• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bentonite

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Interaction of industrial effluents and bentonite: a comparative study of their physico-chemical and geotechnical characteristics

  • Murugaiyan, V.;Saravanane, R.;Sundararajan, T.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.291-306
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    • 2009
  • One-dimensional soil-column studies were carried out to understand the interaction of three industrial effluents namely amino acid ('highly acidic'), surfactant ('highly organic') and pharmaceutical ('organic and toxic') on the physicochemical behavior, index properties and shear strength of bentonite due to artificial contamination extending to nearly 300 days. Changes in inorganic and organic pollutants present in the effluents due to the interaction of the above effluents and soil were assessed to understand the physico-chemical behaviour. Batch and continuous modes of operation, 8 hrs and 16 hrs Hydraulic Retention Time [HRT] and 25%, 50% concentrations of effluents, were the parameters considered. Amino acid, surfactant and pharmaceutical effluents have shown a high variation in pH (7 to 8) after artificial contamination on bentonite that is their original characteristics of the above effluents have been completely reversed. Further, it is found that the shear strength of bentonite has reduced by about 20%, and with respect to liquid limit and plastic limit shows an increasing trend with time within the period of contamination.

Study on physical characteristics of grouts for backfilling ground heat exchanger (수직 밀폐형 지중 열교환기용 뒤채움재의 물리적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Chul-Ho;Gil, Hu-Jeong;Choi, Hang-Seok;Choi, Hyo-Pum;Woo, Sang-Baik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.533-544
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    • 2008
  • To obtain the physical properties of grout materials, that is the thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are used for backfilling ground heat exchangers, nine bentonite grouts and cement grouts being adapted in the United State have been considered in this study. The bentonite grouts show that the thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the content of bentonite or filler (silica sand). The saturated cement grouts appear to possess much higher thermal conductivity than the saturated bentonite grouts, and the reduction of thermal conductivity in the cement grouts after drying specimens is less than the case of the bentonite grouts. To investigate the performance of cement grouts, fifteen samples were prepared by varying the water/cement ratio and the amount of sand and bentonite added into the cement mortar. Maintaining the moisture content of grouts is a crucial factor in enhancing the efficiency of ground heat exchangers.

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Desulfurization of Model Oil via Adsorption by Copper(II) Modified Bentonite

  • Yi, Dezhi;Huang, Huan;Li, Shi
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.777-782
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    • 2013
  • In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by $CuCl_2$ for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was $150^{\circ}C$. Spectral shifts of the ${\nu}$(C-S) and ${\nu}$(Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of $CuCl_2$ and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M (${\sigma}$) bonds.

An Experimental Study on the Sorption of Uranium(VI) onto a Bentonite Colloid (벤토나이트 콜로이드로의 우라늄(VI) 수착에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Baik Min-Hoon;Cho Won-Jin
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2006
  • In this study, an experimental study on the sorption properties of uranium(VI) onto a bentonite colloid generated from Gyeongju bentonite which is a potential buffer material in a high-level radioactive waste repository was performed as a function of the pH and the ionic strength. The bentonite colloid prepared by separating a colloidal fraction was mainly composed of montmorillonite. The concentration and the size fraction of the prepared bentonite colloid measured using a gravitational filtration method was about 5100 ppm and 200-450 nm in diameter, respectively. The amount of uranium removed by the sorption reaction bottle walls, by precipitation, and by ultrafiltration was analyzed by carrying out some blank tests. The removed amount of uranium was found not to be significant except the case of ultrafiltration at 0.001 M $NaClO_4$. The ultrafiltration was significant in the lower ionic strength of 0.001 M $NaClO_4$ due to the cationic sorption onto the ultrafilter by a surface charge reversion. The distribution coefficient $K_d$ (or pseudo-colloid formation constant) of uranium(VI) for the bentonite colloid was about $10^4{\sim}10^7mL/g$ depending upon pH and ionic strength of $NaClO_4$ and the $K_d$ was highest in the neutral pH around 6.5. It is noted that the sorption of uranium(VI) onto the bentonite colloid is closely related with aqueous species of uranium depending upon geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and carbonate concentration. As a consequence, the bentonite colloids generated from a bentonite buffer can mobilize the uranium(VI) as a colloidal form through geological media due to their high sorption capacity.

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Controlled Release of Oxyfluorfen from the Variously Complexed Formulations IV. Effect of Water Level Depths on the Activity of Selected Formulations (수종(數種)의 결합제형(結合劑型)으로부터 Oxyfluorfen의 방출억제연구(放出抑制硏究) IV. 관개심(灌漑甚)에 따른 선발제형(選拔劑型) Oxyfluorfen의 약해(藥害).약효평가(藥效評價))

  • Guh, J.O.;Chon, S.U.;Kuk, Y.I.;Kwon, O.D.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 1991
  • Seven oxyfluorfen formulations were tested for control of 8 weed species and rice injury under four different water depths with various ages of rice seedlings. Among formulations tested, rice injury was slight by formulations of Elvan, Coal Slag, Chitosan and Bentonite B under 0 cm or shallow water depths, and by those of Elvan and Coal Slag under deep water conditions. Weed control was high by Bentonite A and B, and Chitosan, and was low by Elvan. Coal Slag and Sand coated oxyfluorfen, if the target weeds of oxyfluorfen are annual species, further development of Elvan, coal slag, chitosan and Bentonite A would be controlled to increase control efficacy or to decrease rice injury.

