• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bentonite

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Mineralogy and Genesis of Bentonites from the Tertiary Formations in Geumgwangdong Area, Korea (제(第)3기층(紀層)에 부존(賦存)하는 점토광물(粘土鑛物)에 대(對)한 광물학적(鑛物學的) 및 성인적(成因的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Soo Jin;Noh, Jin Hwan;Yu, Jae Young
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.399-410
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    • 1985
  • Bentonites from the Janggi Group of the Lower Miocene age from the Geumgwangdong area, Korea, have been studied for mineralogical and genetic characterization. The Janggi Group is subdivided, in ascending order, into the Janggi Conglomerate, the Nuldaeri Tuff, the Geumgwangdong Shale, the Lower Coal-bearing Formation, the Basaltic Tuff, and the Upper Coalbearing Formation. Bentonites occur as thin or thick beds in all sedimentary units of the Janggi Group, except for the Janggi Conglomerate. Significant bentonite deposits are found in the Nuldaeri Tuff, the Lower Coal-bearing Formation and the Basaltic Tuff. Bentonites consist mainly of smectite (mainly montmorillonite), with minor quartz, cristobalite, opal-CT and feldspar. Occasionally, kaolinite, clinoptilolite or gypsum is associated with bentonites. Bentonites were studied by the methods of petrographic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (DT A and TG), infrared absorption spectroscopic analysis, SEM, intercalation reaction, and chemical analysis. Smectites commonly occur as irregular boxwork-like masses with characteristic curled thin edges, but occasionally as smoothly curved to nearly flat thin flakes. Most of smectites have layer charge of 0.25-0.42, indicating typical montmorillonite. Crystal-chemical relations suggest that Fe is the dominant substituent for Al in the octahedral layer and there are generally no significant substituents for Si in the tetrahedral layer. Ca is the dominant interlayer cation in montmorillonite. Therefore, montmorillonite from the study area is dioctahedral Ca-montmorillonite. Occurrence and fabrics of bentonites suggest that smectites as well as cristobalite, opal-CT and zeolites have been formed diagenetically from tuffaceous materials. The precursor of smectites is trachytic or basaltic tuff. Smectites derived from the former contain relatively more $Al_2O$ a and less $Fe_2O_3$ than those from the latter.

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Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristic of Rice Plant;IV. Effect of As content in water on transpiration, stomatal resistance, temperature and humidity in the leaves of rice plant (토양중(土壤中) 비소(砒素)의 행동(行動)과 수도(水稻)의 비소흡수(砒素吸收)에 의(依)한 피해(被害) 생리(生理) 생태(生態)에 관한 연구(硏究);IV. 수경시험(水耕試驗)에서 비소처리(卑小處理)가 수도(水稻)의 증산(蒸散), 기공저항성(氣孔抵抗性) 및 엽(葉)의 온(溫), 습도(濕度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Min-Hyo;Lim, Soo-Kil-H;Kim, Bok-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 1987
  • A water culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of As content in a culture solution on the water status and growth of rice plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L. Line. Iri 316) seeds were germinated in bentonite and cultivated there for 30 days. Rice seedlings were transplanted into 3.5l pots containing the culture solution on May 1, 1985 and allowed to grow without As treatment for one month. Afterwards, they were grown in a culture solution maintaining the final concentration of As, 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15mg/1 renewing in the solution dissolved sodium arsenate at intervals of 3 to 7 days. Plants were cultivated in the green house during the growing period and harvested 60 days after As treatment. The results obtained were as follows: Transpiration of rice plants was decreased with the increase of the As level in the culture solution. Stomatal diffusive resistance and leaf temperature increased with increase of As levels though the humidity and the air flow rate in leaf decreased. Air flow rate, transpiration and stomatal diffusive resistance showed a highly significant correlation with As contents in shoots and roots of rice plants: Espally The air flow rate and transpiration revealed a significantly higher correlation with As contents in the root than that in the shoot, but diffusive resistance showed adverse tendency. High levels of As in the culture solution depressed plant height, no. of tillers, leaf width and dry weight of plant remarkably. Typical symptoms of As toxicity were root discoloration, and necrosis of leaf tips and margins, and leaf rolling during the sunny daytime were also another symptoms.

