• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bedding Systems

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The Correlation between Ammonia Emissions and Bedding Materials in a Cow House

  • Phan, Nhu-Thuc;Sa, Jae-Hwan;Jeon, Eui-Chan;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2010
  • Because ammonia from livestock production may substantially contribute to environmental pollution, emissions from all possible sources (housing systems, manure storage, manure application, outside grazing) should be reduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different bedding materials on ammonia emissions in a cow house. By applying a combination of four treatment types: treatment $1-T_1$ (sawdust (50%)+sawdust pellets (50%)), treatment $2-T_2$ (sawdust (50%)+corn stalk pellets (50%)), treatment $3-T_3$ (sawdust (100%)), and treatment $4-T_4$ (sawdust (50%)+palm kernel meal pellets(50%)) as bedding materials in a cow house, the effects of such treatments on ammonia flux were assessed in approximately one month. The magnitude of ammonia emissions (mg $m^{-2}\;min^{-1}$) varied in the following order: $T_1$(2.226), $T_4$(2.052), $T_2$(1.845), and $T_3$(1.712). The patterns of pH had a decreasing trend for all bedding treatments during the experiment, and there was no significant relationship with ammonia flux. The results reveal that the most important factor influencing ammonia emissions is the physical structure of the bedding types.

Effects of Bedding Material Composition in Deep Litter Systems on Bedding Characteristics and Growth Performance of Limousin Calves

  • Meng, J.;Shi, F.H.;Meng, Qingxiang;Ren, L.P.;Zhou, Z.M.;Wu, H.;Zhao, L.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter mixture compositions on bedding system temperature, pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia-N ($NH_3$-N) content, and the serum physico-chemical parameters and growth indices of calves. Thirty-two Limousin calves ($280{\pm}20kg$) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 for each group) according to the bedding system used: i) control with soil only (CTR); ii) mixture with 50% paddy hulls (PH), 30% saw dusts (SD), 10% peat moss (PM) and 10% corn cobs (CC) (TRT1); iii) mixture with 15% PH, 15% SD, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% corn stover (CS) (TRT2); iv) mixture with 30% PH, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% CS (TRT3). The litter material combinations of different treatments were based on the cost of bedding system materials in China. The cost of four treatments from low to high: Control$NH_3$-N level (271.83 to 894.72 mg/kg) was lowest for TRT1 (p<0.0001) and highest for TRT2 (p<0.0001). The acetate, propionate and butyrate levels were highest for the control group (p<0.0001). In all the groups, the pH value (6.90 to 9.09) increased at the beginning and later remained stable at below 9.09. The temperature of deep litter increased at the first week and reached the maximum ($42.1^{\circ}C$) on day 38. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine ($T_3$) levels in the TRT1 group animals (p<0.0001) were lower than those in the control and TRT2 animals. 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodothyronine ($T_4$) in the TRT1 group (p = 0.006) was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Cortisol (COR) in the control and TRT1 group was lower (p<0.0001) than that in the TRT2 and TRT3 groups. Corticosterone (CORt) in the control group was higher (p<0.0001) than that in the treatment groups. The findings indicate that the deep litter bedding systems provided better conditions for animal health and growth performance compared with the control system. Furthermore, the litter composition of TRT1 was found to be optimal among the three treatment groups.

Numerical simulation of the effect of bedding layer geometrical properties on the shear failure mechanism using PFC3D

  • Haeri, Hadi;Sarfarazi, Vahab;Zhu, Zheming;Marji, Mohammad Fatehi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.611-620
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    • 2018
  • In this research the effect of bedding layer angle and bedding layer thickness on the shear failure mechanism of concrete has been investigated using PFC3D. For this purpose, firstly calibration of PFC3d was performed using Brazilian tensile strength. Secondly shear test was performed on the bedding layer. Thickness of layers were 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm. in each thickness layer, layer angles changes from $0^{\circ}$ to $90^{\circ}$ with increment of $25^{\circ}$. Totally 15 model were simulated and tested by loading rate of 0.016 mm/s. The results shows that when layer angle is less than $50^{\circ}$, tensile cracks initiates between the layers and propagate till coalesce with model boundary. Its trace is too high. With increasing the layer angle, less layer mobilize in failure process. Also the failure trace is very short. It's to be note that number of cracks decrease with increasing the layer thickness. The minimum shear test strength was occurred when layer angle is more than $50^{\circ}$. The maximum value occurred in $0^{\circ}$. Also, the shear test tensile strength was increased by increasing the layer thickness.

