• Title/Summary/Keyword: Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs)

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Variations of BVOCs Emission Characteristics according to Increasing PAR (유효광합성량 (PAR)의 증가에 따른 BVOCs 배출 특성 변화)

  • Son, Youn-Suk;Hwang, Yoon-Seo;Sung, Joo-Han;Kim, Jo-Chun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2012
  • In this study, emission rates (ER) of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured by varying levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). An appropriate plan for ozone reduction according to increasing ecology area ratio in future metropolitan areas was suggested. Several trees were selected as representative tree species in urban areas. Emission rates and composition ratios of monoterpene and isoprene emitted from these trees were estimated and compared. As a result, it was found that emission rates of BVOCs were considerably different depending on tree species. Especially, BVOCs emitted from Platanus orientalis and Quercus mongolica could significantly affect ozone increase in the metropolitan area, because the emission rates were several thousands to ten thousand times higher than those emitted from Zelkova serrata and Prunus serrulata. Furthermore, it was observed that emission rates of BVOCs by species increased maximum up to 10 times when PAR, which has close relations with temperature, rose. It was concluded that tree species such as Zelkova serrata et al., was appropriate for metropolitan areas since the species has low ozone potential and good landscape. Suppose this type of trees are planted on purpose in the urban areas, better ambient air quality will be promised in the future.

A Study on the Comparison to Source Profile of the Major Terpenes from Pine Tree and Korean Pine Tree (소나무와 잣나무에서 배출되는 주요 테르펜의 배출특성에 관한 비교연구)

  • 지동영;김소영;한진석
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.515-525
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    • 2002
  • A field study was conducted to estimate the emission rate of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from pine trees. In addition, the influences of meteological variables on their distribution characteristics have been investigated. A vegetation enclosure chamber was designed and constructed of Tedlar bag and acril. Sorbent tubes made up of Tenax TA and Carbotrap were used to collect biogenic VOCs emitted from each individual tree. Analysis of BVOCs was performed using a GC-FID system. The fundamental analytical parameters including linearity, retention time, recovery efficiency, and breakthrough volume were examined and verified for the determination of monoterpene emission rates. Total average concentration of each component is found to be $\alpha$-pinene (16.5), $\beta$-pinene (4.61) from pine trees, and $\alpha$-pinene (42.4), $\beta$-pinene (18.7 ng(gdw)$^{-1}$ hr$^{-1}$ ) from Korean pine trees. On the basis of our study, $\alpha$-pinene was found to be the major monoterpene emitted from both pine and Korean pine trees which were accompanied by $\beta$-pinene, camphene, and limonene. In ambient air, variable monoterpene compositions of emissions from pine trees were similar to Korean pine trees. Emission rates of monoterpene from each tree were found to depend on such parameters as temperature and solar radiation.

Practical Use of Flux Gradient Similarity Theory for Forest Soil NO Flux at Mt. Taewha (Flux-gradient similarity theory 적용에 따른 태화산 산림지표 토양NO플럭스 분석)

  • Kim, Deug-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.531-537
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    • 2014
  • Terrestrial vegetation has been known as a main source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprene and monoterpene among the BVOCs are most abundant species emitted by forests, and have a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry. Abundancy of these species could lead to an increase or decrease in the production of natural tropospheric ozone in forests, depending on the nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Soil is the most significant source of natural NO. Understanding of NO emission from forest soil could be critical in evaluation of air quality in the forest area. Flux-gradient similarity theory (FGST) was applied for practical use to estimate forest soil NO emission at Mt. Taewha where is available micro-meteorological data near surface monitoring from flux tower. NO fluxes calculated by FGST were compared to flux results by flow-through dynamic chamber (FDC) measurement. Surface NO emission trends were shown between two different techniques, however their magnitudes were found to be different. NO emissions measured from FDC technique were relatively higher than those from theoretical results. Daily mean NO emissions resulted from FGST during Aug. 13, 14 and 15 were $0.28{\pm}8.45$, $2.17{\pm}15.55$, and $-3.18{\pm}13.65{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$, respectively, while results from FDC were $2.26{\pm}1.44$, $5.11{\pm}3.85$, and $2.23{\pm}6.45{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$. Trends of daily means were shown in similar pattern, which NO emissions were increasing during late afternoon ($r^2$=0.04). These emission trends could be because soil temperature and moisture influence importantly soil microbiology.

