• Title, Summary, Keyword: Benzo[a]pyrene

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Antimutagenic Effect of Organic Germanium(GE-132) on the Mutagenicity of Benzo(a)pyrene (Benzo(a)pyrene의 돌연변이원성에 대한 유기게르마늄(GE-132)의 항돌연변이 효과)

  • Lee, Hyo-Min;Chung, Yong;Jung, Ki-Wha;Kim, Jae-Wan;Kwon, Sun-Kyung
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.18-29
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    • 1993
  • This study was initiated to investigate the effective action and mechanism of GE-132 (Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide)on benzo(a)pyrene, which have strong carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. To confirm desmutagenic effect (inhibition of metabolic processes of benzo(a)pyrene with S9 Mix or inactivation of the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene metabolites) and antimutagenic effect (inhibition of gene-expression of reverted genes) of GE-132 against benzo(a)pyrene using with Salmonella typhimuyium TA98 Ames test was performed. The revertants in desmutagenicity test were decreased significantly in the combined groups of benzo(a)pyrene and GE-132 than benzo(a)pyrene only, without inhibition the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by S9 Mix. The ideal combined groups of benzo(a)pyrene and GE-132 were 10 $\mu{M}$ and 10mg, 20 $\mu{M}$ and 20mg, 100 $\mu{M}$ and 30 mg, respectively. Then, the revertants in antimutagenicity test, which was studied the direct action of GE-132 on the induction of revertant cells by Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and activated benzo(a)pyrene were decreased significantly in the treated groups of GE-132 than no treated groups. The number of revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 were reduced with increasing amounts of GE-132. From the above results, it was found that GE-132 inactivated the mutagenic metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene without inhibition of the enzyme action in the S9 Mix, and GE132 showed antimutagenic effect which have inhibitory action of reverted gene expression.

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Effects of Ginseng Saponin on DNA Strand Breaks and Replication Inhibition by Benzo(a)Pyrene in CHO-Kl Cells (Benzo(a)Pyrene 유발 DNA 상해 및 복제 억제에 미치는 인삼사포닌의 영향)

  • Park, Jin-Kyu;Park, Ki-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 1992
  • The effect of saponin extracted from Panax grneng CA Meyer on DNA repair and replicative DNA synthesis were examined in CHO-Kl cells cotreated with benzo(a)pyrene and rat liver S-15 fraction. The DNA strand breaks inititated by benzo(a)pyrene metabolites were measured by alkaline election technique. The addition of ginseng saponin to the culture media resulted in decrease of benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA strand breaks, and restored the suppressed-semiconservative-DNA-synthesis by the carcinogen. DNA repair synthesis in the damaged cells was also elevated by the ginseng treatment when the repairing activites were measured for the (3H)-thymidine incorporation into the carcinogen damaged cellular DNk Comparative analysis of DNA-adduces of benzo(a)pyrene metabortes in microsomes suggested that ginseng saponin treatment in rats reduced the formation of electrophilic metabolites of benzo (a)-pyrene in the rat liver microsomes.

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Studies on Benzo(a)pyrene Content in the Surface Soil of Seoul City (서울市 土砂中 Benzo (a) pyrene의 含量에 關한 硏究)

  • 孫東憲;金載翰
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.12-20
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    • 1989
  • Distribution of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in Seoul surface soils was investigated with a simple micro-analytical method consisting of ultrasonic extraction, one-dimensional dual band thin-layer chromatographic separation (TLC) and spectrofluorometric determination. The TLC was done in the following condition: thin-layer plate; Kieselguhr G/Acetylated cellulose, Developer; 1st; ether, 2nd; methanol-ether-water (4:4:1, V/V). The results thus obtained were as follows; 1. All the samples collected from various areas were contained detectable amount of benzo(a)pyrene. The range and average of benzo(a)pyrene contents in Seoul areas are 0.20 $\sim$5.90ppm and 1.01 ppm, respectively. 2. Benzo(a)pyrene contents in soils obtained from commercial areas were much higher than those in industrial and residential areas. The contents range in commercial, industrial, and residential areas are 0.31 $\sim$ 5.90 ppm, 0.36 $\sim$ 1.22 ppm and 0.20 $\sim$ 0.67 ppm, respectively. 3. Benzo(a)pyrene contents in soils from major roads were far higher than those from side or park roads. The ranges of benzo(a)pyrene contents in major, park and side road are 0.40 $\sim$ 5.9 ppm, 0.20 $\sim$ 0.70 ppm, 0.31 $\sim$ 1.30 ppm, respectively. These findings suggest strongly that surface soils in Seoul city are polluted by benzo(a)pyrene probably emitted automobiles.

