• Title, Summary, Keyword: Biological and Chemical Approaches

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Using Chemical and Biological Approaches to Predict Energy Values of Selected Forages Affected by Variety and Maturity Stage: Comparison of Three Approaches

  • Yu, P.;Christensen, D.A.;McKinnon, J.J.;Soita, H.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2004
  • Two varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L cv. Pioneer and Beaver) and timothy (Phleum pratense L cv. Climax and Joliette), grown at different locations in Saskatchewan (Canada), were cut at three stages [1=one week before commercial cut (early bud for alfalfa; joint for timothy); 2=at commercial cut (late bud for alfalfa; pre-bloom head for timothy); 3=one week after commercial cut (early bloom for alfalfa; full head for timothy)]. The energy values of forages were determined using three approaches, including chemical (NRC 2001 formula) and biological approaches (standard in vitro and in situ assay). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage variety and stage of maturity on energy values under the climate conditions of western Canada, and to investigate relationship between chemical (NRC 2001 formula) approach and biological approaches (in vitro and in situ assay) on prediction of energy values. The results showed that, in general, forage species (alfalfa vs. timothy) and cutting stage had profound impacts, but the varieties within each species (Pioneer vs. Beaver in alfalfa; Climax vs. Joliette in timothy) had minimal effects on energy values. As forage maturity increased, the energy contents behaved in a quadratic fashion, increasing at stage 2 and then significantly decreasing at stage 3. However, the prediction methods-chemical approach (NRC 2001 formula) and biological approaches (in vitro and in situ assay) had great influences on energy values. The highest predicted energy values were found by using the in situ approach, the lowest prediction value by using the NRC 2001 formula, and the intermediate values by the in vitro approach. The in situ results may be most accurate because it is closest to simulate animal condition. The energy values measured by biological approaches are not predictable by the chemical approach in this study, indicating that a refinement is needed in accurately predicting energy values.

Chemical Genomics and Medicinal Systems Biology: Chemical Control of Genomic Networks in Human Systems Biology for Innovative Medicine

  • Kim, Tae-Kook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2004
  • With advances in determining the entire DNA sequence of the human genome, it is now critical to systematically identify the function of a number of genes in the human genome. These biological challenges, especially those in human diseases, should be addressed in human cells in which conventional (e.g. genetic) approaches have been extremely difficult to implement. To overcome this, several approaches have been initiated. This review will focus on the development of a novel 'chemical genetic/genomic approach' that uses small molecules to 'probe and identify' the function of genes in specific biological processes or pathways in human cells. Due to the close relationship of small molecules with drugs, these systematic and integrative studies will lead to the 'medicinal systems biology approach' which is critical to 'formulate and modulate' complex biological (disease) networks by small molecules (drugs) in human bio-systems.

Chemical Genetics and Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Profiling of Drugs, Therapeutic Genes and Disease Networks

  • Kim, Tae-Kook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.97-99
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    • 2003
  • With advances in determining the entire DNA sequence of the human genome, it is now critical to systematically identify the function of a number of genes in the human genome. These biological problems, especially those in human diseases including cancer, should be addressed in human cells in which genetic approaches have been extremely difficult to implement. To overcome this, my efforts have focused on the development of a novel “chemical genetic/genomic approach” that uses small molecules to “probe and identify” the function of genes in specific biological process or pathway in human cells. (omitted)

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A Review of 3D-QSAR in Drug Design

  • Madhavan, Thirumurthy
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2012
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodologies have been applied for many years, to correlate the relationship between physicochemical properties of chemical substances and their biological activities to generate a statistical model for prediction of the activities of new chemical entities. The basic principle behind the QSAR models is that, how structural variation is responsible for the difference in biological activities of the compounds. 3D-QSAR has emerged as a natural extension to the classical Hansch and Free-Wilson approaches, which develops the 3D properties of the ligands to predict their biological activities using various chemometric techniques (PLS, G/PLS, ANN etc). It has served as a valuable predictive tool in the design of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. This review seeks to provide different 3D-QSAR approaches involved in drug designing process to develop structure-activity relationships and also discussed the fundamental limitations, as well as those that might be overcome with the improved methodologies.

