• Title, Summary, Keyword: Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs)

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Variations of BVOCs Emission Characteristics according to Increasing PAR (유효광합성량 (PAR)의 증가에 따른 BVOCs 배출 특성 변화)

  • Son, Youn-Suk;Hwang, Yoon-Seo;Sung, Joo-Han;Kim, Jo-Chun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2012
  • In this study, emission rates (ER) of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured by varying levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). An appropriate plan for ozone reduction according to increasing ecology area ratio in future metropolitan areas was suggested. Several trees were selected as representative tree species in urban areas. Emission rates and composition ratios of monoterpene and isoprene emitted from these trees were estimated and compared. As a result, it was found that emission rates of BVOCs were considerably different depending on tree species. Especially, BVOCs emitted from Platanus orientalis and Quercus mongolica could significantly affect ozone increase in the metropolitan area, because the emission rates were several thousands to ten thousand times higher than those emitted from Zelkova serrata and Prunus serrulata. Furthermore, it was observed that emission rates of BVOCs by species increased maximum up to 10 times when PAR, which has close relations with temperature, rose. It was concluded that tree species such as Zelkova serrata et al., was appropriate for metropolitan areas since the species has low ozone potential and good landscape. Suppose this type of trees are planted on purpose in the urban areas, better ambient air quality will be promised in the future.

Distribution characteristics on volatile organic compounds at the forest of Mt. mudeung and downtown (무등산 숲과 도심에서 휘발성유기화합물질의 분포 특성)

  • Lee, Dae-haeng;Park, Kang-soo;Lee, Se-hang;Song, Hyeong-myeong;Lee, Ki-won;Jeong, Hee-yoon;Seo, Gwang-yeob;Cho, Young-gwan;Kim, Eun-sun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.246-254
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    • 2015
  • From 2013 to 2014, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed to determine biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) at eight sites in Mt. Mudeung and one site in downtown, by using a GC/Mass-ATD (automatic thermal desorber). The concentration of terpene noted as biogenic volatile organic compounds at Pungamjeong (PA), in a forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa, was 821 pptv, which was the highest among the eight sites. This value was followed by Wonhyogyegok (WH: 785 pptv), Norritzae (NZ, coniferous forest: 679 pptv), Dongjeokgol (DJ, mixed species forest: 513 pptv), Jangbuljae (JB, Abies koreana: 476 pptv), and Seinbongsamgerri (SS, pine trees: 464 pptv). 11~15 species of terpene was detected in the forest depending on the site. At PA in May, α-pinene showed the highest value, occupied 20% of terpene followed by coumarin, sabinene, phellandrene, myrcene, borneol, eucalyptol, β-pinene, cymene, δ-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, camphene, and mentol in the order. The mean concentrations of AVOCs were 0.74~2.52 ppbv in the forests and 3.14 ppbv in the downtown area. From May to July, the AVOCs ratios of the downtown to each forest were 1.9~4.0. Among 10 species of AVOCs, the sum of toluene and benzene was 2.34 ppbv and occupied 75%. In June, the ratios of toluene were 44.1% at DJ site and 53.1% at JW site (downtown). The BVOCs showed a positive correlation with the AVOCs at the forest sites (r = 0.328), which was statistically insignificant (p = 0.184).

Emission of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from Trees along Streets and in Urban Parks in Tokyo, Japan