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Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Modification on p53 and Related Proteins (벤조피렌에 의한 p53 및 관련 단백질 변화)

  • Lee Sun-Mi;Ye Sang-Kyu;Choi Jinhee
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2005
  • PAH 위해성 평가의 생체지표 개발을 위하여, benzo[a]pyrene을 인체 간암 세포주인 HepG2세포에 처리하여 암 억제 단백질인 p53 및 관련 단백질의 발현 양상에 대하여 연구하였다. HepG2 세포의 생존력은 benzo[a]pyrene을 노출시킨 군에서 농도가 증가할수록 감소하였다. p53과 인산화 p53의 발현 양상은 benzo[a]pyrene 농도 의존적으로 증가하는 경향을 보였으며, 반면에 아세틸화 p53은 benzo[a]pyrene의 농도가 증가할수록 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 세포 주기 조절에 관련된 p21 단백질은 화학 물질 처리에 의해서 p53과 마찬가지로 증가하였으나, CdK4와 Rb 단백질의 발현에는 변화가 없었다. 상관분석 결과 Benzo[a]pyrene 노출, 세포 생존력, p53, 인산화 p53, p21이 서로 높은 상관성을 보였다. 본 연구의 결과는 p53 단백질의 축적이 benzo[a]pyrene 독성에 있어 매우 중요한 현상이며, 이는 선택적인 지표와 함께 p53 이 benzo[a]pyrene과 같은 PAH 계열의 물질의 위해성 평가를 위한 민감한 생체 지표로써 개발될 수 있음을 시사한다.

Effects of Steam- and Dry-processing Temperatures on the Benzo(a)pyrene Content of Black and Red Ginseng (홍삼 및 흑삼의 제조 시 증숙 및 건조온도가 Benzo(a)pyrene 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Eun-Jung;Kang, Shin-Jung;Kim, Ae-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2009
  • For the purpose of developing a safe & hygienic manufacturing method to acquire low levels of benzo(a)pyrene in black and red ginseng products, this study investigated the effects of steam- and dry-processing temperatures on benzo(a)pyrene production in ginseng. By the red ginseng with a fix dry-process temperature of $50^{\circ}C$ and setting the steam-process temperature between $80{\sim}120^{\circ}C$, an extremely small amount(0.1 ppb) of benzo(a)pyrene was produced, indicating there was no relationship between the steam-temperature and benzo(a)pyrene production. On the other hand, when the red and black ginseng were steamed at the fixed temperature of $100^{\circ}C$ and dried at various temperatures between $50{\sim}120^{\circ}C$, the amount of benzo(a)pyrene produced was closely connected with the dry-temperature, and increased with higher drying temperatures. Upon repeating the steam and dry process nine times, in which the steam-temperature was set at $100^{\circ}C$ and the dry-temperature at $50^{\circ}C$, higher amount of benzo(a)pyrene were produced in red and black ginseng, respectively, with increasing steam- and dry-processing time. However, the level of benzo(a)pyrene still remained extremely small(below 0.12 ppb), showing a maximum amount in the black ginseng that was steamed and dried nine times. This suggests that the fine root of ginseng may be carbonized by increasing the number of times it is steam- and dry-processed. From the above results, this study determined that the optimum temperatures for manufacturing red and black ginseng products with safe levels of benzo(a)pyrene would be a temperature between 80 and $120^{\circ}C$ for steaming and a temperature less than $50^{\circ}C$ for drying.

Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene Content and Risk Assessment (훈제식육식품 중 벤조피렌 함량 분석 및 안전성 평가)

  • Cho, Hyoun-Kyoung;Kim, Mee-Hye;Park, Sung-Kug;Shin, Han-Seung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.960-965
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    • 2011
  • The content of benzo[a]pyrene from 69 smoked meat products commonly consumed in Korean food market was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography. Smoked meat products including smoked chicken, pork, turkey and duck were saponified, extracted and cleaned up to analyze the benzo[a]pyrene content. As a result of analysis from smoked meat products, the mean benzo[a]pyrene content was 0.42 ${\mu}g$/kg and the highest content of benzo[a]pyrene was 2.87 ${\mu}g$/kg detected in smoked chicken product. All somked meat products contained benzo[a]pyrene below the limit regulated by Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Exposure assessment of benzo[a]pyrene from smoked meat products ingestion was calculated by using National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS). The estimated lifetime average daily intake of benzo[a]pyrene was 0.187 ng/kg bw/d. Margin of exposure of benzo[a]pyrene was ranged from 1,657,754 to 3,957,219.

