• Title, Summary, Keyword: Berkshire

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In silico approaches to identify the functional and structural effects of non-synonymous SNPs in selective sweeps of the Berkshire pig genome

  • Shin, Donghyun;Oh, Jae-Don;Won, Kyeong-Hye;Song, Ki-Duk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1150-1159
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) were identified in Berkshire selective sweep regions and then were investigated to discover genetic nsSNP mechanisms that were potentially associated with Berkshire domestication and meat quality. We further used bioinformatics tools to predict damaging amino-acid substitutions in Berkshire-related nsSNPs. Methods: nsSNPs were examined in whole genome resequencing data of 110 pigs, including 14 Berkshire pigs, generated using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform to identify variations that might affect meat quality in Berkshire pigs. Results: Total 65,550 nsSNPs were identified in the mapped regions; among these, 319 were found in Berkshire selective-sweep regions reported in a previous study. Genes encompassing these nsSNPs were involved in lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty-acid deposition, and muscle development. The effects of amino acid change by nsSNPs on protein functions were predicted using sorting intolerant from tolerant and polymorphism phenotyping V2 to reveal their potential roles in biological processes that may correlate with the unique Berkshire meat-quality traits. Conclusion: Our nsSNP findings confirmed the history of Berkshire pigs and illustrated the effects of domestication on generic-variation patterns. Our novel findings, which are generally consistent with those of previous studies, facilitated a better understanding of Berkshire domestication. In summary, we extensively investigated the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic traits by scanning for nsSNPs in large-scale whole-genome sequencing data.

Comparison of physicochemical traits of dry-cured ham from purebred Berkshire and crossbred Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD) pigs

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Ali, Md. Mhahbbat;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different pig breeds: Berkshire and $Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$ (LYD). Pigs were slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 110 kg and cooled at $0^{\circ}C$ for 24 h in a chilling room. Then, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physicochemical analyses. The dry-cured hams from Berkshire contain higher crude protein, fat, and ash level than those from LYD, whereas the hams from LYD had higher moisture contents than those from Berkshire(p < 0.05). The pH values of the hams from Berkshire were lower than those from LYD (p < 0.05). The hams from Berkshire had lower $L^*$ and $b^*$ values than those from LYD (p < 0.05). Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), elaidic acid (C18:1t), monounsaturated fatty acids, and ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (n-6/n-3) in the ham from Berkshire were higher than LYD (p < 0.05). Free amino acids such as aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, glutamic acid, and lysine in hams from Berkshire were higher than those from LYD (p < 0.05). The microbial population had no significant difference between Berkshire and LYD dry-cured ham. The cross sections of dry cured ham showed difference from different breeds using scanning electron microscope and indicates some differences in texture. Considering the meat quality parameters of ham, hams from Berkshire could provide variety of ham for consumer who are seeking various different qualities and stories.

Protein Expression in Pig Species Longissimus dorsi Muscles among Different Breeds and Growth Stages (돼지의 품종 및 성장 단계에 따른 등심조직의 단백질 발현 양상 비교, 분석)

  • Kim, Byung-Uk;Kim, Sam-Woong;Hong, Yeon-Hee;Jeong, Mi-Ae;Ryu, Yeon-Sun;Park, Hwa-Chun;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Kwon, Young-Min;Choi, In-Soon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Kim, Chul-Wook;Cho, Kwang-Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.713-722
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    • 2012
  • When proteins extracted from longissimus dorsi muscles of Landrace and Berkshire at the finishing stage were compared by 2-DE, the Landrace demonstrated a quantitative increase in proteins related to slow skeletal muscle function, such as serum albumin precursor, troponin T (slow skeletal muscle; sTnT) and myoglobin. In contrast, the Berkshire exhibited comparatively elevated enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, fast skeletal muscle function, and energy production, such as heat shock 27-kDa protein (HSP27)-1, TnT (fast skeletal muscle; fTnT), muscle creatine kinase, phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi1) and adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1). When compared to growing Berkshire, finishing Berkshire showed increased levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDHL1), and muscle creatine kinase. In contrast, the growing Berkshire muscle had elevated levels of HSP27-1, sTnT, fTnT, serum albumin precursor, PGM1, AK1, and Tpi 1 as compared to the finishing Berkshire. The Landrace longissimus dorsi muscle may be composed of slower skeletal muscle, whereas Berkshire is composed of a faster skeletal muscle. The uniquely elevated quantities of proteins involved in skeletal muscle function, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton function in the growing Berkshire indicate that these factors support growth and maintenance during the growing stage when compared with the finishing Berkshire.

