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Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

  • Kim, Y.I.;Park, J.M.;Lee, Y.H.;Lee, M.;Choi, D.Y.;Kwak, Wan-Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

Evaluation on Reactivity of By-Product Pozzolanic Materials Using Electrical Conductivity Measurement (전기전도도 시험방법을 활용한 산업부산물 포졸란재료의 반응성 평가)

  • Choi, Ik-Je;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Soo-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2016
  • In this work, pozzolanic activities of various waste materials were compared with those of well-known by-product pozzolanic materials. Undensified and densified silica fume, ASTM class F and class C fly ash, and metakaolin were chosen as well-known pozzolanic materials, and bentonite powder, ceramic powder obtained from wash basin, and waste glass wool, which can possibly possess pozzolanic property, were chosen for comparison. Drop in electrical conductivity at $40^{\circ}C$ saturated lime solution was measured for each materials. The amount of Ca(OH)2 decomposed from cement paste at $450{\sim}500^{\circ}C$ was also measured to evaluate pozzolanic activity. The 28 day compressive strength were used to observe the mechanical property enhanced by incorporation of various waste materials. According to the experimental results, using "difference between maximum conductivity value and conductivity value at 4 hour" was found to be a reasonable approach to determine pozzolanic activity of a material. Pozzolanic activity measured using electrical conductivity correlates very well with that measured using the amount of Ca(OH)2 remained in the cement paste. Relatively good agreement was also found with electrical conductivity and 28 day compressive strength. It was found that electrical conductivity measurement can be used to evaluate pozzolanic activity of unknown materials.

Electron Beam Radiation Syntheses of Carboxymethylcellulose-based Composite Superabsorbent Hydrogels: Dependence of Gel Properties on Polymer Composition and Additives (전자빔 조사에 의한 카르복시메틸셀룰로스 기반 복합 초흡수제 제조시 폴리머 조성 및 첨가물질의 종류에 따른 겔 특성 변화)

  • Sung, Yoonki;Kim, Tak-Hyun;Lee, Byunghwan
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.258-268
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    • 2016
  • In this work, carboxymethylcellulose-based composite superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared by electron beam radiation. The composition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) varied from 4 wt%, 5 wt%, and 6 wt% to 7 wt% based on the amount of distilled water in the syntheses of hydrogels. Graphite oxide, reduced graphene oxide, activated carbon, and bentonite were used as additives for the synthesis of composite superabsorbent. The effect of CMC composition and the type of additives on the gel properties of the prepared hydrogels was investigated. In order to verify the functional groups in the prepared materials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used. In addition, mechanical strength, gel fraction, swelling kinetics, and equilibrium swelling ratios were measured for the prepared hydrogels. Swelling experiments were carried out in distilled water, urea solution, and physiological saline water. Prepared hydrogels were reused for 5 times, and gel fraction and swelling ratio were measured at every 24 hours. Among the prepared hydrogels, $C_{5%}GO$ and $C_{5%}rGO$ exhibited excellent mechanical property and relatively high swelling ratios for urea solution and physiological saline water with promising applicability as slow-release fertilizers.

New weighting agent for water-based mud, um-bogma area, central Sinai, Egypt

  • Abdou, Mahmoud I.;Ahmed, Hany El Sayed
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.159-171
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    • 2017
  • A successful oil well drilling depends largely on a good mud Program. During drilling, mud provides sufficient hydrostatic pressure, removes drill cuttings and cools drill bits. Mud additives are always required to provide sufficient hydrostatic pressure to ensure borehole stability. Barium Sulphate ($BaSO_4$) also known as barite is the prevalent weighting material but there is needed to develop local materials to augment the use of Barite. The present search is concerned on the early Carboniferous succession exposed in Um Bogma Formation, west central Sinai, Egypt as a new weighting agent in drilling fluids. The increases in the cost of drilling fluids and a shortage of using barite have introduced the locale dolomite as alternative weighting materials. The rheological properties of mud drilling samples weighted by local dolomite samples are being examined and investigated to know its potential to be used as a weighting material in drilling mud. Two mud samples were prepared which comprised of fresh water, caustic soda, bentonite and the weighting material. The weighting materials are added to achieve the required density. The first sample: Water-based mud with commercial barite of density between 10.00 lb/gm and 18.00 lb/gm. The second sample: Water-based mud with dolomite of density between 10.00 lb/gm and 18.00 lb/gm. These samples were analyzed and the density, rheological properties, aging of barite and dolomite and solid contents were investigated. At 10.00 lb/gm, the yield point of dolomite was $20.00lb/100ft^2$ and barite $22.00lb/100ft^2$ while the 10 second gel strength of dolomite was $30.00lb/100ft^2$ and $22.00lb/100ft^2$ for barite. Similarly, little difference was observed in plastic and apparent viscosities. At 10.00 lb/gm, the plastic and apparent viscosities of dolomite were 8.00 cp and 20.00 cp while barite was 8.00 cp and 24.00 cp. The result show that dolomite mud sample gave a little higher yield point and gel strength than barite mud sample. Therefore, dolomite has the potential to be used as weighting material in drilling mud in place of barite thereby enhancing the local content initiative of the government. When dolomite is sourced locally and used it will reduce overall mud and drilling costs.