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Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Bentonites Intercalated within the Basal Conglomerates of the Tertiary Sediments in Korea and Their Stratigraphical Implication (제3기층 기저역암에 협재되는 벤토나이트의 광물학, 지화학적 연구 및 층서적 적용)

  • 이종천;이규호;문희수
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2001
  • Bentonite layers are intercalated within the basal conglomerates in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of Kampo, Janggi and Pohang, southeastern Korea. Eighteen samples of the bentonites went through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, heavy mineral analyses, chemical analyses and oxygen, hydrogen stable isotope analyses to define the mineralogical characters of the bentonites. Heavy minerals such as zircons, apatites, amphiboles and biotites separated from bentonites show clean and euhedral surfaces, which are the characteristic features of volcanic origin. But biotites from the Chunbook Conglomerate are found as altered and heavily broken flakes which implies longer transportation of these bentonites. $TiO_{2}/Al_{2}O_{3} ratios of <2 $\mu$m particle fractions (the Chunbook Conglomerate 0.031; Janggi 0.029; Kampo 0.025) suggest that those are originated from volcanic tuffs. That is, the higher the value is, the more mafic in chemical compositions of the original tuffs. Authigenic montmorillonite and zeolite minerals were observed by SEM, which indicates diagenesis origin of bentonites. But the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate showed only chaotically packed clay flakes in the matrix of sands or conglomerates, which implies detrital influence, not authigenic origin. The structural formulae of montmorillonite from these basins reflects their environment of formation. Fe (Ⅵ) can show the redox condition of its past environment and much lower $Fe^{2+}(Ⅵ)/Fe^{3+}(Ⅵ)$ ratios in montmorillonite of the Chunbook Conglomerate imply the greater oxidizing influence. Calculated burial depths from oxygen stable isotope data of the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate generally fall to the range of 929~963 m whereas the real burial depth of this area is only 530~580 m. This could be explained as the bentonites of the Chunbook conglomerate had not been formed in situ. Discriminant analyses with the data from chemical analyses and structural formulae of montmorillonites show that bentonites from three different basins could definitely be distinguished with each other. This result arises from the different chemical compositions of original volcanic ashes and the difference of sedimentary environments.

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Effect of Fly Ash Fertilizer on Paddy Soil Quality and Rice Growth (비산재로 제조한 비료가 논토양 질과 벼 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Se Jin;Yun, Hyun Soo;Oh, Seung Min;Kim, Sung Chul;Kim, Rog Young;Seo, Yung Ho;Lee, Kee Suk;Ok, Yong Sik;Yang, Jae E.
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2013
  • Coal ash can be added to agricultural soils to increase the chemical properties of soil such as pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability of - B, Ca, Mo etc-. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of fly ash as a soil amendment in paddy soils. Selected fly ash was mixed with bentonite and calcium hydroxide at the ratio of 80:15:5 (w/w) and manufactured as a pellet type at the size of 10 mm. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of fly ash fertilizer on the soil quality and crop growth compare to the control (no fertilizer) and, - traditional fertilizer. Results showed that soil pH and organic matter in paddy soils after applying the manufactured fly ash fertilizer were not increased compared to the other two treatments. However, the concentration of available phosphate and silicate in paddy soils were higher than those of the control and traditional fertilization. With regard to crop growth, no significant difference was observed between three different treatments. However, the content of protein in the rice grain cultivated with the fly ash fertilizer was higher than in the rice cultivated by other two treatments. Overall, fly ash fertilizer could increase the concentration of available silicate and phosphate in the paddy soil and improve the rice quality. In conclusion, fly ash can be utilized in agricultural soils as soil amendment, especially in the rice paddy soil.