Recent advancements in bioreactions of cellular and cell-free systems: A study of bacterial cellulose as a model

  • Ullah, Muhammad Wajid;Ul Islam, Mazhar;Khan, Shaukat;Shah, Nasrullah;Park, Joong Kon
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1591-1599
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    • 2017
  • Conventional approaches of regulating natural biochemical and biological processes are greatly hampered by the complexity of natural systems. Therefore, current biotechnological research is focused on improving biological systems and processes using advanced technologies such as genetic and metabolic engineering. These technologies, which employ principles of synthetic and systems biology, are greatly motivated by the diversity of living organisms to improve biological processes and allow the manipulation and reprogramming of target bioreactions and cellular systems. This review describes recent developments in cell biology, as well as genetic and metabolic engineering, and their role in enhancing biological processes. In particular, we illustrate recent advancements in genetic and metabolic engineering with respect to the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using the model systems Gluconacetobacter xylinum and Gluconacetobacter hansenii. Besides, the cell-free enzyme system, representing the latest engineering strategies, has been comprehensively described. The content covered in the current review will lead readers to get an insight into developing novel metabolic pathways and engineering novel strains for enhanced production of BC and other bioproducts formation.

Increased Sensitivity to Chloramphenicol by Inactivation of manB in Streptomyces coelicolor

  • Rajesh, Thangamani;Song, Eunjung;Lee, Bo-Rahm;Park, Sung-Hee;Jeon, Jong-Min;Kim, Eunjung;Sung, Changmin;Lee, Jae-Hun;Yoo, Dongwon;Park, Hyung-Yeon;Kim, Yun-Gon;Kim, Byung-Gee;Yang, Yung-Hun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1324-1329
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    • 2012
  • Phosphomannomutase (ManB) is involved in the biosynthesis of GDP-mannose, which is vital for numerous processes such as synthesis of carbohydrates, production of alginates and ascorbic acid, and post-translational modification of proteins. Here, we discovered that a deletion mutant of manB (BG101) in Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) showed higher sensitivity to bacteriostatic chloramphenicol (CM) than the wild-type strain (M145), along with decreased production of CM metabolites. Deletion of manB also decreased the mRNA expression level of drug efflux pumps (i.e., cmlR1 and cmlR2) in S. coelicolor, resulting in increased sensitivity to CM. This is the first report on changes in antibiotic sensitivity to CM by deletion of one glycolysis-related enzyme in S. coelicolor, and the results suggest different approaches for studying the antibiotic-resistant mechanism and its regulation.

Countermeasure system and Construction Method against CBR Terrorism (화생방 테러에 대한 대응체계 구축방안)

  • Park, Ok-cheol;Kim, Tae-hwan
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.21-44
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    • 2010
  • Today, in response to chemical, biological and radiological terrorism has been active for the study. However, if chemical, biological and radiological attack has occurred to respond to the agency has not conducted the research. The purpose of this study are as follows. First, South Korea and the United States 'CBR terrorism' comparative analysis of the response system. Second, South Korea 'CBR terrorism' measures to improve the system response is presented. To achieve the purpose of this study, the following research is carried out. First, determine the status of the case of CBR incident. Second, the United States 'CBR terrorism' response systems and organizational approaches. Third, Korea's 'CBR terrorism' response system and the problem is derived.

