• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bax

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Selective Suppression of a Subset of Bax-dependent Neuronal Death by a Cell Permeable Peptide Inhibitor of Bax, BIP

  • Kim, Soo-Young;Kim, Hyun;Sun, Woong
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2008
  • Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family proteins, plays a central role in the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Apoptotic signals induce the translocation of Bax from cytosol into the mitochondria, which triggers the release of apoptogenic molecules such as cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF. Bax-inhibiting peptide(BIP) is a cell permeable peptide comprised of five amino acids designed from the Bax-interaction domain of Ku70. Because BIP inhibits Bax translocation and Bax-mediated release of cytochrome C, BIP suppresses Bax-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we observed that BIP inhibited staurosporine-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebral cortex and cerebellar granule cells, but BIP failed to rescue granule cells from trophic signal deprivation-induced neuronal death, although both staurosporine-induced and trophic signal deprivation-induced neuronal death are dependent on Bax. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of the Bax activation may differ depending on the type of cell death induction, and thus BIP exhibits selective suppression of a subtype of Bax-dependent neuronal death.

Apoptosis Suppressor에 관련된 유전자 스크린 방법과 동정된 유전자 특성 규명

  • 황규찬;옥도원;권득남;신혜경;김진회
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.16-16
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    • 2001
  • Apoptosis로 일컬어지는 예정된 세포사멸(programmed cell death)은 개별 세포의 입장에서는 곧바로 사멸을 의미하지만, 정상적인 고등 생물의 입장에서는 개체의 발생과 분화하는데 프로그램된 과정이다. 자발적 세포사멸은 다른 조직에 비해 생식 조직인 난소나 정소에서 복잡한 apoptosis 기작들을 가지리라 사료된다. 본 연구는 Bcl-2 family중 apoptotic protein인 Bax에 대해 suppression하는 유전자를 yeast system을 활용하여 돼지 정소와 난소로부터 각각 cDNA library를 구축한 후 탐색하였다. 탐색에 활용된 cDNA library는 돼지의 정소와 난소로부터 mRNA를 분리하여 yeast vector인 pAD-GAL4-2.1에 구축하였고, 마우스 bax 유전자는 gal 1 promoter의 조절 하에 glucose 배지에서는 유도되지 않고, galactose 배지에서만 선택적으로 Bax를 발현할 수 있는 효모 vector(pL19-bax)를 구축하였다. Bax에 의한 apoptosis suppressor를 탐색하기 위해 우선 효모 W303에 pL19-bax를 transform하여 glucose 배지에서 Bax의 발현을 억제하였다. pL19-bax를 가진 효모에 정소와 난소로부터 구축된 cDNA library를 transform 시키고, transform된 효모는 각각 Bax에 의한 toxicity를 저해하는 유전자를 찾기 위해 스크린되었다. 이러한 방법으로 정소 cDNA library 탐색에서는 5 $\times$ $10^{6}$ transformant중 39개, 난소cDNA library 탐색에서는 2 $\times$ $10^{6}$ transformant중 26개의 콜로니가 생존하였다. 이들 콜로니로부터 유전자를 분리하여 분석해 본 결과 여러 그룹으로 분류할 수 있었다. 각 그룹의 관련 유전자는 protein synthesis/degradation 12종, oxidation/reductation 5종, detoxin/ cell cycle promoter 3종, signal transduction/growth factor 5종, 그리고 알려지지 않은 유전자 9종이었다. 그 중, bax-toxicity inhibition에 강력한 survival phenotype을 가지는 유전자(pSEDL)를 동정하였다. 이것은 T3-4-1 콜로니로부터 분리하였는데 140개 아미노산으로 이루어진 인간 SEDL(GenBank, XM_013096) 유전자와 매우 유사한 homology를 가지며, bax와 관련된 기능은 밝혀져 있지 않다. 이외에도 분리된 유전자에는 NADH, thioreduction, 그리고 cytochrome oxidase와 같은 positive 유전자 군이 크로닝되어, Bax를 이용한 효모에서 apoptosis suppressor에 관련된 유전자를 손쉽게 스크린하는 것이 가능하고, 분리된 유전자의 기능을 예측할 수 있어 지금까지 보고된 유전자 크로닝법 보다는 강력한 수단으로 활용될 수 있다는 사실을 시사하였다. 그러나, ORF에 관계없이 Bax 발현에 저항하는 유전자군이 선발된다든지 하는 문제점은 금후 검토가 필요하리라 사료된다.

