• Title, Summary, Keyword: Biogenic Amines

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Isolation of Biogenic Amines-Degrading Strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Traditionally Fermented Soybean Products (전통장류에서 Biogenic Amines 분해 능력을 가지는 Bacillus subtilis 및 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 균주의 분리)

  • Kim, Yong-Sang;Cho, Sung-Ho;Jeong, Do-Yeon;Uhm, Tai-Boong
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 2012
  • In order to reduce harmful biogenic amines in the traditionally fermented soybean products, five isolates with biogenic amines-degrading property were obtained from 83 traditionally fermented soybean products. The strains were found to reduce biogenic amines including histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine by 27 to 92% in the cooked soybean containing 5.3% of each biogenic amine over 10 days of incubation. The morphological and biochemical tests and the phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the five isolates were most closely related to Bacillus subtilis or B. amyloliquefaciens. The use of selected strains would be a potential control measure in manufacturing traditionally fermented soybean products that are difficult to control biogenic amine levels.

Survey of Biogenic Amine Contents in Commercial Soy Sauce (시판 간장 중의 biogenic amine의 함량 조사)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Park, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Mi-Jung;Ahn, Hyun-Joo;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.325-328
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    • 2003
  • Nine commercial soy sauces $(A{\sim}I)$ were investigated for their biogenic amine (BAs) levels. Detected biogenic amines were putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), trytamine (TRP), ${\beta}-phenylethylamine$ (PHE), spermine (SPM), histamne (HIS), and tyramine (TYR). All products tested had biogenic amines as detected level. PUT was the major biogenic amines detected in six products, and difference between the highest and the lowest among products was more than 16 mg/kg. Six products had all seven biogenic amines tested, while one product had only five. Results indicate that soy sauces commercially available in Korea contain biogenic amines at various levels. Studies related to biogenic amines including survey of contents must be performed continuously.

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Biogenic Amines Levels in Doenjang during Fermentation (감마선 조사가 된장 숙성중의 Biogenic Amine 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Ahn, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Dong-Ho;Jo, Cheorun;Cha, Bo-Sook;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.713-716
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    • 2002
  • Biogenic amine levels in irradiated doenjang, Korean fermented soybean paste, were investigated during fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. Biogenic amines detected in doenjang were putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, $\beta$-phenylethylamine, spermidine, spermine, histamne, tyramine and agmatine. Agmatine showed the most highest level among biogenic amines detected in doenjang during fermentation. Most biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, $\beta$-phenylethylamine, spermidine, histamne and tyramine, significantly decreased 20~60% by gamma irradiation during fermentation, while spermine and agmatine did not. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be applied to inhibit the biogenic amines formation in doenjang during fermentation.

Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products

  • Yoon, Hyeock;Park, Jung Hyuck;Choi, Ari;Hwang, Han-Joon;Mah, Jae-Hyung
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.299-305
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    • 2015
  • An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedure for the determination of biogenic amines, including tryptamine, ${\beta}$-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, in each matrix. The LODs and LOQs for the biogenic amines were within the range of 0.01~0.10 mg/kg and 0.02~0.31 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intraday for biogenic amine concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 5.95%, whereas the RSD of interday ranged from 2.08 to 5.96%. Of the matrices spiked with biogenic amines, corn oil with tyramine and Juk with putrescine exhibited the least accuracy of 84.85% and recovery rate of 89.63%, respectively, at the lowest concentration (10 mg/kg). Therefore, the validation results fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations. Subsequently, the method was applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented agricultural products for a total dietary survey in Korea. Although the results revealed that Korean traditional soy sauce and Doenjang contained relatively high levels of histamine, the amounts are of no concern if these fermented agricultural products serve as condiments.

Biogenic Amine Degradation by Bacillus Species Isolated from Traditional Fermented Soybean Food and Detection of Decarboxylase-Related Genes

  • Eom, Jeong Seon;Seo, Bo Young;Choi, Hye Sun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1519-1527
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    • 2015
  • Biogenic amines in some food products present considerable toxicological risks as potential human carcinogens when consumed in excess concentrations. In this study, we investigated the degradation of the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine and the presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases and amine oxidase in Bacillus species isolated from fermented soybean food. No expression of histidine and tyrosine decarboxylase genes (hdc and tydc) were detected in the Bacillus species isolated (B. subtilis HJ0-6, B. subtilis D'J53-4, and B. idriensis RD13-10), although substantial levels of amine oxidase gene (yobN) expression were observed. We also found that the three selected strains, as non-biogenic amineproducing bacteria, were significantly able to degrade the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. These results indicated that the selected Bacillus species could be used as a starter culture for the control of biogenic amine accumulation and degradation in food. Our study findings also provided the basis for the development of potential biological control agents against these biogenic amines for use in the food preservation and food safety sectors.

Rapid Detection Methods for Biogenic Amines in Foods (식품 내 바이오제닉아민 신속검출기술 개발 동향)

  • Lee, Jae-Ick;Kim, Young-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2012
  • Biogenic amines have been used as chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, and fermented foods. So far many chromatography methods have been developed to detect biogenic amines in foods. Although these instrumental analyses exhibit good sensitivity, they cannot be used as rapid detection methods due to the chemical treatment of the samples and the time-consuming process involved. For the rapid and simple detection of biogenic amines, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits are commercially available. In addition, analytical systems with enzyme-based amperometric biosensor detection have been increasingly developed. The biosensors used to detect the biogenic amines are based on the action of either amine oxidases or amine dehydrogenases that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines to the corresponding aldehydes and ammonia. This review mainly focused on the principle, development, and applications of the detection methods for rapid detection of biogenic amines in foods.

