• Title, Summary, Keyword: Biomass

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Estimation of Biomass Resources Potential (바이오매스 자원 잠재량 산정)

  • Lee, Joon-pyo;Park, Soon-chul
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2016
  • Biomass has been used for energy sources from the prehistoric age. Biomass are converted into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels and are used for heating, electricity generation or for transportation recently. Solid biofuels such as bio-chips or bio-pellet are used for heating or electricity generation. Liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol from sugars or lignocellulosics are well known renewable transportation fuels. biogas produced from organic waste are also used for heating, generation and vehicles. Biomass resources for the production of above mentioned biofuels are classified under following 4 categories, such as forest biomass, agricultural residue biomass, livestock manure and municipal organic wastes. The energy potential of those biomass resources existing in Korea are estimated. The energy potential for dry biomass (forest, agricultural, municipal waste) were estimated from their heating value contained, whereas energy potential of wet biomass (livestock manure, food waste, waste sludge) is calculated from the biological methane potential of them on annual basis. Biomass resources potential of those 4 categories in Korea are estimated to be as follows. Forest biomass 355.602 million TOE, agricultural biomass 4.019 million TOE, livestock manure biomass 1.455 million TOE, and municipal organic waste 1.074 million TOE are available for biofuels production annually.

Strategies for Increasing Biomass Energy Utilization in Rural Areas - Focusing on heating for greenhouse cultivation - (농촌지역 바이오매스 에너지 보급 활성화 전략 - 시설재배 난방을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Seong Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 2015
  • The demand of renewable energy is expected to grow in the long run in spite of current stable lower oil prices. Energy consumption for heating in horticulture greenhouse is large and affects the profits of the farms. This study analyzed the availability of biomass in rural area and proposed the strategies for utilizing the biomass for greenhouse heating. Data reveal the annual average fuel consumption in greenhouses is about 78 TOE/ha. Considering biomass resource in rural areas, agricultural residues are not sufficient to meet the biomass demand from greenhouses. Therefore it is recommended to secure further biomass including wild herbaceous biomass and woody biomass from forest. Based on the conditions of biomass gasification equipment investment and fuel prices, maximum allowable price of biomass turned out about 100,000 KRW/t to be competitive to kerosine. Biomass supply chain should be established for facilitating biomass trading between biomass consumers and biomass producers such as farmers who provide crop residues. An online trading system is an example of the system where consumers who utilize biomass make payments to suppliers and get the information about the biomass. Intermediate collection storages are required to store biomass from distributed sources. Operation of biomass heating systems in demonstration greenhouses is necessary to get information to refine and further develop commercial biomass heating systems. Relatively large greenhouses are desirable to have biomass heating systems for economic viability. The location of the greenhouse farms should be selected within the area where enough biomass resources are available for feeding the biomass facility.

Estimation Model and Vertical Distribution of Leaf Biomass in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Plantations

  • Liu, Zhaogang;Jin, Guangze;Kim, Ji Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2009
  • Based on the stem analysis and biomass measurement of 36 trees and 1,576 branches in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongolian pine) plantations of Northeast China, this study was conducted to develop estimation model equation for leaf biomass of a single tree and branch, to examine the vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown, and to evaluate the proportional ratios of biomass by tree parts, stem, branch, and leaf. The results indicated that DBH and crown length were quite appropriate to estimate leaf biomass. The biomass of single branch was highly correlated with branch collar diameter and relative height of branch in the crown, but not much with stand density, site quality, and tree height. Weibull distribution function would have been appropriate to express vertical distribution of leaf biomass. The shape parameters from 29 sample trees out of 36 were less than 3.6, indicating that vertical distribution of leaf biomass in the crown was displayed by bell-shaped curve, a little inclined toward positive side. Apparent correlationship was obtained between leaf biomass and branch biomass having resulted in linear function equation. The stem biomass occupied around 80% and branch and leaf made up about 20% of total biomass in a single tree. As the level of tree class was increased from class I to class V, the proportion of the stem biomass to total biomass was gradually increased, but that of branch and leaf became decreased.

