• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bentonite

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Brewing and Quality Characteristics of Korean Honey Wine (Mead) with a Variety of Honey and Yeast (다양한 벌꿀과 효모를 이용한 벌꿀와인의 제조 및 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Dae Hyoung;Kang, Heui-Yun;Lee, Yongseon;Cho, Chang-Hui;Park, In-Tae;Kim, Heui-Dong;Lim, Jae-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.736-742
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the brewing and quality characteristics of a variety of honey and yeast strains in Korea were investigated. After fermenting acacia honey, chestnut honey, citrus honey, and mixed flower honey using commercial yeast, the quality changes during fermentation were investigated. Chestnut honey wine (mead) and mixed flower mead showed the highest ethanol contents of 11.9 and 11.3%, respectively after fermenting for 8 days at $25^{\circ}C$. Acacia mead and citron (Chinese lemon) mead showed 5.0 and 8.2% ethanol contents, respectively. Mixed mead, which fermented with acacia honey and mixed flower honey, in order to advance sensory properties, showed the best sensory properties, generating 10.9% ethanol, while another product with citron honey and mixed flower honey generated 11.1% of ethanol but with a lower sensory value. When adding corium peels to the mixed mead of acacia honey and mixed flower honey, the ethanol content was not increased by addition of corium peels into mixed mead, but its total acceptability was increased by addition of 2% corium peels. To check the mead clarification, it was treated with 0.6% of bentonite and filtered; then, its turbidity was observed over a storage period. The safe result for precipitation was shown at the condition of storing at $10^{\circ}C$ for 15 days with 0.24 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit).

R&D Review on the Gap Fill of an Engineered Barrier for an HLW Repository (고준위폐기물처분장 공학적방벽의 갭채움재 기술현황)

  • Lee, Jae Owan;Choi, Young-Chul;Kim, Jin-Seop;Choi, Heui-Joo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.405-417
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    • 2014
  • In a high-level waste repository, the gap fill of the engineered barrier is an important component that influences the performance of the buffer and backfill. This paper reviewed the overseas status of R&D on the gap fill used engineered barriers, through which the concept of the gap fill, manufacturing techniques, pellet-molding characteristics, and emplacement techniques were summarized. The concept of a gap fill differs for each country depending on its disposal type and concept. Bentonite has been considered a major material of a gap fill, and clay as an inert filler. Gap fill was used in the form of pellets, granules, or a pellet-granule blend. Pellets are manufactured through one of the following techniques: static compaction, roller compression, or extrusion-cutting. Among these techniques, countries have focused on developing advanced technologies of roller compression and extrusion-cutting techniques for industrial pellet production. The dry density and integrity of the pellet are sensitive to water content, constituent material, manufacturing technique, and pellet size, and are less sensitive to the pressure applied during the manufacturing. For the emplacement of the gap fill, pouring, pouring and tamping, and pouring with vibration techniques were used in the buffer gap of the vertical deposition hole; blowing through the use of shotcrete technology and auger placement and compaction techniques have been used in the gap of horizontal deposition hole and tunnel. However, these emplacement techniques are still technically at the beginning stage, and thus additional research and development are expected to be needed.

Experimental Study on Engineering Characteristic of the Waste Landfill Soil Admixed Linear (폐기물매립지 토사계 혼합 차수재의 공학적 특성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Chang, Yongchai;Kim, Jinchun;Jeong, Ogki
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2007
  • Leachates resulting from the waste landfill of waste can possibly cause the second pollution, such as the underground water and environmental pollution. Accordingly, Liner layer has been installed in the reclaimed land of waste to block and purify permeation water to and prevent this second pollution. The material used as Liner layer should have water resistance and be less than permeability coefficient of $1{\times}10^{-7}$ cm/sec. As it is very difficult to get this kind of natural clay with low permeability around the field, the suitable way to get the low permeable material is to use blend with good watertighness by mixing it with natural soil which is spread in the site. While this mixed soil, which can resist water, is commonly used in the site, namely, bentonite and MCG cementious mateiral mixed soil, which is widely used as Liner layer in the reclaimed land of waste, is recognized in Liner and durability. The study was performed to find the effect of additive of the bottom liner in the waste landfill. The aim of this paper is to explain of the field application examples as well as the data of experimental research with the engineering properties of Liner layer of the reclaimed land.

