initial weights (BW = $16.7{\pm}0.80\;kg$) and $120{\pm}5\;d$ of age, were used to evaluate the effect of replacing barley grains and soybean meal with Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) and sesame hulls (SH) on growth performance, digestibility and carcass and meat characteristics. Kids were equally divided into four dietary treatment groups for an 84-d fattening period. Treatment diets had similar crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy (ME). The treatment groups were: (T1) no PJP nor SH, (T2) 10% PJP and 20% SH, (T3) 15% PJP and 15% SH, and (T4) 20% PJP and 10% SH. A tendency was detected (p<0.08) for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes that were greater for T2 than T3 and T4 while T1 was not different from all other treatment groups. Ether extract (EE) intake was the greatest (p<0.05) for T2 and the lowest for T1. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake was greater (p<0.05) for T2 than T1 while T3 and T4 were intermediate. Final live weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were comparable among different treatment groups. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among all treatment groups, however, EE digestibility was the lowest (p<0.05) for T1 when compared to other treatments. In addition, nitrogen intake, nitrogen in urine and retained and retention percentages were similar among all treatment groups. However, N loss in feces was higher (p<0.05) for T2 than T3 and T4 while T1 was intermediate. No differences were observed among treatment groups with respect to fasting live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, dressing-out percentages, mesenteric fat, visceral organs, carcass cuts percentages and carcass linear dimensions. No differences were also observed for dissected loin, leg, rack and shoulder tissues except in the total bone % for loin cuts and in the meat to bone ratio for rack cuts. T3 has the greatest total bone % and the lowest meat to bone ratio when compared to all other treatment groups. No differences were observed between treatment groups in all quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle. The present study demonstrates the potential of using PJP and SH for growing kids without adverse effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

Meat Production Characteristics of Black Bengal Goat

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Faruque, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.848-856
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    • 2004
  • Black Bengal goat is primarily reared for meat, skin comes here as a by-product. The present trial describes the effect of age on different carcass characteristics of Black Bengal goats of either sex. A total of 61 Black Bengal goats of different age and sex groups were slaughtered. They were reared under semi-intensive management on milk alone or with concentrates (of 10.14 MJ ME and 10.48 g M/kg DM) and freshly cut Napier grass (2 MJ ME and 25 g CP/kg of fresh matter) that provides the estimated NRC (1981) requirement. The four age groups were: pre-weaned kids (0-90 day), post-weaned kids (91-180 days), growing (181-365 days) and adult (>365 days). Goats were slaughtered according to 'Halal' method by severing the major vessels of the throat by a transverse cut. Different slaughter parameters of Black Bengal goat can be best predicted from the equations as follows: live weight (kg)=0.801 (shoulder height (cm))-24.32, ($r^{2}$=0.94); carcass weight (kg)=0.364 (height at hind legs (cm))-11.54, ($r^{2}$=0.91); edible weight (kg)=0.623 (shoulder height (cm))-19.94, ($r^{2}$=0.91) and saleable weight (kg)=0.701 (shoulder height (cm))-21.99, ($r^{2}$=0.92). Live weight, carcass weight, edible weight and saleable weight of castrated goat at one-year onward ranges from 20-22, 9.4-10.5, 14-16 and 16.6-18.8 kg, respectively, which are about 80% higher than most of the reported observations on Black Bengal goat of same age and sex. Slaughter weight, warm carcass weight, edible weight and saleable weight increased curvilinearly with age of slaughter but not affected (p>0.05) by sex. However, linearity of the response curve of affect of age on mentioned parameters ends at around 9 months. Visceral fat as per cent of live weight increased curvilinearly with age and attain its maximum (about 6%) at about 500 days. However, linear part of the quadratic model ends at about 300 days when visceral fat content is about 4.8% of body weight. Blood and skin yield for one-year old male goat was 797 g and 1.61 kg, respectively. Absolute yield of blood and skin increased curvilinealry and attained maximum level at about 400 days (13.3 months). Average proportion of different carcass cut were - round 27%, rump 7%, loin 10%, ribs (6-12th) 14%, shoulder 21%, Neck 7%, chest 14%. Thigh and shoulder constituted about 48.3% of the cold carcass weight. Overall crude protein content of meat samples of different carcass cuts progressively decreased with age starting from 57 at 0-90 days to 58, 47 and 33 per cent, respectively at 91-180, 181-365 and >365 days, respectively. Overall meat fat content increased almost linearly from 11.1% during 91-180 days to 22.9 and 39.5% during 181-365 and >365days, respectively. Results from this trial suggest that both carcass yield and carcass composition changes with age; and sex have little or no effect on carcass yield and carcass composition. However, caution should be made in using second conclusion as there were few female animals slaughtered relative to the male. Optimum slaughter age for Black Bengal goat reared under semi-intensive management with adequate feeding and management would be about 9 months when their live weight, warm carcass weight, edible and saleable weight of carcass can be about 16.74, 7.28, 12.05 and 13.81 kg, respectively.