Estimation of Community-Based Unused Biomass Generation (지역단위 미이용 바이오매스 발생량 추정)

  • Choi, Eun-Hee;Lee, Mun-Yong;Yoon, Young-Man;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Sung-Yee
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.447-458
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluation of biomass generation mechanisms and to propose the estimation method of biomass generation. Agricultural by-product biomass is generated during crops cultivation and after harvest. However these are not uniformly generated yearly and these depending on the seasons. For planning of biomass utilization, accurate information of the biomass resources is needed, especially characteristic and productivity of biomass are necessary. Agricultural by-product biomass are generated in a wide area being scattered and it is one of the major reason why agricultural biomass utilization is not activated compared with other waste biomass. In this study, estimation and evaluation biomass generation is achieved in specific spatial and temporal boundary, A-city in Gyeongi-do and september to November respectively. Quantity and quality of by-product biomass show big difference depending on the crop species and cultivation periods and these difference bring up that accurate biomass estimation should be considered during planning of biomass utilization and technology selecting for biomass converting to energy and other forms.

Characteristics of Lead Removal by Methanotrophic Biomass (메탄자화균에 의한 납의 제거 특성)

  • 이무열;양지원
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.444-451
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    • 2000
  • Nonliving methanotrophic biomass was used as biosorbent to remove lead which is one of representative pollutants in metal-bearing wastewater. Solution pH, maximum uptake, biosorbent dose and ionic strength were considered as major factors for adsorption experiments. The optimum pH range for lead removal was increased 3.8∼11.0 for methanotrophic biomass compared to biosorbent-free control, pH of 8.4∼11.2. Removal efficiency of lead by methanotrophic biomass was pH dependent, but less sensitive than that of control. In isotherm experiments with 0.2g biosorbent/L at initial solution pH 5.0, methanotrophic biomass took up lead from aqueous solutions to the extent of 1085 mg/g biomass. Removal amount of lead increased with an increase of biomass dose. According to biomass dose for initial 1000 mg Pb/L at initial pH 5.0, the optimum amount of biomass for maximum lead removal per unit methanotrophic biomass was 0.2 g biomass/L. As a result of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), lead removal by methanotrophic biomass seemed to be through adsorptions on the surface of methanotrophic biomass and exopolymers around the biomass. EDS spectra confirmed that lead adsorption appeared on the biomass and exopolymers that may be effective to lead removal comparing before and after contact with lead. Removal efficiency of lead was slightly affected by ionic strength up to 2.0 M of NaCl and NaNO$_3$respectively.

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Status of Technology and Policy for the Utilization of Biomass in Japan (일본 바이오매스 활용 정책 및 기술현황)

  • Yoon, Young-Man;Yoo, Ho-Chun;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Choi, Eun-Hee;Yoon, Sung-Yee
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.459-474
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    • 2012
  • Based on the general policy called "Green Growth", the Korean government planed to establish a biomass town in South Korea in order to recover energy from organic waste and to substitute for fossil fuel at rural region. Technical and financial support for the establishment of biomass town was insufficient so far. There are some policies to support biomass town establishment, however financial support from several Korean ministries seemed not to have been used efficiently. Some policies are planned excessively so that they cannot be realized on time. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the status of biomass utilization technology and policy in Japan from the point of view of an external biomass expert, since biomass utilization technology and policy of Japan take good achievement during the many developed countries. For the analyzing of technology and policy in Japan, literatures concerned biomass management policy and biomass town design were collected by visiting Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and interview of public officials in charge was carried out. There are several implications for the promotion of Korean policy concerned with biomass utilization and biomass town establishment.

Wood pelletizing using pine root waste biomass - different pelletizing properties between trunk and root biomass of Pinus densiflora (소나무 뿌리 폐기물을 이용한 목질 펠릿 제조 - 목부와 뿌리로 제조한 펠릿의 특성 비교)

  • Shin, Soo-Jeong;Han, Gyu-Seong;Myeong, Soo-Jeong;Cho, Jung-Sik;Yeon, Ik-Jun
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.71-73
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    • 2008
  • Different biosolid fuel (wood pellet) properties between trunk and root of pine (Pinus densiflora) biomass were investigated. Trunk has more organic solvent extracts and Klason lignin content which has higher heating values than root biomass component. In root biomass, polysaccharides content was higher than trunk biomass. Based on Higher Heating Value (HHD) analysis and ash content, trunk biomass showed better solid fuel characteristics than root biomass. But pine root biomass had lower HHD than trunk biomass, its HHD values were higher than other hardwood or annual plant lignocellulosic biomass.