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Manufacture of the Hydrophobic HY-type Zeolite-honeycomb and Its Adsorption/Desorption Characteristics for the Benzene, o-xylene, and MEK (소수성 HY-형 제올라이트제 하니컴의 제조 및 그 하니컴의 벤젠, o-xylene, MEK에 대한 흡.탈착특성)

  • Mo, Se-Young;Jeon, Dong-Hwan;Kwon, Ki-Seung;Sohn, Jong-Ryeul
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.84-96
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    • 2007
  • We performed the experiments to manufacture the hydrophobic $200cells/in^2$-zeolite honeycomb using HY-type zeolite of Si/Al ratio of 80 for separating and removing the VOCs emitted from small and medium size-plants by adsorption and to determine the drying method for the honeycomb at $105^{\circ}C$ without cracking, then measured performances of the honeycomb to adsorb the benzene, o-xylene, and MEK and to desorb the benzene and MEK saturated on the honeycomb by the nitrogen gas as the desorption gas. As a results, the good honeycomb was formed and the honeycomb was not cracked when the mixing ratio of the zeolite to bentonite to methyl cellulose to polyvinyl alcohol to glycerine to water is 100 : 8.73 : 2.18 : 4.19 : 1.38 : 126 and dried the honeycomb at $105^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours in the drying oven. The shape of the dried honeycomb was not changed after calcination, and the compressive strengths of the honeycomb after drying and calcination were 6.7 and $0.69kg/cm^2$, respectively. The adsorption efficiencies of the honeycomb for benzene, o-xylene, and MEK were $92{\sim}96%$ at the room temperature. The desorption efficiency at $180^{\circ}C$ was higher than that at $150^{\circ}C\;by\;1.5{\sim}13.8%$ depending on the flow rate of the nitrogen gas, and it was found that desorption efficiency is higher than 85% at $180^{\circ}C$ and 1.0L/min of the nitrogen gas. At $180^{\circ}C$ and 0.2 L/min, the concentration of the benzene and MEK in the used desorption gas are higher than 40,000 and 50,000ppm, respectively, so it be used as the fuel for preheating the desorption gas fed into the column in desorption cycle.

Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal (방사성폐기물 처분에서 미생물의 역할과 중요성)

  • Baik, Min-Hoon;Lee, Seung-Yeop;Roh, Yeol
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2009
  • Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

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Evaluation of Hydraulic Conductivity of Slurry-wall-type Vertical Cutoff Wall with Consideration of Filter Cake (필터케이크(filter cake)를 고려한 슬러리월 연직차수벽의 현장투수계수 평가)

  • Nguyen, The Bao;Lee, Chul-Ho;Choi, Hang-Seok;Kim, Sang-Gyun
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2008
  • In constructing a slurry trench cutoff wall, bentonite-water slurry is used to secure the stability of sidewalls during excavation before the wall is completed by backfilling. Unexpectedly, a thin but relatively impermeable layer called filter cake can be formed on the excavation surface, which significantly influences the result of slug test analysis in the cutoff wall if not considered. This study is to examine the effect of filter cake on evaluating hydraulic conductivity of the vertical cutoff wall through slug test analysis with the aid of the verified numerical program Slug_3D. The no-flux boundary conditions were adopted in Slug_3D to simulate the filter cake on the interface between the wall and the natural soil. A new set of type curves were built for applying the type curve method. New modification factors were obtained for using the modified line-fitting method. With consideration of filter cake, the type curve method and the modified line-fitting method were adopted to reanalyze the case study taken from EMCON (1995). The previous results achieved by Choi and Daniel (2006) without consideration of filter cake were compared with the present results obtained in this paper. The comparison emphasizes the necessity of considering filter cake when analyzing slug test results in vertical cutoff walls.

