• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bioconversion

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Anaerobic Bioconversion Potential of Blue Crab Processing Waste and Wastewater(II) -Enzymatic Pretreatment for Improving the Anaerobic Bioconversion Potential of Blue Crab Processing Wastes- (꽃게(Blue Crab) 가공 식품 제조 공정상 발생된 폐수 및 폐기물의 혐기성 생분해 가능성(II) -공정상 발생된 폐기물의 혐기성 생분해 가능성 증대를 위한 효소적 전처리-)

  • Lee, Hyung-Jib
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 1998
  • In use of anaerobic bioconversion shellfish wastes present special problems, since the chitinous structures in the shell faction degrade very slowly in an anaerobic environment. Enzymatic pretreatment method was evaluated for improving the anaerobic bioconversion potential of blue crab processing wastes. An enzymatic pretreatment using chitinase enhanced the ultimate methane yield and biodergradation rate constant for total crab solid wastes by 15% and 19% respectively, above those of the untreated wastes. When the enzymatic pretreatment applied to the shell fraction alone, it resulted in increase of 34% in the ultimate methane yield and 38% in the reaction rate. The results indicate that anaerobic bioconversion of these wastes is technically feasible and enzymatic pretreatment will improve the efficiency of the process.

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Bioconversion of Lignocellulose Materials

  • Pothiraj, C.;Kanmani, P.;Balaji, P.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2006
  • One of the most economically viable processes for the bioconversion of many lignocellulosic waste is represented by white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium is one of the important commercially cultivated fungi which exhibit varying abilities to utilize different lignocellulosic as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the two organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Rhizopus stolonifer show this diversity to be reflected in qualitative variation in the major enzymatic determinants (ie cellulase, xylanase, ligninase and etc) required for substrate bioconversion. For example P. chrysosporium which is cultivated on highly lignified substrates such as wood (or) sawdust, produces two extracellular enzymes which have associated with lignin deploymerization. (Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase). Conversely Rhizopus stolonifer which prefers high cellulose and low lignin containg substrates produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes including at least cellobiohydrolases and ${\beta}-glucosidases$, but very low level of recognized lignin degrading enzymes.

Anaerobic Bioconversion Potential of Blue Crab Processing Waste and Wastewater(I) (꽃게(Blue Crab) 가공 식품 제조 공정상 발생된 폐수 및 폐기물의 혐기성 생분해 가능성(I))

  • Lee, Hyung-Jib
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 1997
  • Disposal of blue crab wastes represents a significant problem to processors, who are limited with respect to acceptable disposal alternatives. Anaerobic bioconversion technology was investigated to determine an environmentally sound and economic disposal method for these wastes. In the study ultimate methane yield for total crab solid waste was $0.180m^3/kg$ VS added and biodegradation rate constant was $0.15day^{-1}$. Methane yield of the bench-scale reactor operated on similar feedstock was $0.189m^3/kg$ VS added and biodegradation rate constant was $0.06day^{-1}$. These results indicate that anaerobic bioconversion of blue crab wastes was technically feasible. Use of anaerobic bioconversion technology can be an attractive option for blue crab processing waste management. The by-product methane gas could be used for maintainign a number of processing operations (i.e., heat for cooking, or keeping temperature of digester constant).

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Study on the promotion of inflammation and whitening of natural materials using bioconversion technology

  • Lee, Se-Won;Lim, Jeong-Muk;Lee, Seong-Hyeon;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Oh, Byung-Teak
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.116-116
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    • 2018
  • Bioconversion, the enzymatic process by microorganism on organic precursor to desired products. The natural extract is converted into a form that can be easily absorbed into the skin, while scaling up of to higher quantity is possible. Selection of naturally processed raw material rather than chemically processed is preferred. Therefore, fermentation was carried out by mixing Rubus coreanus Miquel, soybean, Zanthoxylum schinifolium as bioconverting materials, the possibility of inflammation, whitening material were checked. In this study, useful microorganisms were isolated from various salted fish, and 16S rDNA sequence was analyzed to confirm their genetic characteristics. Combining the three natural materials using bioconversion technology to study their activity before and after fermentation. To evaluate the antioxidant activity and the active ingredient content the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the total polyphenol content were examined. Raw 264.7 cells were used to evaluate MTT assay, NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ production inhibitory activity. Also, to evaluate the whitening activity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity and melanin formation inhibitory activity were measured using B16F10 cells. In total 34 strains were obtained from various salted fish. The effective strains useful for the bioconversion process, showed that DPPH radical scavenging ability and polyphenol content were increased in the two kinds of microbial treatment groups compared to the untreated group. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the strains showed excellent in Pediococcus pentosaceus B1 in comparison. An increase of up-to 156% in anti-oxidative activity and 141% in polyphenol content was observed after bioconversion. In addition, after mixed fermentation the toxidty of Raw 264.7 and B16F10 cells tended to decrease and a significant increase was observed in anti-inflammatory activity as well. Also, tyrosinase activity and melanin significantly. synthesis decreased significantly.