Analysis of Dust Concentration in Dairy Farm according to Sampling Location and Working Activities (유우사 내부 위치 및 작업 형태에 따른 분진 모니터링 및 분석)

  • Park, Gwanyong;Kwon, Kyeong-Seok;Lee, In-bok;Ha, Taehwan;Kim, Rack-Woo;Lee, Minhyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2017
  • Organic dust generated inside livestock facilities includes toxic organic matters such as bacteria and endotoxin. Dust can cause respiratory disease for worker and livestock, and consequently, degradation of welfare and productivity. Influence of dust on livestock workers has been studied since the 1970s. However, exposure limit for cattle farmer has not been established, unlike exposure limit for pig and poultry farmer. Furthermore, study on air quality inside livestock facility, especially inside dairy farm has been rarely conducted in Korea. In this study, dust concentration of TSP, PM10, inhalable and respirable dust has been monitored in the commercial dairy house according to location and working activities. Bedding material inside the stall was one of the major sources of dust. The amount of dust was related to water content level of the bedding material. Dust concentration was relatively high in leeward location, and the highest concentration was measured during TMR mixing process. The maximum value of inhalable dust concentration was 29.1 times higher than the reference value as fine particles drop to the TMR mixer. Dust generated by TMR mixing was presumed to decrease by adjusting moisture and drop height of feed.

Study on the Utilization of Sawdust Bedding Barn for Dairy Cows (착유우의 톱밥발효우사 이용연구 제 1 보 : 낙농가의 톱밥발효우사 형태별 이용효과 비교)

  • Kweon, Du-Jung;Kweon, Ung-Gi;Ki, Wang-Seok;Lee, Kee-Jong;Han, Jeong-Dae;Jung, Suk-Chan;Kang, Seung-Won;Kang, Sang-Lyol;Jung, Hyoung-Sup;Chang, Hak-Joo
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of sawdust bedding barn on manure handing, management labour and physiological aspect of dairy cows, and then to establish the criteria on the optimum utilization method of sawdust bedding barn. 46 tie stall barns and 49 sawdust bedding barns were surveyed to cmopare the milk productivity between two different barns, and also 5 tie stall barns, 15 sawdust bedding barns and 1 rice hull bedding barn were selected to study the utilization situation of sawdust barn in Kyung-Ki province area. The major results obtained were as follows; 1. The roof material of sawdust barn were consisted of 66% vinyl house, 23% PVC light and 11% slate and galvanum coated tin. Most of the floor structure was earth ground with the rate of the approximately 82%. 2. The average occupied area of sawdust bed per cow was 15.2 $m^2$, depth that 30 cm and the utilization period was 12 months. 3. Milk Yield was significantly higher at sawdust barn than at tie stall barn(P<0.01). Bacterial and somatic cell count in raw milk were less at the sawdust barn than in tie stall barn. However, there was not significance difference between two barns. 4. The labour hour needed to cow management in the sawdust barn was approximately 48% of that of tie stall barn. 5. The temperature and moisture content measured in sawdust bed were closely affected by seasonal ambient temperature. The skin and hair of cow were much cleaner at the PVC light roofed sawdust barn than any other roof materials. 6. The additives used for improving of fermentation did not show any effect on temperature and moisture content in sawdust bed. When the ambient temperature was $30.4^{\circ}C$, the surface temperature of measured 1 cm above the sawdust bed was $12.2^{\circ}C$ lower and the temperature of 100 cm above the sawdust bed was $2.4^{\circ}C lower under shading net facility than that of vinyl roofed one.7. The hoof length of miking cow was 7.95 cm in tie stall and 9.19 cm in sawdust barn with high significance (P<0.01). And disease occurence such as mastitis and foot-rot tended to decrease in the sawdust barn. 8. The number of total bacteria and coliform bacteria were less in the sawdust bed compared with earth ground resting area. And a parasite strongyloides papillosus was detected but without any infected cow. 9. The nitrate($NO_3N$) content in non-roofed earth ground resting area and earth ground under the sawdust bed was likely to pollute the ground water. 10. In economic point of view, rice hull bedding barn was the cheapest among different systems. And in the sawdust bedding barn PVC light + slate roofed barn was most desirable, and vinyl roofed one the least.