Analysis of the Thermal and Structural Stability for the CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Canister (CANDU 처분용기의 열적-구조적 안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Youl;Cho, Dong-Geun;Kim, Seong-Gi;Choi, Heui-Joo;Lee, Yang
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2008
  • In deep geological disposal system, the integrity of a disposal canister having spent fuels is very important factor to assure the safety of the repository system. This disposal canister is one element of the engineered barriers to isolate and to delay the radioactivity release from human beings and the environment for a long time so that the toxicity does not affect the environment. The main requirement in designing the deep geological disposal system is to keep the buffer temperature below 100$^{\circ}C$ by the decay heat from the spent fuels in the canister in order to maintain the integrity of the buffer material. Also, the disposal canister can endure the hydraulic pressure in the depth of 500 m and the swelling pressure of the bentonite as a buffer. In this study, new concept of the disposal canister for the CANDU spent fuels which were considered to be disposed without any treatment was developed and the thermal stability and the structural integrity of the canister were analysed. The result of the thermal analysis showed that the temperature of the buffer was 88.9$^{\circ}C$ when 37 years have passed after emplacement of the canister and the spacings of the disposal tunnel and the deposition holes were 40 m and 3 m, respectively. In the case of structural analysis, the result showed that the safety factors of the normal and the extreme environment were 2.9 and 1.33, respectively. So, these results reveal that the canister meets the thermal and the structural requirements in the deep geological disposal system.

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The State of the Technology: Application of Cementitious Materials to Deep Repository Tunnels for Radioactive Waste Disposal (방사성폐기물의 심지층 처분터널에서의 시멘트 물질 적용에 관한 기술현황)

  • Kim, Jin-Seop;Kwon, Sang-Ki;Cho, Won-Jin;Cho, Gye-Chun
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.373-387
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    • 2009
  • Considering the current construction technology and research status of deep repository tunnels for radioactive waste disposal, it is inevitable to use cementitious materials in spite of serious concern about their long-term environmental stability. Thus, it is an emerging task to develop low pH cementitious materials. This study reviews the state of the technology on low pH cements developed in Sweden, Switzerland, France, and Japan as well as in Finland which is constructing a real deep repository site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Considering the physical and chemical stability of bentonite which acts as a buffer material, a low pH cement limits to $pH{\leq}11$ and pozzolan-type admixtures are used to lower the pH of cement. To attain this pH requirement, silica fume, which is one of the most promising admixtures, should occupy at least 40 wt% of total dry materials in cement and the Ca/Si ratio should be maintained below 0.8 in cement. Additionally, selective super-plasticizer needs to be used because a high amount of water is demanded from the use of a large amount of silica fume.

Hygroscopic Characteristic of Hydrothermal reacted Panels using Porous Materials (다공성 원료와 수열합성으로 제조한 건축 내장용 패널의 흡방습 특성)

  • Kwon, Choon-Woo;Chu, Yong-Sik;Song, Hun;Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.705-708
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    • 2008
  • Diatomite, bentonite and zeolite were used as porous materials for fabricating hygroscopic panels. Moisture adsorption and desorption of porous materials were investigated and hydrothermal method was applied to fabricate panels. Cheolwon diatomite and Pohang zeolite showed excellent characteristics of moisture adsorption and desorption. These characteristics were caused by higher surface area and pore volume of porous materials. Moisture adsorption contents were influenced by surface area and pore volume of panels, and surface area more effected on moisture adsorption. Moisture adsorption content of panel with 10% Pohang zeolite was 180g/m$^2$and that of 10% Cheolwon diatomite was 170g/m$^2$. Moisture desorption content of panel with 10% Pohang zeolite was 105g/m$^2$. Moisture adsorption contents of panel with porous materials were higher than that of panel without porous materials.

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Evaluation of a Thermal Conductivity Prediction Model for Compacted Clay Based on a Machine Learning Method (기계학습법을 통한 압축 벤토나이트의 열전도도 추정 모델 평가)

  • Yoon, Seok;Bang, Hyun-Tae;Kim, Geon-Young;Jeon, Haemin
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2021
  • The buffer is a key component of an engineered barrier system that safeguards the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Buffers are located between disposal canisters and host rock, and they can restrain the release of radionuclides and protect canisters from the inflow of ground water. Since considerable heat is released from a disposal canister to the surrounding buffer, the thermal conductivity of the buffer is a very important parameter in the entire disposal safety. For this reason, a lot of research has been conducted on thermal conductivity prediction models that consider various factors. In this study, the thermal conductivity of a buffer is estimated using the machine learning methods of: linear regression, decision tree, support vector machine (SVM), ensemble, Gaussian process regression (GPR), neural network, deep belief network, and genetic programming. In the results, the machine learning methods such as ensemble, genetic programming, SVM with cubic parameter, and GPR showed better performance compared with the regression model, with the ensemble with XGBoost and Gaussian process regression models showing best performance.