  • Matsunaga, Sou N.;Shimada, Kojiro;Masuda, Tatsuhiko;Hoshi, Junya;Sato, Sumito;Nagashima, Hiroki;Ueno, Hiroyuki
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2017
  • Ozone concentration in Tokyo Metropolitan area is one of the most serious issues of the local air quality. Tropospheric ozone is formed by radical reaction including volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides ($NO_x$). Reduction of the emission of reactive VOC is a key to reducing ozone concentrations. VOC is emitted from anthropogenic sources and also from vegetation (biogenic VOC or BVOC). BVOC also forms ozone through $NO_x$ and radical reactions. Especially, in urban area, the BVOC is emitted into the atmosphere with high $NO_x$ concentration. Therefore, trees bordering streets and green spaces in urban area may contribute to tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, not all trees emit BVOC which will produce ozone locally. In this study, BVOC emissions have been investigated (terpenoids: isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes) for 29 tree species. Eleven in the 29 species were tree species that did not emit BVOCs. Three in 12 cultivars for future planting (25 %) were found to emit no terpenoid BVOCs. Eight in 17 commonly planted trees (47%) were found to emit no terpenoid BVOC. Lower-emitting species have many advantages for urban planting. Therefore, further investigation is required to find the species which do not emit terpenoid BVOC. Emission of reactive BVOC should be added into guideline for the urban planting to prevent the creation of sources of ozone. It is desirable that species with no reactive BVOC emission are planted along urban streets and green areas in urban areas, such as Tokyo.

A Study on the Comparison to Source Profile of the Major Terpenes from Pine Tree and Korean Pine Tree (소나무와 잣나무에서 배출되는 주요 테르펜의 배출특성에 관한 비교연구)

  • 지동영;김소영;한진석
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.515-525
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    • 2002
  • A field study was conducted to estimate the emission rate of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from pine trees. In addition, the influences of meteological variables on their distribution characteristics have been investigated. A vegetation enclosure chamber was designed and constructed of Tedlar bag and acril. Sorbent tubes made up of Tenax TA and Carbotrap were used to collect biogenic VOCs emitted from each individual tree. Analysis of BVOCs was performed using a GC-FID system. The fundamental analytical parameters including linearity, retention time, recovery efficiency, and breakthrough volume were examined and verified for the determination of monoterpene emission rates. Total average concentration of each component is found to be $\alpha$-pinene (16.5), $\beta$-pinene (4.61) from pine trees, and $\alpha$-pinene (42.4), $\beta$-pinene (18.7 ng(gdw)$^{-1}$ hr$^{-1}$ ) from Korean pine trees. On the basis of our study, $\alpha$-pinene was found to be the major monoterpene emitted from both pine and Korean pine trees which were accompanied by $\beta$-pinene, camphene, and limonene. In ambient air, variable monoterpene compositions of emissions from pine trees were similar to Korean pine trees. Emission rates of monoterpene from each tree were found to depend on such parameters as temperature and solar radiation.

Observation of Secondary Organic Aerosol and New Particle Formation at a Remote Site in Baengnyeong Island, Korea

  • Choi, Jinsoo;Choi, Yongjoo;Ahn, Junyoung;Park, Jinsoo;Oh, Jun;Lee, Gangwoong;Park, Taehyun;Park, Gyutae;Owen, Jeffrey S.;Lee, Taehyoung
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.300-312
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    • 2017
  • To improve the understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors at the regional background station on Baengnyeong Island, Korea, gas phase and aerosol chemistries were investigated using the Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) and the Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. HR-ToF-AMS measured fine particles ($PM_1$; diameter of particle matter less than $1{\mu}m$) at a 6-minute time resolution from February to November 2012, while PTR-ToF-MS was deployed during an intensive period from September 21 to 29, 2012. The one-minute time-resolution and high mass resolution (up to $4000m{\Delta}m^{-1}$) data from the PTR-ToF-MS provided the basis for calculations of the concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). The dominant BVOCs from the site are isoprene (0.23 ppb), dimethyl sulphide (DMS, 0.20 ppb), and monoterpenes (0.38 ppb). Toluene (0.45 ppb) and benzene (0.32 ppb) accounted for the majority of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs). OVOCs including acetone (3.98 ppb), acetaldehyde (2.67 ppb), acetic acid (1.68 ppb), and formic acid (2.24 ppb) were measured. The OVOCs comprise approximately 75% of total measured VOCs, suggesting the occurrence of strong oxidation processes and/or long-range transported at the site. A strong photochemical aging and oxidation of the atmospheric pollutants were also observed in aerosol measured by HR-ToF-AMS, whereby a high $f_{44}:f_{43}$ value is shown for organic aerosols (OAs); however, relatively low $f_{44}:f_{43}$ values were observed when high concentrations of BVOCs and AVOCs were available, providing evidence of the formation of SOA from VOC precursors at the site. Overall, the results of this study revealed several different SOA formation mechanisms, and new particle formation and particle growth events were identified using the powerful tools scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), PTR-ToF-MS, and HR-ToF-AMS.