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Study of Permeability of Bentonite Mixtured Soil (벤토나이트 혼합토의 투수성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Hwan;Oh, Young-In
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.805-812
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    • 2009
  • Permeation water resulting in the reclaimed land of waste can possibly cause the second pollution, such as the underground water and environmental pollution. Accordingly, Liner layer has been installed in the reclaimed land of waste to block and purify permeation water and prevent this second pollution. The material used as Liner layer is the one for water resistance and that of less than permeability coefficient $1{\times}10^{-7}cm/sec$ is widely used. As it is very difficult to secure in bulk this natural clay with low permeability around the field, the suitable way to secure low permeable material is that we use blend with good watertighness by mixing it with natural soil which is spread in the site. While this mixed soil which can resist water is commonly used in the site, bentonite mixed soil which is widely used as Liner layer in the reclaimed land of waste is recognized in Liner and durability. In this study, the engineering characteristics of soil-bentonite mixed liner are investigated using the laboratory hydraulic conductivity and uni-axial strength tests. The soil used for the liner is the clay soil located near the site. Mixing ratio of the bentonite which satisfies the requirement of hydraulic conductivity is determined and the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite is recommended for the landfill. After the mixed liner is constructed using the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite, the block samples of the constructed liner are obtained and the strength tests were performed. The hydraulic and strength properties of the liner for construction of the waste landfill were both satisfactory.

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Influence of Water Salinity on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite (물의 염도가 압축벤토나이트의 수리전도도에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Won-Jin;Kim, Jin-Seop;Choi, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2011
  • The influence of water salinity on the hydraulic conductivities of compacted bentonites with several dry densities were studied. The hydraulic conductivity increases with increasing salinity only when the dry density of bentonite is relatively low. The degree of increase becomes more remarkable at a lower dry density of bentonite. For bentonite with the density of 1.0 $Mg/m^3$ and 1.2 $Mg/m^3$, the hydraulic conductivity of the 0.4 M NaCl solution increases up to about 7 times and 3 times, respectively higher than that of freshwater. However, for the bentonite with a dry density higher than 1.4 $Mg/m^3$, the salinity has an insignificant effect on the hydraulic conductivity, and the hydraulic conductivity is nearly constant within the salinity range of 0.04 to 0.4 M NaCl. The pre-saturation of the bentonite specimen with freshwater has no significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity.

Fabrication and Physicochemical Properties of Carbon/Titania/Bentonite Monolith for Architecture

  • Oh, Won-Chun;Choi, Jong-Geun;Song, Da-Ye;Kim, Ha-Rry;Chen, Ming-Liang;Zhang, Feng-Jun;Park, Tong-So
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we used activated carbon (AC) and titanium oxysulfate as a titanium precursor to prepare carbon/titania composites. We then mixed it with bentonite in different ratios to make a carbon/titania/bentonite monolith for use in architecture bricks by using Phenolic rosin (PR) as a bonding agent. The physicochemical properties of the prepared composites were analyzed by BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), self-cleaning effect and bactericidal tests. The BET surface areas increased as the ratio of carbon/titania composites increased. The SEM microscopy showed that the $TiO_2$ and bentonite were coated on the surface of the AC. The XRD patterns showed a mixture structure of anatase and rutile of $TiO_2$ with a clear $SiO_2$ structure. The EDX spectra of the carbon/titania/bentonite monolith confirmed the presence of various elements, namely C, O, Ti and Si, as well as other, impure elements. Moreover, to determine the self-cleaning effect of the carbon/titania/bentonite monolith, we used methylene blue (MB, $C_{16}H_{18}N_3S{\cdot}Cl{\cdot}3H_2O$) in an aqueous solution under the irradiation of visible light. Accordingly, all of the samples had excellent degradation of the MB solution. Furthermore, it was observed that the composites with sunlight irradiation had a greater effect on E. coli than any other experimental conditions.

Characteristics for the Copper Exchange Reaction by Bentonite Buffer (벤토나이트 완충재의 구리치환 반응 특성)

  • Lee, Seung Yeop;Lee, Ji Young;Jeong, Jongtae;Kim, Kyungsu
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2014
  • The bentonite, a buffer material, is essential for the deep geological disposal of HLW (high-level radioactive waste), and it is important to know its characteristic long-term evolution in the underground environment. With an assumption that the concentration of aqueous copper ions will increase if copper-coated materials on a metal canister are corroded, we examined some characteristic ion-exchanges and cation release phenomena occurring in the bentonite clay (montmorillonite) interacted with aqueous Cu cations. During the interaction between dissolved copper and bentonite, Na rather than Ca cations in the expandable clay were preferentially replaced by Cu ions in the experiment. In addition, the Cu-exchanged montmorillonite was characterized by an asymmetric X-ray diffracted pattern with relatively collapsed interlayers compared to the raw sample. These results indicate that the gradual change of the original bentonite property may occur in a underground disposal condition. We are going to further study the characteristic chemical and mineralogical changes of the bentonite buffer to be used for the disposal site by conducting additional experiments.