The Effects of Pig Breeds on Proximate, Physicochemical, Cholesterol, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Sensory Properties of Loins (돼지 품종이 등심의 일반성분, 물리화학적, 콜레스테롤, 아미노산, 지방산 조성 및 관능적 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, I.S.;Jin, S.K.;Kim, C.W.;Song, Y.M.;Cho, K.K.;Chung, K.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2008
  • A total of 100 pigs were used to investigate the effects of pig breed on proximate, physicochemical, cholesterol, amino acid, fatty acid and sensory properties of loins. Crossbred pigs were alloted into one of five experimental groups [×Duroc(LYD), ×Berkshire (YBB), British Berkshire(BB), Kagoshima Berkshire(KB), Korean native black pig×Wild boars(KW; Sus coraanus)]. Pigs were slaughtered at 110 kg live weight. Moisture content was significantly(p<0.05) higher in KW than those of other pig breeds. Crude protein content was significantly(p<0.05) higher in YBB and KW than in LYD, BB, and KB. Cholesterol content was significantly(p<0.05) higher in YBB than those of other pig breeds. WHC and pH value had lower and shear force had higher(p<0.05) in YBB than those of other pig breeds. In color, LYD was significantly(p<0.05) higher in L* than those of other pig breeds. There was no significant different in a* and brittleness value among the breeds. In fatty acid and amino acid composition, KW had a higher(p<0.05) UFA/SFA, EFA/UFA ratio and EAA content but lower (p<0.05) SAAA. Total amino acid content was significantly(p<0.05) higher in LYD(20.44%) and BB (20.81%) than those of other pig breeds. In fresh meat, breeds affected meat color, drip loss, marbling score, and overall acceptability(p<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found among the breeds in the sensory parameters evaluated in the cooked meat, except for flavor

Meat Quality and Physicochemical Trait Assessments of Berkshire and Commercial 3-way Crossbred Pigs

  • Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur;Kang, Da Rae;Belal, Shah Ahmed;Cho, Eun-So-Ri;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Jung, Young-Chul;Choi, Yang-Il;Shim, Kwan-Seob
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.641-649
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs. Moreover, meat from Berkshire pigs had higher levels of phosphoserine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, α-aminoadipic acid, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and carnosine and lower levels of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, and ammonia than did meat from LYD pigs. The fatty acids oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were present in significantly higher concentrations in Berkshire muscles than they were in LYD muscles. Additionally, Berkshire muscles were significantly enriched with nucleotide components (inosine), minerals (Mg and K), and antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid (C) in comparison with LYD muscles. In conclusion, our results show that in comparison with LYD meat, Berkshire meat has better meat quality traits and is a superior nutritional source of all essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, and minerals (Mg and K).

Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire

  • Oh, J.D.;Kim, E.S.;Lee, H.K.;Song, K.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1545-1550
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    • 2015
  • c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with $pH_{45min}$ and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of $pH_{45min}$ and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs.

Comparison of growth performance of Berkshire purebreds and crossbreds sired by Hereford and Tamworth breeds raised in alternative production system

  • Park, Hyeon-Suk;Spann, Kristal;Whitley, Niki;Oh, Sang-Hyon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1358-1362
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare growth performance of Berkshire purebred pigs (BB), Hereford (HB) and/or Tamworth (TB) sired Berkshire crossbred pigs reared in a hoop structure in two experiments. Methods: In the first experiment, BB was compared to TB while HB and TB were compared in the second. Body weights (BW) were recorded at 3 days of age and every 28 days from birth until 140 days of age. There was no significant difference between the BW of BB and TB, but HB was heavier than TB by 84 days of age. Least square means of average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean parity (${\pm}$standard deviation) of the sows was $3.42{\pm}2.14$ and a total of 45 farrowing occurred from year 2012 to 2014. The mean number of total born, number born alive, number of mummies, and number weaned were $9.23{\pm}2.52$, $7.87{\pm}2.53$, $0.04{\pm}0.21$, and $5.94{\pm}2.74$, respectively. Parity did not have a significant effect on the growth performance of the pigs. For BB and TB, there was only one time frame in which there was a significant difference in the ADG: between 28 and 56 days of age. For HB and TB, the overall ADG of HB was significantly greater than the total ADG of TB. Conclusion: The breed of the sire did not affect the growth performance of the progeny between Berkshire purebreds and Tamworth${\times}$Berkshire crossbreds. The breed of the sire did have an effect between Hereford and Tamworth sired Berkshire crossbreds (p<0.05). The Hereford sired pigs were found to have increased growth performance compared to Tamworth sired.