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E1B-19k does not Localize in Mitochondria nor Dimerize Bax even with the Staurosporine (E1B-19k의 세포내 위치와 Bax와의 Dimerization에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Soo Han;Kim, Jin Young;Park, Seung Woo;Ahn, Young Hwan;Ahn, Young Min;Cho, Ki Hong;Cho, Kyung Gi
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.725-730
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : The subcellular localization of E1B-19k has been known cytosol or nuclear membrane by immunohistochemical staining and could dimerize with Bax to regulate cell death also known by the in-vitro immunoprecipitation. We planed to confirm this dimerization of E1B-19k with Bax in vivo in Cos-7 cells by using green fluorescent protein. Material and Method : We cloned E1B-19k and Bax into C3-EGFP. C3-EGFP-E1B-19k, C3-EGFP-Bax, and C3-EGFP-E1B-19k and pcDNA3-Bax were transfected into Cos-7 cells. We explored location of E1B-19k and Bax, and confirmed its dimerization with Bax in transfected living healthy Cos-7 cells by following green fluorescent protein of E1B-19k on the confocal microscope. Results : E1B-19k was located diffusely in cytoplasm and in nucleus but not in mitochondria. It prevented cell death from the apoptosis by staurosporine but its location was not changed. GFP-E1B-19k is not changed its intracellular location with Bax even with staurosporine. Conclusion : These results support that E1B-19k does not localize in mitochondria nor dimerize with Bax even with staurosporine. We could anticipate E1B-19k prevent cell death via the other dimerizing partner or pathways.

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Gene Expression Profiling of Rewarding Effect in Methamphetamine Treated Bax-deficient Mouse

  • Ryu, Na-Kyung;Yang, Moon-Hee;Jung, Min-Seok;Jeon, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Kee-Won;Park, Jong-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.475-485
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    • 2007
  • Methamphetamine is an illicit drug that is often abused and can cause neuropsychiatric and neurotoxic damage. Repeated administration of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine induces a behavioral sensitization. According to a previous study, Bax was involved in neurotoxicity by methamphetamine, but the function of Bax in rewarding effect has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we have studied the function of Bax in a rewarding effect model. In the present study, we treated chronic methamphetamine exposure in a Bax-deficient mouse model and examined behavioral change using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP score in Bax knockout mice was decreased compared to that of wild-type mice. Therefore, we screened for Bax-related genes that are involved in rewarding effect using microarray technology. In order to confirm microarray data, we applied the RT-PCR method to observe relative changes of Bcl2, a pro-apoptotic family gene. As a result, using our experiment microarray, we selected genes that were associated with Bax in microarray data, and eventually selected the Tgfbr2 gene. Expression of the Tgfbr2 gene was decreased by methamphetamine in Bax knockout mice, and the gene was overexpressed in Bax wild-type mice. Additionally, we confirmed that Creb, FosB, and c-Fos were related to rewarding effect and Bax using immunohistochemistry.

Gonadotropins and Nitric Oxide Can Suppress the Expression of Mouse Follicular Bad and Bax Genes (생식소 자극 호르몬과 NO에 의한 생쥐 여포의 Bad와 Bax 유전자 조절)

  • 김외리
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 1997
  • the pupose of this study was to investigate the effects of gonadotropin and nitric oxide (NO) on the expression of mouse follicular bad and bax genes that are known induce apoptosis. Large and midium size follicles of immature mice were obtained at 0, 24, and 48 hours time intervals after Pregnant Mare's Serum gonadotropins(PMSG, 5 I.U.) injection. Preovulatory follicles collected at 24 hrs after PMSG injection were cultured with or without various chemicals such as gonadotropin, gonadotropin Releasing hormone(GnRH), testosterone, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 24 hrs at $37^{\circ}C$. After 24 hrs culture, the culture media was used for nitrite assay and total RNA was extracted, subjected to RT-PCT for the analyses of bad and bax expression. We found that expression of bad and bax genes in follicles was markedly reduced before and after in vivo priming with hCG. When the preovulatory follicles were cultured for 24 hrs in culture media with PMSG and hCG, the expression of bad and bax genes was decreased. Moreover, SNP (NO generating agent) can significantly suppress the expression of bad and bax genes in follicles when apoptosis was induced by GnRH agonist and testosterone. At the same time, nitrite production of culture media was increased in GnRH agonist + SNP, testosterone + SNP and SNP treated groups than control group. These data demonstrated for the first time that peptide hormones and NO may play important roles in the regulation of mouse follicular differentiation and may prevent apoptosis via supressing the expression of bad and bax genes.