A Study on the Estimation of BVOCs Emission in Jeju Island (2): Emission Characteristic and Situation (제주지역 BVOCs의 배출량 산정에 관한 연구(2): 배출량 특성 및 실태)

  • Lee, Ki-Ho;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Hu, Chul-Goo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.207-219
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to show the geographical distribution and the temporal variation of the emission amount of biogenic volatile organic compounds(BVOCs) emanated from forests at Jeju Island. The total emission amount of BVOCs calculated by using the CORINAIR Methodology is $3612ton\;yr^{-1}$ at Jeju Island. More than half of BVOCs emissions is come from coniferous forest, and 45 per cent from broad leaved forest. The others is attributed to grassland. Of total emission of BVOCs, isoprene accounts for 28 per cent, monoterpene for 32 per cent, and other VOCs for about 40 percent, respectively. It can be shown that $3000{\sim}10000kg\;yr^{-1}$ of BVOCs is emitted at the zone with dense forest from an altitude of 500 m to the top of Mt. Halla, and less than $1500kg\;yr^{-1}$ at the zone an altitude of below 500 meters. The monoterpene emission is more than $1500kg\;yr^{-1}$ due to the existence of a colony of Abies koreana at the place with more than 1500 meters and a community of Pinus thunbergii and Cryptomeria japonica at the elevation of 500~700 m. In the case of isoprene emission, there is $1500{\sim}3000kg\;yr^{-1}$ at the zone of an elevation from 700 m to 1500 m due to dense broad leaved forest and very little of its emission at an elevation of more than 1500 meters because there is hardly broad leaved trees grown. In this study, emission of BVOCs according to the altitude above sea level is estimated under the situation of lack of the data for broad leaved tree. More detailed data and information for the distribution of broad leaved trees are needed in order to calculate more realistic BVOC emission.

Selection of Particulate Matter Observation Measurement Sites in Urban Forest Using Wind Analysis (바람장 분석을 통한 도시숲 미세먼지 관측 장비 설치 지점 선정)

  • Lee, Ahreum;Jeong, Su-Jong;Park, Chan-Ryul;Park, Hoonyoung;Yoon, Jongmin;Son, Junghoon;Bae, Yeon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.689-698
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    • 2019
  • Air pollution in urban areas has become a serious problem in the recent years. Especially, high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) cause negative effects on human health. Several studies suggest urban forest as a tool for improving air quality because of the capability of forests in reducing PM concentrations through deposition and adsorption using leaf area. For this reason, the National Institute of Forest Science plans to install in-situ observation stations for PM and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on a national scale to verify the net effect of forests on urban air pollution. To measure the quantitative change of PM concentrations due to the urban forest, stations should be located within and outside the forest area with respect to atmospheric circulation. In this study, we analyze the wind direction at the potential measurement sites to assess suitable locations for detecting the effect of urban forests on air quality in five cities (i.e. Gwangju, Daegu, Busan, Incheon, and Ilsan). This technical note suggests effective locations of in-situ measurements by considering main wind direction in the five cities of this study. A measurement station network created in the future based on the selected locations will allow quantitative measurements of PM concentration and BVOCs emitted from the urban forest and help provide a comprehensive understanding of the forest capabilities of reducing air pollution.

Preparation and characterization of the primary gas standards for isoprene (아이소프렌 일차표준가스의 제조 및 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Taesu;Kang, Chul-Ho;Kim, Yong Doo;Lee, Seungho;Kim, Dalho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 2014
  • Isoprene is a one of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and it is known as a source of the tropospheric ozone and formaldehyde. In addition, isoprene is a trace component of the exhaled breath and it is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of diseases such as lung cancer. In these regards, isoprene gas standards are required for the accurate measurement of isoprene in air samples. To establish a standard for isoprene gas, gravimetric preparation and characterization of primary gas standards were studied. The primary gas standards were produced independently in 4 aluminum cylinders and concentrations were examined by GC-FID. As a result, the uncertainty of the gravimetric preparations including purity of the raw material was 0.01% and reproducibility of the preparation of independent 4 cylinders was 0.08%. The primary gas standards for isoprene showed 14 months of long-term stability. The relative expended uncertainty of 2.8% (95% of confidence level, k=1.96) was assigned to the certified value of 10 ${\mu}mol$/mol level of isoprene based on the quantitative evaluation of the purity, weighing, reproducibility, adsorption and long-term stability.

Development of Primary Standard Gas Mixtures for Monitoring Monoterpenes (α-pinene, 3-carene, R-(+)-limonene, 1,8-cineole) Ambient Levels (at 2 nmol/mol) (대기 중 모노테르펜 (α-피넨, 3-카렌, R-리모넨, 1,8-시네올) 측정을 위한 혼합표준가스개발)