Effect of single nucleotide polymorphism on the total number of piglets born per parity of three different pig breeds

  • Do, Kyoung-Tag;Jung, Soon-Woo;Park, Kyung-Do;Na, Chong-Sam
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.628-635
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To determine the effects of genomic breeding values (GBV) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the total number of piglets born (TNB) in 3 pig breeds (Berkshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire). Methods: After collecting genomic information (Porcine SNP BeadChip) and phenotypic TNB records for each breed, the effects of GBV and SNP were estimated by using single step best linear unbiased prediction (ssBLUP) method. Results: The heritability estimates for TNB in Berkshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds were 0.078, 0.107, and 0.121, respectively. The breeding value estimates for TNB in Berkshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds were in the range of -1.34 to 1.47 heads, -1.79 to 1.87 heads, and -2.60 to 2.94 heads, respectively. Of sows having records for TNB, the reliability of breeding value for individuals with SNP information was higher than that for individuals without SNP information. Distributions of the SNP effects on TNB did not follow gamma distribution. Most SNP effects were near zero. Only a few SNPs had large effects. The numbers of SNPs with absolute value of more than 4 standard deviations in Berkshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds were 11, 8, and 19, respectively. There was no SNP with absolute value of more than 5 standard deviations in Berkshire or Landrace. However, in Yorkshire, four SNPs (ASGA 0089457, ASGA0103374, ALGA0111816, and ALGA0098882) had absolute values of more than 5 standard deviations. Conclusion: There was no common SNP with large effect among breeds. This might be due to the large genetic composition differences and the small size of reference population. For the precise evaluation of genetic performance of individuals using a genomic selection method, it may be necessary to establish the appropriate size of reference population.

Effects of Breed and Sex on Behavioral Characteristics and Economic Traits of Performance-tested Pigs (품종과 성이 검정돈의 행동특성과 경제형질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim D.H.;Lee D.J.;Ha D.M.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of breed and sex on behavioral characteristics and economic traits of performance-tested pigs. Totally 32 tested pigs in 4 different breeds were assigned for behavioral observation. Behavior was recorded for 4 hours(each 2 hours, before and after none) of tested pigs in each tested pen. The average daily gain, age at 90 kg and feed efficiency on the basis of the performance data were collected from 8,477 performance-tested pigs in which pure breeds of Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Berkshire at the Korea Swine Testing Station. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows; The effect of breed was statistically significant for all traits studied. Average daily gain were the highest(P<0.05) in Duroc and ages at 90 kg were the highest(P<0.05) in Berkshire. In feed efficiency of male, Landrace and Yorkshire were the most efficient. The average daily gain and feed efficiency were superior to those of female, however, the age at 90 kg was not different. Overally, females were superior to males in various traits examined. Berkshire breed had more proportion of time spent in ventral tying and sitting whereas the proportion of time spent in walking, drinking and eating was less than that of other breeds. The male pigs showed more time spent in standing and social behavior.

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Effects of a Dietary Fermented Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) By-Product Diet on Pork Meat Quality in Growing-Fattening Berkshire Pigs

  • Chu, Gyo-Moon;Kang, Suk-Nam;Yang, Jeong-Mo;Kim, Hoi-Yun;Song, Young-Min
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.199-207
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of fermented mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) by-products on meat quality characteristics in fattening Berkshire pigs. The fermented diet mainly contained 40.0% mushroom by-products, 26.0% rice bran, and 20.0% formula feed and was fermented for 5 d. The basal diet for the control (C) was substituted with 10% (T1), 30% (T2), 50% (T3), and 70% (T4) fermented diet. Warner-Bratzler shear forces (WBSF) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treatments than that in C. The meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treatments than that in C, whereas fat color (redness and yellowness) was significantly higher in treatments than that in C (P < 0.05). The compositions of palmitoleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T4 than that in C. The amino acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and the sensory evaluation of cooked meat were not affected by diet type. In conclusion, a diet of fermented mushroom by-products increased pH and backfat color, but decreased cooking loss, WBSF, and meat color of LD in growing-fattening Berkshire pigs.