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Stability of a Natural Slope in Sedimentary Rocks (퇴적암 지역의 자연사면 안정성)

  • 권오일;김교원;박덕근
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.205-216
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    • 2000
  • An unstable natural slope located at Icheon-Ri, Dasa-Eup, Dalseong-Kun which has been severely cracked during heavy rain fall in September, 1998, was investigated and analysed for remedial measures. Various geological data were obtained by performing a surface geological survey, a ground penetrating radar(GPR) exploration, four geotechnical borings with field and laboratory tests, and the precipitation records were also reviewed. Based on the these data, the probable sliding plane was determined as a bedding plane with dip angle of 20 to 25 degrees between sandstone and shale layers at depth of 6 to 8 meters. By performing back analyses with the limit equilibrium method, the friction angle and cohesion of the sliding plane were determined as 18$^{\circ}$ and 0, respectively. Based on these results, a series of stability analyses such as stereo-graphic projection method, limiting equilibrium method and numerical method were carried out. The remedial measures for the unstable slope were selected based on the results of the limit equilibrium analyses by considering various conditions expected at the site. Ground grouting or anchoring method with proper surface drainage systems could be employed for the long term safety of the slope.

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Assessment of Evaporation Rates from Litter of Duck House (오리사 바닥재의 수분 증발량 평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeon;Lee, In-Bok;Kim, Rack-Woo;Yeo, Uk-Hyeon;Decano, Cristina;Kim, Jun-gyu;Choi, Young-Bae;Park, You-Me;Jeong, Hyo-Hyeog
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.61 no.5
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2019
  • The domestic duck industry is the sixth-largest among the livestock industries. However, 34.3% of duck houses were the duck houses arbitrarily converted from plastic greenhouses. This type of duck house was difficult to properly manage internal air temperature and humidity environment. Humidity environment inside duck houses is an important factor that directly affects the productivity and disease occurrence of the duck. Although the humidity environments of litters (bedding materials) affect directly the inside environment of duck houses, there are only few studies related to humidity environment of litters. In this study, evaporation rates from litters were evaluated according to air temperature, relative humidity, water contents of litters, and wind speed. The experimental chamber was made to measure evaporation rates from litters. Temperature and humidity controlled chamber was utilized during the conduct of the laboratory experiments. Using the measured data, a multi linear regression analysis was carried out to derive the calculation formula of evaporation rates from litters. In order to improve the accuracy of the multi linear regression model, the partial vapor pressure directly related to evaporation was also considered. Variance inflation factors of air temperature, relative humidity, partial vapor pressure, water contents of litters, and wind speed were calculated to identify multicollinearity problem. The Multiple $R^2$ and adjusted-$R^2$ of regression model were calculated at 0.76 and 0.71, respectively. Therefore, the regression models were developed in this study can be used to estimate evaporation rates from the litter of duck houses.