Determination of Chemical Freshness Indices for Chilled and Frozen Fish (냉장 및 냉동어육의 화학적 선도지표 측정)

  • Kim, Dong-Kyung;Park, In-Seon;Kim, Nam-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.993-999
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    • 1998
  • Aquatic raw materials easily undergo deteriorative changes, and thus it is very important to keep fish meats fresh during transport and processing. The $K_i$ value, biogenic amines, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), which are reported fish freshness indices, were measured for 20 samples. The $K_i$ values were normally in the range of $7.8{\sim}43.6%$, except those for some fish including squid. The contents of biogenic amines were negligible, and a correlation (r=0.894) was found between the contents of TMA and VBN.

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Effect of Storage Conditions on Biogenic Amine Levels in Dark-Fleshed Fishes (적색어류의 biogenic amine 생성에 따른 저장온도의 영향)

  • Cho, Young-Je;Son, Myoung-Jin;Kim, Seung-Mi;Park , Hyun-Kyu;Yeo, Hae-Kyung;Shim, Kil-Bo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2008
  • Biogenic amines are naturally occurring anti-nutrition factors. They are causative agents in food poising episodes and act as catalysts to allergic reactions. The most commonly occurring biogenic amines in foods are: Histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, ${\beta}$-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The objective of this study was to identify changes and content levels of specific biogenic amines at selected storage temperatures $20{^{\circ}C}$, $4{^{\circ}C}$, and $-25{^{\circ}C}$, respectively. This study will focus on histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine concentrations in the following dark-fleshed fishes: Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), Mackerel Pike (Cololabis saira), and Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius). Biogenic amines were determined using a method based on an extraction procedure described in the derivatisation and HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The the recovery rate of individual amines was higher than those found in ion exchange chromatography. The results from the dark fleshed fish stability trial showed that high content of histamine (cadaverine and putrescine) were produced within a short period of time at $20{^{\circ}C}$. Fish stored at lower temperatures $4{^{\circ}C}$, showed lower content of biogenic amines. At $-25{^{\circ}C}$ the production of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine did not initiate until after day 100. All fish recorded the content of histamine below 1 mg/kg with the exception of the Horse Mackerel.

Survey of Biogenic Amines Contents in Commercial Beers (시판 맥주 중의 biogenic amines 함량 조사)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Ahn, Hyun-Joo;Hong, Jin-Hwan;Han, Sang-Bae;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1127-1129
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    • 2002
  • Fourteen commercial beers (eight domestic and six imported) were investigated for their biogenic amine contents. In all products, six biogenic amines, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, ${\beta}-phenylethylamine$, spermine, and tyramine, were detected at different contents among the products, with the spermine content being the highest. Contents of cadaverine and ${\beta}-phenylethylamine$ in domestic beers, and ${\beta}-phenylethylamine$ and tyramine in imported ones were not significantly different. Results indicate that continuous monitoring of biogenic amine levels in commercial beers is needed to maintain chemical safety and qualities.

Biogenic Amine Contents in Fish Products (수산가공품의 biogenic amine 함량 변화)

  • Cho, Young-Je;Son, Myoung-Jin;Kim, Seung-Mi;Park, Hyun-Kyu;Yeo, Hae-Kyung;Shim, Kil-Bo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to determine content of biogenic amines (Histamine, Cadaverine, Putrescine) in the salted mackerel, canned mackerel, mackerel pike, and freeze dried mackerel pike (Guamegi) collectively, all were purchased in the market. Salted mackerel was purchased at five markets (A, B, C, D, and F market) and stored for 10 days at $4{^{\circ}C}$. At the time of purchase, salted mackerel purchased at markets A, B and C was tested for biogenic amine, yet nothing was detected. However, salt mackerel purchased at market D was tested and the histamine concentration was 0.5 mg/100g. Mackerel from market F, exhibited content levels of 0.5 mg/100g histamine and 1.6 mg/100g cadaverine. Those make certain safety during self-life but that purchased F market gradually increased biogenic amine during storage. Prepared salted mackerel of varying levels of freshness and processing methods were analyzed for biogenic amines. Salting process was performed using functional brine salt. VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) was used to establish freshness levels of salted mackerel. Analyses of mackerel muscle determined the values of freshness to be 9.2 mg/100g (good freshness), 18.2 mg/100g (bad freshness), respectively. After 40 days of storage, the content of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine in the freshness of salted mackerel was 2.0 mg/kg, 2.4 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg, respectively. The content of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine in salted mackerel of poor freshness was 71.3 mg/kg, 22.9 mg/kg and 17.8 mg/kg, respectively. It was concluded the presence of biogenic amines during the salting process of salted mackerel significantly effected freshness of materials. The presence of biogenic amines were detected in mackerel that underwent the salting process after 1 month of storage at $4{^{\circ}C}$. The levels of biogenic amines in the brine salted mackerel were higher than those found in dry, salted mackerel; however, the freshness of fish had an insignificant effect on biogenic amines. The presence of histamine was detected in small quantities in canned mackerel and mackerel pike from three companies. Alternatively, cadaverine and putrescine were not detected. Guamegi, vacuumed packed or sealed with a rope was purchased from three markets (A, B, C seafood company). Guamegi was stored and observed for 180 days at $-20{^{\circ}C}$. Histamine was detected in small quantities in all products stored at $-20{^{\circ}C}$. Levels of histamine was dependent on the types of packaging, rope packaging yielded the highest level. However, other amines were not detected.