A Preliminary Flux Study for CO2 and Biogenic VOCs in a Forest (산림지역 이산화탄소 및 자연적휘발성유기화합물의 교환량 관측기법 기초연구)

  • Kim, So-Young;Kim, Su-Yeon;Choi, Soon-Ho;Kim, Sae-Wung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.485-494
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to monitor the flux of $CO_2$ and BVOCs (biogenic volatile organic compounds) between the atmosphere and forest. The main research activities are conducted at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), managed by the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Seoul National University. The TRF site is located 60 km north-east from the center of Seoul Metropolitan Area. The TRF flux tower is in the middle of a Korean Pine (Pinus Koraiensis) plantation ($400m{\times}400m$), surrounded by a mixed forest. Eddy covariance method was used for $CO_2$ flux above the forest and REA (Relaxed eddy accumulation) method applying eddy covariance was used for BVOCs flux. BVOCs flux that was measured in spring (from May 16 to 18) had distribution of 84 to $2917{\mu}g/m^2{\cdot}h$. Especially, it showed that d-limonene being strong reactivity composed the largest fraction of monoterpene. Ambient $CO_2$ concentration measured in Mt. Taehwa was 399 ppm and observed $CO_2$ fluxes between the atmosphere and forest suggested that during the day, $CO_2$ is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis and released during the night.

A Study on the Estimation of BVOCs Emission in Jeju Island (2): Emission Characteristic and Situation (제주지역 BVOCs의 배출량 산정에 관한 연구(2): 배출량 특성 및 실태)

  • Lee, Ki-Ho;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Hu, Chul-Goo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.207-219
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to show the geographical distribution and the temporal variation of the emission amount of biogenic volatile organic compounds(BVOCs) emanated from forests at Jeju Island. The total emission amount of BVOCs calculated by using the CORINAIR Methodology is $3612ton\;yr^{-1}$ at Jeju Island. More than half of BVOCs emissions is come from coniferous forest, and 45 per cent from broad leaved forest. The others is attributed to grassland. Of total emission of BVOCs, isoprene accounts for 28 per cent, monoterpene for 32 per cent, and other VOCs for about 40 percent, respectively. It can be shown that $3000{\sim}10000kg\;yr^{-1}$ of BVOCs is emitted at the zone with dense forest from an altitude of 500 m to the top of Mt. Halla, and less than $1500kg\;yr^{-1}$ at the zone an altitude of below 500 meters. The monoterpene emission is more than $1500kg\;yr^{-1}$ due to the existence of a colony of Abies koreana at the place with more than 1500 meters and a community of Pinus thunbergii and Cryptomeria japonica at the elevation of 500~700 m. In the case of isoprene emission, there is $1500{\sim}3000kg\;yr^{-1}$ at the zone of an elevation from 700 m to 1500 m due to dense broad leaved forest and very little of its emission at an elevation of more than 1500 meters because there is hardly broad leaved trees grown. In this study, emission of BVOCs according to the altitude above sea level is estimated under the situation of lack of the data for broad leaved tree. More detailed data and information for the distribution of broad leaved trees are needed in order to calculate more realistic BVOC emission.