Mineralogy and Genesis of Bentonites from the Tertiary Formations in Geumgwangdong Area, Korea (제(第)3기층(紀層)에 부존(賦存)하는 점토광물(粘土鑛物)에 대(對)한 광물학적(鑛物學的) 및 성인적(成因的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Soo Jin;Noh, Jin Hwan;Yu, Jae Young
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.399-410
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    • 1985
  • Bentonites from the Janggi Group of the Lower Miocene age from the Geumgwangdong area, Korea, have been studied for mineralogical and genetic characterization. The Janggi Group is subdivided, in ascending order, into the Janggi Conglomerate, the Nuldaeri Tuff, the Geumgwangdong Shale, the Lower Coal-bearing Formation, the Basaltic Tuff, and the Upper Coalbearing Formation. Bentonites occur as thin or thick beds in all sedimentary units of the Janggi Group, except for the Janggi Conglomerate. Significant bentonite deposits are found in the Nuldaeri Tuff, the Lower Coal-bearing Formation and the Basaltic Tuff. Bentonites consist mainly of smectite (mainly montmorillonite), with minor quartz, cristobalite, opal-CT and feldspar. Occasionally, kaolinite, clinoptilolite or gypsum is associated with bentonites. Bentonites were studied by the methods of petrographic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (DT A and TG), infrared absorption spectroscopic analysis, SEM, intercalation reaction, and chemical analysis. Smectites commonly occur as irregular boxwork-like masses with characteristic curled thin edges, but occasionally as smoothly curved to nearly flat thin flakes. Most of smectites have layer charge of 0.25-0.42, indicating typical montmorillonite. Crystal-chemical relations suggest that Fe is the dominant substituent for Al in the octahedral layer and there are generally no significant substituents for Si in the tetrahedral layer. Ca is the dominant interlayer cation in montmorillonite. Therefore, montmorillonite from the study area is dioctahedral Ca-montmorillonite. Occurrence and fabrics of bentonites suggest that smectites as well as cristobalite, opal-CT and zeolites have been formed diagenetically from tuffaceous materials. The precursor of smectites is trachytic or basaltic tuff. Smectites derived from the former contain relatively more $Al_2O$ a and less $Fe_2O_3$ than those from the latter.

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Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristic of Rice Plant;IV. Effect of As content in water on transpiration, stomatal resistance, temperature and humidity in the leaves of rice plant (토양중(土壤中) 비소(砒素)의 행동(行動)과 수도(水稻)의 비소흡수(砒素吸收)에 의(依)한 피해(被害) 생리(生理) 생태(生態)에 관한 연구(硏究);IV. 수경시험(水耕試驗)에서 비소처리(卑小處理)가 수도(水稻)의 증산(蒸散), 기공저항성(氣孔抵抗性) 및 엽(葉)의 온(溫), 습도(濕度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Min-Hyo;Lim, Soo-Kil-H;Kim, Bok-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 1987
  • A water culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of As content in a culture solution on the water status and growth of rice plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L. Line. Iri 316) seeds were germinated in bentonite and cultivated there for 30 days. Rice seedlings were transplanted into 3.5l pots containing the culture solution on May 1, 1985 and allowed to grow without As treatment for one month. Afterwards, they were grown in a culture solution maintaining the final concentration of As, 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15mg/1 renewing in the solution dissolved sodium arsenate at intervals of 3 to 7 days. Plants were cultivated in the green house during the growing period and harvested 60 days after As treatment. The results obtained were as follows: Transpiration of rice plants was decreased with the increase of the As level in the culture solution. Stomatal diffusive resistance and leaf temperature increased with increase of As levels though the humidity and the air flow rate in leaf decreased. Air flow rate, transpiration and stomatal diffusive resistance showed a highly significant correlation with As contents in shoots and roots of rice plants: Espally The air flow rate and transpiration revealed a significantly higher correlation with As contents in the root than that in the shoot, but diffusive resistance showed adverse tendency. High levels of As in the culture solution depressed plant height, no. of tillers, leaf width and dry weight of plant remarkably. Typical symptoms of As toxicity were root discoloration, and necrosis of leaf tips and margins, and leaf rolling during the sunny daytime were also another symptoms.