  • Kang, Ji Hwan;Kim, Mi Eon;Kim, Young Doo;Rhee, Young Woo;Lee, Sangil
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.320-328
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    • 2016
  • Among biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the natural ecosystem, monoterpenes, along with isoprene, play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and make significant impacts on air pollution and climate change, especially due to their contribution to secondary organic aerosol production and photochemical ozone formation. It is essential to measure monoterpene concentrations accurately for understanding their oxidation processes, emission processes and estimation, and interactions between biosphere and atmosphere. Thus, traceable calibration standards are crucial for the accurate measurement of monoterpenes at ambient levels. However, there are limited information about developing calibrations standards for monoterpenes in pressured cylinders. This study describes about developing primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs) for monoterpenes at about 2 nmol/mol, near ambient levels. The micro-gravimetric method was applied to prepare monoterpene (${\alpha}$-pinene, 3-carene, R-(+)-limonene, 1,8-cineole) PSMs at $10{\mu}mol/mol$ and then the PSMs were further diluted to 2 nmol/mol level. To select an optimal cylinder for the development of monoterpene PSMs, three different kinds of cylinders were used for the preparation and were evaluated for uncertainty sources including long-term stability. Results showed that aluminum cylinders with a special internal surface treatment (Experis) had little adsorption loss on the cylinder internal surface and good long-term stability compared to two other cylinder types with no treatment and a special treatment (Aculife). Results from uncertainty estimation suggested that monoterpene PSMs can be prepared in pressured cylinders with a special treatment (Experis) at 2 nmol/mol level with an uncertainty of less than 4%.

Observation of Secondary Organic Aerosol and New Particle Formation at a Remote Site in Baengnyeong Island, Korea

  • Choi, Jinsoo;Choi, Yongjoo;Ahn, Junyoung;Park, Jinsoo;Oh, Jun;Lee, Gangwoong;Park, Taehyun;Park, Gyutae;Owen, Jeffrey S.;Lee, Taehyoung
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.300-312
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    • 2017
  • To improve the understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors at the regional background station on Baengnyeong Island, Korea, gas phase and aerosol chemistries were investigated using the Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) and the Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. HR-ToF-AMS measured fine particles ($PM_1$; diameter of particle matter less than $1{\mu}m$) at a 6-minute time resolution from February to November 2012, while PTR-ToF-MS was deployed during an intensive period from September 21 to 29, 2012. The one-minute time-resolution and high mass resolution (up to $4000m{\Delta}m^{-1}$) data from the PTR-ToF-MS provided the basis for calculations of the concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). The dominant BVOCs from the site are isoprene (0.23 ppb), dimethyl sulphide (DMS, 0.20 ppb), and monoterpenes (0.38 ppb). Toluene (0.45 ppb) and benzene (0.32 ppb) accounted for the majority of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs). OVOCs including acetone (3.98 ppb), acetaldehyde (2.67 ppb), acetic acid (1.68 ppb), and formic acid (2.24 ppb) were measured. The OVOCs comprise approximately 75% of total measured VOCs, suggesting the occurrence of strong oxidation processes and/or long-range transported at the site. A strong photochemical aging and oxidation of the atmospheric pollutants were also observed in aerosol measured by HR-ToF-AMS, whereby a high $f_{44}:f_{43}$ value is shown for organic aerosols (OAs); however, relatively low $f_{44}:f_{43}$ values were observed when high concentrations of BVOCs and AVOCs were available, providing evidence of the formation of SOA from VOC precursors at the site. Overall, the results of this study revealed several different SOA formation mechanisms, and new particle formation and particle growth events were identified using the powerful tools scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), PTR-ToF-MS, and HR-ToF-AMS.

Distribution characteristics on volatile organic compounds at the forest of Mt. mudeung and downtown (무등산 숲과 도심에서 휘발성유기화합물질의 분포 특성)

  • Lee, Dae-haeng;Park, Kang-soo;Lee, Se-hang;Song, Hyeong-myeong;Lee, Ki-won;Jeong, Hee-yoon;Seo, Gwang-yeob;Cho, Young-gwan;Kim, Eun-sun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.246-254
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    • 2015
  • From 2013 to 2014, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed to determine biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) at eight sites in Mt. Mudeung and one site in downtown, by using a GC/Mass-ATD (automatic thermal desorber). The concentration of terpene noted as biogenic volatile organic compounds at Pungamjeong (PA), in a forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa, was 821 pptv, which was the highest among the eight sites. This value was followed by Wonhyogyegok (WH: 785 pptv), Norritzae (NZ, coniferous forest: 679 pptv), Dongjeokgol (DJ, mixed species forest: 513 pptv), Jangbuljae (JB, Abies koreana: 476 pptv), and Seinbongsamgerri (SS, pine trees: 464 pptv). 11~15 species of terpene was detected in the forest depending on the site. At PA in May, α-pinene showed the highest value, occupied 20% of terpene followed by coumarin, sabinene, phellandrene, myrcene, borneol, eucalyptol, β-pinene, cymene, δ-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, camphene, and mentol in the order. The mean concentrations of AVOCs were 0.74~2.52 ppbv in the forests and 3.14 ppbv in the downtown area. From May to July, the AVOCs ratios of the downtown to each forest were 1.9~4.0. Among 10 species of AVOCs, the sum of toluene and benzene was 2.34 ppbv and occupied 75%. In June, the ratios of toluene were 44.1% at DJ site and 53.1% at JW site (downtown). The BVOCs showed a positive correlation with the AVOCs at the forest sites (r = 0.328), which was statistically insignificant (p = 0.184).