Nanobiocatalyst-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(NBC-LISA) (나노바이오촉매 기반 효소결합면역흡착검사)

  • Lee, Inseon;Hwang, Sang Youn;Kim, Jungbae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.387-392
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    • 2011
  • Enzymes are being used in various fields due to their unique property of substrate specificity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) has enabled the detection of various antigens by reporting the binding event of antigen and antibody via enzyme-catalyzed reaction. However, the sensitivity improvement of conventional ELISA has been limited because only one enzyme molecule is conjugated to one molecule of antibody. To overcome this limitation and further improve the sensitivity of ELISA, there have been efforts to increase the number ratio of enzymes to antibody. Recently, the nanobiocatalytic approaches, with their successful enzyme stabilization, improved the performance stability as well as sensitivity in a modified protocol of ELISA. The present paper introduces the basic principle of ELISA, and the recent efforts to improve sensitivity and performance stability of ELISA by using the nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Environmental Impact Assessments along with Construction of Residential and Commercial Complex (주거단지 건설이 하천에 미치는 생태영향평가)

  • An, Kwang-Guk;Han, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Jae Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.631-648
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    • 2012
  • The integrative ecological approaches of chemical assessments, physical habitat modelling, and multi-metric biological health modelling were applied to Gwanpyeong Stream within Gap-Stream watersheds to evaluate environmental impacts on the constructions of residential and commercial complex. For the analysis, the surveys conducted from 45 sites of reference streams within the Gap-Stream watershed and 3 regular sites during 2009 - 2010. Physical habitat health, based on the habitat model of Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index(QHEI) declined from the headwaters(good - fair condition) to the downstream(poor condition). Chemical water quality, based turbidity and electric conductivity(EC), was degraded toward to the downstream, and especially showed abrupt increases, compared to the values of control streams(CS). Also, concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the downstreams were greater compared to the control stream(CS), indicating an eutrophication. Biological health conditions, based on the Index of Biological Integrity(IBI) using fish assemblages, averaged 19.3 which is judged as a fair condition by the biological criteria of the Ministry of Environment, Korea. The comparisons of model metric values in sensitive species and riffle-benthic species on the Maximum Species Richness Line(MSRL) of 45 reference streams indicated a massive disturbances in all sampling locations. Also, tolerance guild and trophic guild analyses suggest that dominances of tolerant species and omnivores were evident, indicating a biological degradation by habitat disturbances and organic matter pollutions. There was no distinct longitudinal variations of IBI model values from the headwater to the downstream in spite of slight chemical and habitat health gradients among the sampling sites. Overall, integrative ecological health(IEH) scores, based on the chemical, physical, and biological parameters, were low compared to the 45 reference streams due to physical and chemical disturbances of massive constructions of the residential and commercial complex. This stream, thus showed a tendency of typical urban streams which are disturbed in the chemical water quality, habitat structures, and biological integrity. Effective stream management plans and restoration strategies are required in this urban stream for improving integrative stream health.

Trends in System-level Research on Quality Control of Complex Herbal Formulation (복합 처방 품질 관리를 위한 시스템 차원의 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Doo Suk;Kim, Young Woo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.397-401
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    • 2016
  • The quality control is a fundamental procedure for the standardization of herbal medicine to guarantee the consistency of efficacy and safety. For a long time, the quality analysis of herbal medicine has been largely dependent on the routine sensory evaluation, such as taste, smell, color, and shape. However, with the recent development of analytical instruments, various scientific approaches have been introduced in this field. On the basis of the theory that the biological activities of herbal medicine are mainly contributed by its chemical compositions, several types of chemical markers have been suggested for the quality evaluation. In addition to the analytical methods for the specific marker compound(s), including analytical marker and active marker, recently, chemical fingerprinting, a method comparing the chromatographic pattern of the whole chemical components, has been developed and widely accepted as a reliable approach for the quality control of herbal medicine. Moreover, in order to exactly understand the relationship between complex compounds and their holistic biological activities in herbal medicine, unique strategies, such as "BECCs (bioactive equivalent combinatorial components)" and "PhytomicsQC" have been established. In this article, we give an overview of the several categories of chemical markers and the recent research trends for the quality evaluation of herbal medicine.