Practical Use of Flux Gradient Similarity Theory for Forest Soil NO Flux at Mt. Taewha (Flux-gradient similarity theory 적용에 따른 태화산 산림지표 토양NO플럭스 분석)

  • Kim, Deug-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.531-537
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    • 2014
  • Terrestrial vegetation has been known as a main source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprene and monoterpene among the BVOCs are most abundant species emitted by forests, and have a significant impact on atmospheric chemistry. Abundancy of these species could lead to an increase or decrease in the production of natural tropospheric ozone in forests, depending on the nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Soil is the most significant source of natural NO. Understanding of NO emission from forest soil could be critical in evaluation of air quality in the forest area. Flux-gradient similarity theory (FGST) was applied for practical use to estimate forest soil NO emission at Mt. Taewha where is available micro-meteorological data near surface monitoring from flux tower. NO fluxes calculated by FGST were compared to flux results by flow-through dynamic chamber (FDC) measurement. Surface NO emission trends were shown between two different techniques, however their magnitudes were found to be different. NO emissions measured from FDC technique were relatively higher than those from theoretical results. Daily mean NO emissions resulted from FGST during Aug. 13, 14 and 15 were $0.28{\pm}8.45$, $2.17{\pm}15.55$, and $-3.18{\pm}13.65{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$, respectively, while results from FDC were $2.26{\pm}1.44$, $5.11{\pm}3.85$, and $2.23{\pm}6.45{\mu}gm^{-2}hr^{-1}$. Trends of daily means were shown in similar pattern, which NO emissions were increasing during late afternoon ($r^2$=0.04). These emission trends could be because soil temperature and moisture influence importantly soil microbiology.

Selection of Particulate Matter Observation Measurement Sites in Urban Forest Using Wind Analysis (바람장 분석을 통한 도시숲 미세먼지 관측 장비 설치 지점 선정)

  • Lee, Ahreum;Jeong, Su-Jong;Park, Chan-Ryul;Park, Hoonyoung;Yoon, Jongmin;Son, Junghoon;Bae, Yeon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.689-698
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    • 2019
  • Air pollution in urban areas has become a serious problem in the recent years. Especially, high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) cause negative effects on human health. Several studies suggest urban forest as a tool for improving air quality because of the capability of forests in reducing PM concentrations through deposition and adsorption using leaf area. For this reason, the National Institute of Forest Science plans to install in-situ observation stations for PM and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on a national scale to verify the net effect of forests on urban air pollution. To measure the quantitative change of PM concentrations due to the urban forest, stations should be located within and outside the forest area with respect to atmospheric circulation. In this study, we analyze the wind direction at the potential measurement sites to assess suitable locations for detecting the effect of urban forests on air quality in five cities (i.e. Gwangju, Daegu, Busan, Incheon, and Ilsan). This technical note suggests effective locations of in-situ measurements by considering main wind direction in the five cities of this study. A measurement station network created in the future based on the selected locations will allow quantitative measurements of PM concentration and BVOCs emitted from the urban forest and help provide a comprehensive understanding of the forest capabilities of reducing air pollution.

Measurements of Isoprene and Monoterpenes at Mt. Taehwa and Estimation of Their Emissions (경기도 태화산에서 isoprene과 monoterpenes 측정 및 배출량 산정)

  • Kim, Hakyoung;Lee, Meehye;Kim, Saewung;Guenther, Alex.B.;Park, Jungmin;Cho, Gangnam;Kim, Hyun Seok
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the distributions of BVOCs (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from mountain near mega city and their role in forest atmospheric, BVOCs and their oxidized species were measured at a 41 m tower in Mt. Taehwa during May, June and August 2013. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to quantify isoprene and monoterpenes. In conjunction with BVOCs, $O_3$, meteorological parameters, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) were measured. The average concentrations of isoprene and monoterpenes were 0.71 ppbv and 0.17 ppbv, respectively. BVOCs showed higher concentrations in the early summer (June) compared to the late summer (August). Isoprene started increasing at 2 PM and reached the maximum concentration around 5 PM. In contrast, monoterpenes concentrations began to increase 4 PM and stayed high at night. The $O_3$ maximum was generally found at 3 PM and remained high until 5 PM or later, which was concurrent with the enhancement of $O_3$. The concentrations of BVOCs were higher below canopy (18 m) than above canopy, which indicated these species were produced by trees. At night, monoterpenes concentrations were negatively correlated with these of $O_3$ below canopy. Using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were estimated at 1.1 ton/year and 0.9 ton/year, respectively at Mt. Taehwa.