Suppressive effect of Petroleum Ether Extract of Panax ginseng against Benzo(a)pyrene induced Micronuclei in Mice (인삼 석유에텔 추출물이 흰쥐에서 Benzo(a)pyrene에 의해 유도된 소핵생성의 억제효과)

  • Choi, Sung-Gyu;Kim, Cheon-Ho;Heo, Moon-Young
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.466-472
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    • 1991
  • Petroleum ether extracts of panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (GPEE) were tested for the evaluation of anticlastogenic effects against benzo(a)pyrene-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes using mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. When the GPEE was singly administered before benzo(a)pyrene injection, GPEE showed significant anticlastogenic effect at $50{\sim}200\;mg/kg$. When the GPEE was multiply administered for 5 consecutive days before benzo(a)pyrene injection, GPEE showed potent anticlastogenic effect, even at the low doses, $5{\sim}50\;mg/kg/day$. As a control experiment, GPEE was administered without benzo(a)pyrene injection to demonstrate a clastogenic effect of this extract. When the range of $1{\sim}200\;mg/kg/day$ for 5 consecutive days was administered to mice, it was found that there was no increase of MNPCEs frequency.

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Studies on Benzo(a) pyrene Concentrations in Atmospheric Particulate Matters (大氣浮游粒子狀物質中 Benzo(a) pyrene 濃度에 關한 硏究)

  • 손동헌;허문영;남궁용
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 1987
  • Atmospheric particulate matter (A.P.M.) was collected on quartz fiber filters from March 1985 to February 1986 at Chung-Ang University according to particle size using Andersen high-volume air smapler, and benzo (a) pyrene concentration in these particulates were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The annual arithmetic mean concentration of A.P.M. was 115.50$\mug/m^3$. The annual arithmetic mean concentrations of coarse particles and fine particles in A.P.M. were 52.54$\mum/m^3$ and 62.96$\mum/m^3$ respectively. THe annual arithmetic mean concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in A.P.M. was 1.44$ng/m^3$. THe annual arithmetic mean concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in coarse particles and fine particles were 0.05 $ng/m^3$ and 1.39 $ng/m^3$ respectively. Thus, the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene showed maldistribution of 96.53% in fine particle. A.P.M. showed wide fluctuation according to the season. The concentration of A.P.M. was lowest in summer and high in spring and winter. Coarse and fine particle concentrations in A.P.M. were highest in spring and winter, respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene was highest in winter and lowest in summer. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in fine and coarse particles were highest in winter and spring, respectively.

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Reduction of Benzo(a)pyrene Content in Sesame Oil by Using Adsorbents (흡착제를 이용한 참기름의 벤조피렌 저감화)

  • Choi, Seung Kwan;Choe, Su Bin;Kang, Sung Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.564-569
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to reduce benzo(a)pyrene in sesame oil by addition of several kinds of absorbents (active carbon, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, acid clay, perlite, and silicate). Sesame oil containing 4.1 ppb benzo(a)pyrene was stirred with 0.2% (w/w) several kinds of adsorbents at $40^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. Active carbon resulted in the highest reduction of benzo(a)pyrene in sesame oil among the investigated adsorbents, and decolorization was observed only by using silicate. Reduction of benzo(a)pyrene was optimized by controlling amount the of active carbon, stirring time, and stirring temperature. Futher, 4.1 ppb benzo(a)pyrene in sesame oil was reduced by up to 0.91 ppb by adding 0.5% (w/w) active carbon and stirring for 30 min at $70^{\circ}C$. Optimized conditions were applied to sesame oil (2.14~4.11 ppb) purchased from a Gyeonggi traditional market, and benzo(a)pyrene in sesame oil was reduced by up 0.43~0.86 ppb.

Screening of Ecotoxicant Responsive Genes and Expression Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene-exposed Rockfish (Sebastes schlgeli)

  • Yum, Seung-Shic;Woo, Seon-Ock;Lee, Taek-Kyun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 2006
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a representative ecotoxicant in marine environment and a model compound of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which has an ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. This study aimed to identify molecular biomarkers suitable for assessing environmental pollution using a microarray technique. We examined the effects of benzo[a]pyrene on gene expressions in the rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. We constructed the subtractive cDNA library with hepatic RNA from benzo[a]pyrene-exposed and non-exposed control fish. From the library 10,000 candidate clones were selected randomly and cDNA microarray was constructed. We determined benzo[a]pyrene-responsive genes using a high-density microarray. Statistical analysis showed that approximately 400 genes are significantly induced or reduced by benzo[a]pyrene treatment ($2\;{\mu}m$). Especially gene expression changes of 4 candidate clones among the up- or down-regulated genes were investigated in 6, 12 and 24 hr BaP-exposed fish groups. Many methods have been developed to monitor marine environmental status, which depend on quantifying the levels of the toxic components in polluted seawater or on ecological accessing, such as species diversity or richness. However, those methods could not provide information on physiological or genetic changes induced by such environmental stresses. Comparing with the conventional methods, these data will propose that benzo[a]pyrene-responsive genes can be useful for biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on marine organism at molecular level.