Data on the birth weight, 8 week body weight and ewe body weight of an unselected random mating Romney Marsh sheep flock are analyzed to study the influence of various environmental factors. The average birth weight of lambs was 5.06 kg. Sex of lamb, birth type and dam age contributed significant variation in lamb birth weight (p < 0.05). Males were significantly heavier than females (p < 0.05) and singles were significantly heavier than multiples (p < 0.05) at birth. Birth weight of lamb increased with the progress of dams' age. The overall average 8 week body weight of lambs was 20.84 kg. Effect of birth weight, sex, birth type and dam age was significant on 8 week body weight of lamb. Eight week body weight increased with the increase of lamb birth weight (b=1.285 kg). Ewes' body weight taken before tupping was affected by ewes' age, year of performance and their weight at birth. It was concluded that performance data on lamb birth weight, 8 week body weight and ewe body weight should be corrected for the above relevantly significant environmental factors in any genetic calculation in the United Kingdom Romney March sheep.
In recent years, Korea has experienced a steadily declining birth rate, which is a serious social problem in the country. Although living conditions have improved, the birth rates for low birth weight infants and preterm babies has increased because more and more women choose to give birth later in life and the social environment has changed. The rise in low birth weight infants may increase infant mortality rates and morbidity rates. However, the recent improvements in neonatal care has elevated the survival rate of low birth weight infants up to 90 percent and lowered the weight of the very low birth weight infants that can now be saved. In this study, we used dynamic population statistics from the Korea National Statistical Office, which represents the current trend of social stratification and the population of this period. We analyzed birth records for a seven-year period and studied the changes in the delivery rate of preterm and low birth weight infants and the problems related to those changes. The results show that the rate of low birth weight infants has increased from 3.79% to 4.35% for the past seven years. The rate of preterm babies rose from 3.79% to 4.89%. The number of babies born from mothers aged 35 or more went up from 6.69% to 11.83% of the total number of the babies born. As maternal age has risen, the risks of delivering a preterm or low birth weight infant have also increased.
Background: This study investigates the relationship of socioeconomic status with adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth) and the relationship of socioeconomic status with infant mortality, using the birth cohort in Korea, 1995-2010. Methods: 8,648,035 births from National Statistics Offics, 1995-2010 were studied with respect to social variation in adverse birth outcomes and infant mortality in Korea. The effect of social inequality was examined against adverse birth outcomes and infant mortality using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for other covariates. Results: Social inequality were observed in adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g), very LBW (1,000-1,499 g), and extremely LBW (500-999 g) as well as moderately preterm birth (PTB, 33-36 weeks), very PTB (28-32 weeks), extremely PTB (22-27 weeks), and infant mortality. The effect of social inequality was higher among moderately LBW (1,500-2,499 g) and PTB (33-36 weeks) than very or extremely LBW and PTB. Conclusion: The social inequality in adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight and preterm) and infant mortality existed and increased in Korea from 1995 to 2010. The effect of maternal education on adverse birth outcomes as well as infant mortality was apparent in the study results. Especially, social inequailiy in infant mortality was greater among the sub-normal births (low birth weight [1,500-2,499 g] or preterm birth [33-36 weeks]), which suggests, social interventions should aim at more among the subnormal births. This study suggest that tackling inequality in births as well as infant mortality should be focused on the social inequality itself.
Adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to fetal and maternal health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting birth weight and gestational age and to provide basic data to promote more favorable pregnancy outcomes. Data were collected from 234 pregnant women at two hospitals in Seoul. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and health related habits were obtained using a questionnaire at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Dietary intakes were estimated by 24 hour recall at the hospital visit during the second trimester. Data on pregnancy outcomes, including birth weights and gestational ages, were obtained from hospital records after delivery. Birth weights were divided into a low birth weight group (birth weight<3.1 kg), a normal birth weight group (3.1-3.6 kg) and a high birth weight group (>3.6 kg). Gestational ages were divided into tertiles according to the gestational age of the subjects: group 1 (<38.53 weeks), group 2 (38.53-40.00 weeks) and group 3 (>40.00 weeks). The number of family members was significantly lower in the low birth weight group than in the normal birth weight group (p<0.05). In the low birth weight group, pregnancy weight was significantly lower than in the high birth weight group (p<0.05) Health related habits were not significantly different among any of the groups. Intakes of fiber, phosphorous, iron, vitamin $B_6$ and folic acid were significantly higher in the high birth weight group than the low birth weight group (p<0.05). Gestational age was not significantly affected by nutrient intakes, but birth weight was affected by nutrient intake in the results of this study. Therefore, the adequacy of nutrient intake is important for the improvement of pregnancy outcomes.
Park, Hyung-Cheol;Park, Jong;Lee, Youn-Ji;Moon, Gang
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
This study was performed to identify the maternal risk factors for the low birth weight. During the period from February to June in 1991, the medical record review and questionnaire interview were conducted upon the 465 pregnant women who were admitted to and delivered a baby in 3 general hospitals and an obstetric hospital in Kwangju area. The health and other related information from women who bore the low birth weight infant was compared with those from women who bore the normal birth weight infant. The results obtained were as follows : 1. Maternal age, low body weight at term, illegitimate birth, and maintaining work activity during pregnancy were positively associated with low birth weight. 2. The positive association was revealed between low birth weight and the previous abortion, short gestational weeks, anemia, low maternal weight gain during pregnancy, the obstetric present illness and hypertension. 3. Some maternal working conditions were associated with low birth weight although statistically not significant. 4. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, gestational weeks and maternal weight gain during pregnancy were related with low birth weight.
Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.
Objectives: This study compared the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight between native-born and foreign-born women. Methods: By Using the birth registration data, every woman who gave birth between 2010 and 2016 in Korea was included in the analysis. Duration from marriage to pregnancy was measured by month and multiple socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were controlled. Preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2.5 kg) were used for outcome variables. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis with Stata. Results: The risks of preterm birth and low birth weight for native-born and foreign-born women differed according to the duration of marriage or birth order. For the first infant, foreign-born women were more likely to have pereterm birth or low birth weight than the native-born in the early stage of marriage but nativeborn women had higher risks than the foreign-born in the middle and later stage of marriage. For the second infant, foreign-born women were less likely to have pereterm birth or low birth weight than the native-born regardless of the duration of marriage. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrates that the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight for foreign-born women is concentrated on the early stage of marriage. Institutional and cultural supports should be given to foreign-born women to help their early settlement in the Korean society.
Low birth weight baby, defined as the baby born with less than or equal to 2,500g of body weight by WHO has been a great concern in the fold of maternal and child health since the low birth weight is a major cause of high perinatal mortality. Any measure to prevent the low birth weight baby is most desirable not only for saving the life of a baby but also for levelling up the health of the whole society. The authors attempted to figure out how some known maternal risk factors are related to the low birth weight and to measure their strengh of associations in terms of relative risk using hospital birth records. For this study, hospital birth records of 66 low birth weight cases and sex-parity matched 198 normal controls were chosen from Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, and the data were analyzed in regards to several maternal factors. The risk factors studied were mother's age, mother's ABO blood type, previous histories of abortion, low birth weight baby, fetal wastage, and maternal diseases represented by anemia, hypertension, proteinuria, and glucosuria. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. The mean body weight of the cases and controls were 1,955g and 3,251g, respectively, and the heights were 41cm for cases and 50cm for controls. Mean gestation periods of cases and controls were 34 weeks and 39 weeks, respectively. 2. Young mother(less than or equal to 20 years of age) or old mother(more than or equal to 30 years of age) experienced more frequently the delivery of low birth weight babies than mothers in between 21 and 29 years of age. But the difference was not statistically significant. 3. Mothers whose blood type was O tended to have slighty higher frequency of low birth weight babies while B mothers have lower frequency. But the difference was not statistically significant too. 4. Those mothers who had experienced low birth weight baby in the past tended to give more births of low birth weight babies. This factor is even statistically significant and the relative risk of the prior experience of low birth weight was 6.7. 5. Mothers with experience of fetal losses and mothers of more than two pregnancies had higher frequency of low birth weight than the mothers with no fatal losses and of first pregnancy, but the difference was not statistically significant. 6. Statistically significant higher frequency of low birth weight were found in mothers with hypertension(odds ratio=4.07), anemia(odds ratio=22,33), and proteinuria(odds ratio=2.79). In summary, these study results strongly suggest that in order to prevent the low birth weight, special care should be made when the mother is too young or too old, and when the mother has experienced deliveries of low birth weight and fetal deaths. Medical control for the maternal diseases such as anemia and hypertension is also needed before or during the pregnency.
Weight records from birth to calving and calving scores of 407 two-year old heifers and weights of their offspring from birth to one year of age were used to study the effects of sire birth weight on maternal traits of their female progeny. The heifers (G1) were the progeny of 81 sires (G0) and were classified into three classes based on their sires' birth weights (High, Medium and Low). The heifers were from three distinct breed-groups and were mated to bulls with medium birth weights within each breed-group to produce the second generation (G2). The data were analyzed using a covariance model. The female progeny of high birth-weight sires were heavier from birth to calving than those sired by medium and low birth-weight bulls. The effect of sire birth weight on calving difficulty scores of their female progeny was not significant. Grand progeny (G2) of low birth-weight sires were lighter at birth than those from high birth-weight sires (p<0.05) but they did not differ significantly in weaning and yearling weights with the other two Grand progeny groups. The results indicated that using low birth weight sires would not result in an increase in the incidence of dystocia among their female progeny calving at two-year of age and would not have an adverse effect on weaning and yearling weights of their grand progeny.
Weight records from birth to calving and calving scores of 407 two-year old heifers and weights of their offspring from birth to one year of age were used to study the effects of sire birth weight on maternal traits of their female progeny. The heifers ($G_1$) were Ihe progeny of 81 sires ($G_0$) and were classified into three classes based on their sires' birth weights (High, Medium and Low). The heifers were from three distinct breed-groups and were mated to bulls with medium birth weights within each breed-group to produce the second generation ($G_2$). The data were analyzed using a covariance model. The female progeny of high birth-weight sires were heavier from birth to calving than those sired by medium and low birth-weight bulls. The effect of sire birth weight on calving difficulty scores of their female progeny was not significant. Grand progeny (G2) of low birth-weight sires were lighter at birth than those from high birth-weight sires (p < 0.05) but they did not differ significantly in weaning and yearling weights from the other two Grand progeny groups. The results indicated that using low birth weight sires would not result in an increase in the incidence of dystocia among their female progeny calving at two-year of age and would not have an adverse effect On weaning and yearling weights of their grand progeny.
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