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Analysis of Feasible Biomass Potential Using GIS and Aggregating Agricultural Census Data (GIS와 농업통계자료를 활용한 바이오매스 가용부존량 분석)

  • Kim, Han-Joong;Hong, Seong-Gu
    • KCID journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.82-94
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    • 2010
  • Recently, biomass application for energy is getting more interests from many countries since biomass is widely available over the nation wide, whereas fossil fuels are produced in several limited regions. Recognizing the importance, government is promoting renewable energy use in Korea. The locational characteristics of the existing biomass potential directly can be used to decide scale of power plant for local agricultural facility. Although there are a few studies on feasible biomass potential in local areas, it is expected that both government and commercial sectors recognize the potential of biomass energy and the importance of reducing greenhouse gases. When planning biomass energy systems, biomass price is determined by the costs of collection, transportation, chipping, drying if required. In this paper investigates the economic and spatial characteristic of biomass location by land use map. However typical area of each categories in local region is not correct to agricultural census data. Therefore we concerned about how to calculate feasible biomass potential which it can be describing total amount of plant scale, and to match both of data. Even though its spatial distribution, in rural area in Korea, to expand biomass energy programs in the area, government serve to find areas of higher biomass production with suitable locations for plants to convert to bio-energy in order to increase the usage of renewable energy.

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Biomass Expansion Factors for Pinus koraiensis Forests in Korea

  • Li, Xiaodong;Yi, Myong-Jong;Jeong, Mi-Jeong;Son, Yo-Whan;Park, Pil-Sun;Lee, Kyeong-Hak;Son, Yeong-Mo;Kim, Rae-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.5
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    • pp.693-697
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    • 2010
  • Biomass expansion factors that convert the timber volume (or dry weight) to biomass are used to estimate the forest biomass and account for the carbon budget on a national and regional scale. This study estimated the biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEF), root to shoot ratio (R), biomass expansion factors (BEF) and ecosystem biomass expansion factor (EBEF) of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forests based on direct field surveys and publications in Korea. The mean BCEF, BEF, and R was 0.6438 Mg $m^{-3}$ (n = 7, SD = 0.1286), 1.6380 (n = 27, SD = 0.1830), and 0.2653 (n = 14, SD = 0.0698), respectively. The mean EBEF, which is a simple method for estimating the understory biomass in Korean pine forest ecosystems, was 1.0218 (n = 6, SD = 0.0090). The values of the biomass expansion factors in this study estimated the Korean pine forest biomass with more precision than the default values given by the IPCC (2003, 2006).

Removal of Methylene Blue Using UV-C Pretreated Citrobacter freundii JH 11-2 and Bacillus pseudomycoides JH 2-2 Biomass

  • Gim, HaeWon;Cho, Min;Oh, Byung-Taek
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we evaluated the methylene blue (MB) adsorption potential of non-treated and UV-C pretreated bacterial biomass from aqueous solution. The UV-C pretreatment denature the biomass and has increased overall functional groups when compared to non-treated biomass. The biosorbent was exposed to various pH, biomass dose, and contact time. The results showed that the dried and UV-C pretreated biomass effectively removed MB within 30 min. Dried and UV-C pretreated biomass of Bacillus pseudomycoides JH 2-2 showed a adsorption of 858.2 and 1072.4 mg/g at optimum conditions (pH: 9.0, contact time: 30 min, biomass dose: 1 g/L). Similarly, dried and UV-C pretreated biomass of Citrobacter freundii JH 11-2 showed an adsorption 868.3 and 954 mg/g at optimum conditions (pH: 9.0, contact time: 10 min, biomass dose: 1.5 g/L). The changes in the functional groups of UV-C pretreated biomass could be responsible for enhanced adsorption of MB. The results obtained have shown that non-treated and UV-C pretreated biomass has a high adsorption capacity for MB dye and can be used as a low-cost biosorbent in wastewater treatments.