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Bioconversion of Ginsenosides from Red Ginseng Extract Using Candida allociferrii JNO301 Isolated from Meju

  • Lee, Sulhee;Lee, Yong-Hun;Park, Jung-Min;Bai, Dong-Hoon;Jang, Jae Kweon;Park, Young-Seo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.368-375
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    • 2014
  • Red ginseng (Panax ginseng), a Korean traditional medicinal plant, contains a variety of ginsenosides as major functional components. It is necessary to remove sugar moieties from the major ginsenosides, which have a lower absorption rate into the intestine, to obtain the aglycone form. To screen for microorganisms showing bioconversion activity for ginsenosides from red ginseng, 50 yeast strains were isolated from Korean traditional meju (a starter culture made with soybean and wheat flour for the fermentation of soybean paste). Twenty strains in which a black zone formed around the colony on esculin-yeast malt agar plates were screened first, and among them 5 strains having high ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity on p-nitrophenyl-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate were then selected. Strain JNO301 was finally chosen as a bioconverting strain in this study on the basis of its high bioconversion activity for red ginseng extract as determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. The selected bioconversion strain was identified as Candida allociferrii JNO301 based on the nucleotide sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The optimum temperature and pH for the cell growth were $20{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ and pH 5~8, respectively. TLC analysis confirmed that C. allociferrii JNO301 converted ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd and then into F2, Rb2 into compound O, Rc into compound Mc1, and Rf into Rh1. Quantitative analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography showed that bioconversion of red ginseng extract resulted in an increase of 2.73, 3.32, 33.87, 16, and 5.48 fold in the concentration of Rd, F2, compound O, compound Mc1, and Rh1, respectively.

Antioxidant activity of wood vinegar by bioconversion (생물전환에 의한 발효 목초액의 항산화 활성)

  • Cho, Young-Ho;Cho, Jae-Soo;Lee, Gye-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.10
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    • pp.4434-4442
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    • 2011
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive and potentially harmful to cells, causing oxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. In humans, the deleterious effects of ROS have been linked with aging, carcinogenesis, and atherosclerosis. In order to investigate an antioxidant activity of wood vinegar by bioconversion, we preferentially analyzed the total acidity, acetic acid, pH, and contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids, respectively. Also, we evaluated the scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide radicals, and nitric oxide radicals. The total acidity and amount of acetic acid of wood vinegar after bioconversion were lower than those of wood vinegar before bioconversion, but the pH was higher than that of wood vinegar before bioconversion. The contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids of wood vinegar after bioconversion were 11.17 mg/$m{\ell}$ and 0.42 mg/$m{\ell}$, respectively. The $SC_{50}$ values were in order of superoxide anion radical scavenging activity < DPPH radical scavenging activity < hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity < nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Therefore, these results suggest that wood vinegar by bioconversion can be useful as primary antioxidants for medicines and cosmetics.

Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Bioconversion of Vitamin $D_3\;to\;1{\alpha}$,25-Dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ Using Pseudonocardia autotrophica ID9302

  • Kang, Dae-Jung;Lee, Hong-Sub;Park, Joon-Tae;Bang, Ji-Sun;Hong, Soon-Kwang;Kim, Tae-Yong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2006
  • We assessed the ability of a Pseudonocardia sp. from soil samples to bioconvert vitamin $D_3$. The optimal culture conditions for the bioconversion of vitamin $D_3$ to active $1{\alpha}$,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ were investigated by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, the metal salt concentrations, the initial pH, and the temperature. Microbial transformations were carried out with the addition of vitamin $D_3$ dissolved in ethanol. They were sampled by extraction with methanol-dichloromethane and the samples were examined by HPLC. Optimum culture conditions were found to be 0.4% yeast extract, 1% glucose, 3% starch, 1% fish meal, 0.2% NaCl, 0.01% $K_2HPO_4$, 0.2% $CaCO_3$, 0.01% NaF, and pH 7.0 at $28^{\circ}C$. The optimal timing of the addition of vitamin $D_3$ for the production of calcitriol by Pseudonocardia autotrophica ID9302 was concurrent with the inoculation of seed culture broth. Maximum calcitriol productivity and the yield of bioconversion reached a value of 10.4mg/L and 10.4% respectively on the 7th day in a 75L fementer jar under the above conditions.

The draft genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae KKH3 that infects kiwi plant and potential bioconversion applications (키위 나무에서 분리한 Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae KKH3 균주의 유전체 분석 및 이를 통한 생물전환 소재로서의 가능성 연구)

  • Lee, Dong Hwan;Lim, Jeong-A;Koh, Young-Jin;Heu, Sunggi;Roh, Eunjung
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.323-325
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    • 2017
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae KKH3 is an Enterobacteriaceae bacterial pathogen that infects kiwi plants, causing canker-like symptoms that pose a threat to the kiwifruit industry. Because the strain was originally isolated from woody plants and possesses numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, this draft genome report provides insight into possible bioconversion applications, as well as a better understanding of this important plant pathogen.

Feasibility Study on Production of Liquid Fertilizer in a 1 ㎥ Reactor Using Fishmeal Wastewater for Commercialization

  • Gwon, Byeong-Geun;Kim, Joong-Kyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 2012
  • A scaled-up bioconversion of fishmeal wastewater (FMW) into liquid fertilizer was performed five times in a $1m^3$ reactor in order to examine the feasibility of commercialization. The importance of aeration was marked. Analyses indicated that dissolved oxygen (DO) level was closely related to the value of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and it was crucial to achieve high-quality liquid fertilizer. When pure oxygen was supplied through four diffusers into the reactor, DO levels and ORP values were maintained over 1.2 mg/L and 0.2 mV, respectively all the time during 52 hr of bioconversion. The pH changed from 6.8 to 5.9. The average removal percentages of chemical oxygen demand ($COD_{Cr}$) and total nitrogen (TN) were 75.0% and 71.6%, respectively. Compared to the result acquired in a 5-L reactor, bioconversion of FMW into liquid fertilizer was achieved in a shorter time under the same removal percentages of $COD_{Cr}$ and TN. The 52-hr culture of inoculated FMW was phytotoxic-free and it possessed comparable fertilizing ability to a liquid fertilizer made from the fish waste in hydroponic culture with amino acid contents of 5.93 g/ 100 g sample. From all the above results, transferring lab-scale data to large-scale production appeared to be successful. As a result, the commercialization of a liquid fertilizer made from FMW was feasible.

Bioconversion of Flavones During Fermentation in Milk Containing Scutellaria baicalensis Extract by Lactobacillus brevis

  • Xu, Chen;Ji, Geun-Eog
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1427
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    • 2013
  • Scutellaria baicalensis (SB), a traditional herb with high pharmacological value, contains more than 10% flavone by weight. To improve the biological activity of flavones in SB, we aimed to enhance the bioconversion of baicalin (BG) to baicalein (B) and wogonoside (WG) to wogonin (W) in SB during fermentation using beta-glucuronidase produced from Lactobacillus brevis RO1. After activation, L. brevis RO1 was cultured in milk containing SB root extract with various carbon or nitrogen sources at $37^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. During fermentation, the growth patterns of L. brevis RO1 and changes in the flavone content were assessed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. After 72 h of fermentation, the concentrations of B and W in the control group increased by only 0.15 and 0.12 mM, respectively, whereas they increased by 0.57 and 0.24 mM in the fish peptone group. The production of B and W was enhanced by the addition of 0.4% fish peptone, which not only improved the growth of L. brevis RO1 (p < 0.001) but also enhanced the bioconversion of flavones. In conclusion, the bioconversion of flavones in SB may provide a potential application for the enhancement of the functional components in SB.