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Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Bentonites Intercalated within the Basal Conglomerates of the Tertiary Sediments in Korea and Their Stratigraphical Implication (제3기층 기저역암에 협재되는 벤토나이트의 광물학, 지화학적 연구 및 층서적 적용)

  • 이종천;이규호;문희수
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2001
  • Bentonite layers are intercalated within the basal conglomerates in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of Kampo, Janggi and Pohang, southeastern Korea. Eighteen samples of the bentonites went through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, heavy mineral analyses, chemical analyses and oxygen, hydrogen stable isotope analyses to define the mineralogical characters of the bentonites. Heavy minerals such as zircons, apatites, amphiboles and biotites separated from bentonites show clean and euhedral surfaces, which are the characteristic features of volcanic origin. But biotites from the Chunbook Conglomerate are found as altered and heavily broken flakes which implies longer transportation of these bentonites. $TiO_{2}/Al_{2}O_{3} ratios of <2 $\mu$m particle fractions (the Chunbook Conglomerate 0.031; Janggi 0.029; Kampo 0.025) suggest that those are originated from volcanic tuffs. That is, the higher the value is, the more mafic in chemical compositions of the original tuffs. Authigenic montmorillonite and zeolite minerals were observed by SEM, which indicates diagenesis origin of bentonites. But the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate showed only chaotically packed clay flakes in the matrix of sands or conglomerates, which implies detrital influence, not authigenic origin. The structural formulae of montmorillonite from these basins reflects their environment of formation. Fe (Ⅵ) can show the redox condition of its past environment and much lower $Fe^{2+}(Ⅵ)/Fe^{3+}(Ⅵ)$ ratios in montmorillonite of the Chunbook Conglomerate imply the greater oxidizing influence. Calculated burial depths from oxygen stable isotope data of the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate generally fall to the range of 929~963 m whereas the real burial depth of this area is only 530~580 m. This could be explained as the bentonites of the Chunbook conglomerate had not been formed in situ. Discriminant analyses with the data from chemical analyses and structural formulae of montmorillonites show that bentonites from three different basins could definitely be distinguished with each other. This result arises from the different chemical compositions of original volcanic ashes and the difference of sedimentary environments.

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Effect of Fly Ash Fertilizer on Paddy Soil Quality and Rice Growth (비산재로 제조한 비료가 논토양 질과 벼 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Se Jin;Yun, Hyun Soo;Oh, Seung Min;Kim, Sung Chul;Kim, Rog Young;Seo, Yung Ho;Lee, Kee Suk;Ok, Yong Sik;Yang, Jae E.
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2013
  • Coal ash can be added to agricultural soils to increase the chemical properties of soil such as pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability of - B, Ca, Mo etc-. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of fly ash as a soil amendment in paddy soils. Selected fly ash was mixed with bentonite and calcium hydroxide at the ratio of 80:15:5 (w/w) and manufactured as a pellet type at the size of 10 mm. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of fly ash fertilizer on the soil quality and crop growth compare to the control (no fertilizer) and, - traditional fertilizer. Results showed that soil pH and organic matter in paddy soils after applying the manufactured fly ash fertilizer were not increased compared to the other two treatments. However, the concentration of available phosphate and silicate in paddy soils were higher than those of the control and traditional fertilization. With regard to crop growth, no significant difference was observed between three different treatments. However, the content of protein in the rice grain cultivated with the fly ash fertilizer was higher than in the rice cultivated by other two treatments. Overall, fly ash fertilizer could increase the concentration of available silicate and phosphate in the paddy soil and improve the rice quality. In conclusion, fly ash can be utilized in agricultural soils as soil amendment, especially in the rice paddy soil.