A Case Study on the relaxation of rock blocks caused by trees in slopes (절토사면의 수목에 의한 블록이완 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Lo;Kim, Yong-Soo;Shin, Chang-Gun;Ahn, Sang-Ro
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.738-743
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    • 2006
  • Falling rocks are classed by the collapse to wide meaning. it is a kinds of earth disaster that has happen every year. Falling rocks are defined as blocks which had fallen from the cliff. It is caused by the relaxation of discontinuous structures like as a joint, a foliation, a bedding, and so on. Usually, the Relaxation of blocks from the rock face is happened by various kinds factors that are acted as a complex. Sometimes, the tree can be a factor of the weakness or relaxation of rock blocks and a cause of the falling rock.

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Tidal-Flat Sedimentation in a Semienclosed Bay with Erosional Shorelines: Hampyong Bay, West Coast of Korea (해안침식이 우세한 반폐쇄적 조간대의 퇴적작용: 한국 서해안의 함평만)

  • Chang, Jin-Ho;Kim, Yeo-Sang;Cho, Yeong-Gil
    • The Sea
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 1999
  • Hampyong Bay is a semienclosed and macrotidal bay which opens to the eastern Yellow Sea through a narrow inlet in the southwestern coast of Korea. In order to understand the tidal-flat sedimentation in the semienclosed setting, morphology, sediments, accumulation rate and sea cliff erosion were investigated in the tidal flat of Hampyong Bay. The tidal flat of Hampyong Bay lacks intertidal drainage systems, and generally shows the concave-upward profile whose relief is designated by marked morphological features such as high-tide beaches, intertidal sand shoals and tidal creeks. Surfacial sediments of the tidal flat mainly consist of mud, sandy mud, gravelly mud, gravelly sand and muddy gravel, thus showing the textural characteristics of multimodal grain-size distribution, poorly sorting and positive skewness. The sediments generally coarsen landward due to the increase in coarse fraction content. Sedimentary structures are deeply bioturbated, but parallel lamination and lenticular bedding are locally found in the mudflat near mean low water line. Annual accumulation rates across the tidal flat (along Line SM) average -5.2 cm/yr with a range of -45.8~+4.2 cm/yr, indicating that the tidal flat is erosional. In general, erosion rates of upper and lower tidal flat are higher than those of middle tidal flat. Seasonally, the erosion rates are much higher during spring and winter when dominant wind direction corresponds to the long axis of Hampyong Bay. Sea cliffs are eroded at a rate of 1.4 m/yr. The biggest sea cliff erosion generally occurs 1~2 months later after tidal flats were extensively eroded. Such erosions of tidal Oats and sea cliffs in the semienclosed bay setting are interpreted to be due to wind waves coupled with local sea-level rise.

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Effects of environmental enrichment on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs - A review

  • Mkwanazi, Mbusiseni Vusumuzi;Ncobela, Cypril Ndumiso;Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera;Chimonyo, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2019
  • This paper aims to critically analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning the use of environmental enrichment and its effect on behavior, physiology and performance of pigs housed in intensive production systems. The objective is also to provide clarity as to what constitutes successful enrichment and recommend when and how enrichment should be used. Environmental enrichment is usually understood as an attempt to improve animal welfare and to a lesser extent, performance. Common enrichment objects used are straw bedding, suspended ropes and wood shavings, toys, rubber tubings, colored plastic keys, table tennis balls, chains and strings. These substrates need to be chewable, deformable, destructible and ingestible. For enrichment to be successful four goals are essential. Firstly, enrichment should increase the number and range of normal behaviors; secondly, it should prevent the phenomenon of anomalous behaviors or reduce their frequency; thirdly, it should increase positive use of the environment such as space and fourthly it should increase the ability of the animals to deal with behavioral and physiological challenges. The performance, behavior and physiology of pigs in enriched environments is similar or in some cases slightly better when compared with barren environments. In studies where there was no improvement, it should be borne in mind that enriching the environment may not always be practical and yield positive results due to factors such as type of enrichment substrates, duration of provision and type of enrichment used. The review also identifies possible areas that still need further research, especially in understanding the role of enrichment, novelty, breed differences and other enrichment alternatives.