PHENOTYPIC SELECTION ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BLACK BENGAL KIDS

  • Husain, S.S.;Horst, Peter;Islam, A.B.M. Mafizul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 1996
  • In the first step, birth weights and weights at 9 and 12 months were analysed and their variability were studied. Birth weight of kids had large within breed variation ranging from 0.50 to 1.60 kg. There were more than 100 kids with birth weights ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 kg. The birth weight of kids increased with the increase of kidding weight of dams. The weights of kids at 9 and 12 months also showed large within variation ranging from 5.0 to 18.0 kg and 16.0 to 19.0 kg respectively. In the second step, these existing large within breed variations were exploited selecting best animals for further mating. The birth weight of selected group($1.13{\pm}0.2kg$) was significantly(p<0.01) higher than the random group($0.93{\pm}0.05kg$). The weights in selected group for 3 and 6 months were $4.94{\pm}0.04$ and $8.40{\pm}0.05kg$ and that of random group was $3.99 {\pm}0.08$ and $7.07{\pm}0.11kg$ respectively and differences wee significant. Significantly higher average daily gains were noticed for selected group ($42.7{\pm}0.43g/day$) as against random group($33.3{\pm}0.81g/day$). From the results it may be concluded that selection and mating of best performing animals have some effect on the improvement of growth performance of kids which may be exploited for future planning and development in the field of goat production.

Effect of Feeding Systems on Feed Intake, Eating Behavior, Growth, Reproductive Performance and Parasitic Infestation of Black Bengal Goat

  • Moniruzzaman, M.;Hashem, M.A.;Akhter, S.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1453-1457
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    • 2002
  • The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of 4 feeding systems on growth, feed intake, eating behavior, lactation performance, gestation period, post-partum heat period, conception rate and parasitic infestation of Black Bengal goat. Twenty four does of approximately 1 year of age were randomly selected for 4 treatment (feeding systems) groups having 6 replications in each. Treatments were stall feeding ($T_1$), tethering ($T_2$), restricted grazing ($T_3$) and grazing ($T_4$). $T_1$ group was housed continuously and adequate amounts of natural grass were supplied for ad libitum feeding. $T_2$ group was tethered for grazing natural grass from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. being moved at one hour intervals. Goats of $T_3$ group were allowed grazing from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. $T_4$ group was grazed from 8 a. m. to 4 p.m. Concentrate supplement was given at the rate of 150 g per day per goat for all of the treatment groups. Duration of experiment was 219 days. Daily live weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) higher in case of stall fed goats than that of others. DM intake also significantly (p<0.05) differed among the treatment groups and was 3.40 3.95, 3.76 and 4.05 per cent of their live weight for stall feeding, tethering, restricted grazing and grazing groups, respectively. Rate of rumination was significantly (p<0.05) higher in case of tethering group of goats than that of others. Birth weight of kids, milk yield, lactation period and post-partum heat period were significantly higher in case of stall fed goats than others. Tethering group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher litter size than others. Infestation rate of Fasciola was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the grazing group. In conclusion, it may be stated that among these feeding groups overall performance of stall fed goats was more satisfactory, and that the tethering group showed better performance than the others.

A Survey of Disease Occurrence in Korean Black Goats (흑염소 사육농가의 질병발생 실태조사)

  • Choe, Chang-Yong;Kang, Da-Won;Choi, Sun-Ho;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Jung, Byeong-Yeal;Son, Jun-Kyu;Ryu, Il-Sun;Hu, Tai-Young;Jung, Young-Hun;Kang, Seog-Jin;Do, Youn-Jeong;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Park, Yong-Sang;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2012
  • The goat industry has been developing for many years in Korea to meet demands for food and medicine. However, many complicated patterns of disease have arisen in goat farms as this industry has developed. In this study, disease occurrence patterns in Korean black goats were surveyed in six professional farming households in Imsil and Soonchang in the Jeonbuk province and in Hamyang and Sachon in the Gyeongnam province to understand and extend the goat disease database. We observed morbidity rates between 2.0% and 9.8% for adult goats and between 2.9% and 68.3% for kids. Kids showed a markedly higher incidence of disease when compared to adults. The rate of disease occurrence was 40.0% for floppy kid syndrome (FKS), 37.7% for diarrhea, 16.0% for respiratory disease, and 1.9% for skin disease. The observed mortality rates were 0.7% ~ 10.0%, and 2.2% ~ 24.9% for adult goats and kids, respectively. In addition, FKS, diarrhea, and respiratory disease were observed in 38.3%, 28.9%, and 10.0%, respectively, of dead goats. In conclusion, the majority of diseases in goats occur during the neonatal period, and FKS is the highest single cause of mortality in Korean black goats. Thus careful attention must be paid to kids to reduce the goat mortality rate.