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Genetic Screening for Plant Cell Death Suppressors and Their Functional Analysis in Plants

  • Yun, Dae-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Life Science Conference
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2005
  • Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, induces cell death when expressed In yeast. To investigate whether .Bax expression can induce cell death in plant, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants that contained murine Bax cDNA under control of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter. Transgenic plants treated with dexamethasone, a strong synthetic glucocorticoid, induced Bax accumulation and cell death, suggesting that some elements of cell death mechanism by Bax may be conserved among various orgarusms. Therefore, we developed novel yeast genetic system, and cloned several Plant Bax Inhibitors (PBIs). Here, we report the function of two PBIs In detail. PBIl is ascorbate peroxidase (sAPX). Fluorescence method of dihydrorhodamine123 oxidation revealed that expression of Bax in yeast cells generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and which was greatly reduced by co-expression with sAPX. These results suggest that sAPX inhibits the generation of ROS by Bax, which in turn suppresses Bax-induced cell death in yeast. PBI2 encodes nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK). ROS stress strongly induces the expression of the NDPK2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtNDPK2). Transgenic plants overexpressing AtNDPK2 have lower lovels of ROS than wildtype plants. Mutants lacking AtNDPK2 had higher levels of ROS than wildtype. H$_{2O2}$ treatment induced the phosphorylation of two endogenous proteins whose molecular weights suggested they are AtMPK3 and AtMPK6. In the absence of H2O2 treatment, phosphorylation of these proteins was slightly elevated in plants overexpressing AtNDPK2 but markedly decreased In the AtNDPK2 deletion mutant. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro protein pull-down assays revealed that AtNDPK2 specifically interacts with AtMPK3 and AtMPK6. Furthermore, AtNDPK2 also enhances the MBP phosphorylation activity of AtMPK3 i'n vitro. Finally, constitutive overexpression of AtNDPK2 in Arabidopsis plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses that elicit ROS accumulation In situ. Thus, AtNDPK2 appears to play a novel regulatory role in H2O2-mediated MAPK signaling in plants.

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The Effect that the Application of Time-Based Electrolysis Has on Acute Ischemia

  • Lee, Jung Sook;Song, Young Wha;Kim, Sung Won
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.846-851
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    • 2015
  • This neurological damage accelerates the infection reaction of cells and apoptosis at the time of reperfusion after ischemia occurs. BCL-2/BCL-2 allogeneic begeminum has a function of suppressing the apoptosis of cells, and thus it is inferred that the susceptibility of cells to apoptosis is determined by the amount of allogeneic begeminum present which is determined based on the amount of BAX. Ischemia was induced in SD mice by occluding the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which blood was re-perfused. NEES was applied to acupuncture points, at 12, 24, and 48 hours post-ischemia on the joksamri, Hapgok. Protein expression was investigated through BAX antibody immuno-reactive cells in the cerebral nerve cells and Western blotting. The results were as follows: In the present study as well, as a result of observation of the change in the number of the BAX reaction cells after the inducement of GI, there was the aspect of most of the BAX reaction cells being observed in the corpus striatum area of the GI group 24 hours after the inducement of ischemia. This revealed the same results as those of previous studies in which the change in the number of BAX reaction cells occurred in all areas while ischemia was in progress. The change in the expression of BAX protein after 24 hours showed that there was a very significant reduction in the NEES group compared to the GI group (p<.01). As a result, a greatest amount of change in the number of BAX immunoreactive cells related to apoptosis 24 hours after ischemia appeared in the NEES group. This study that ischemia increases the expression of BAX that induces apoptosis. Thus, it is determined that ischemia is the main cause of the apoptosis of neurons, and this study reveals that low frequency needle electrode electrical stimulation has the effect of blocking the apoptosis of neurons by reducing protein related to the apoptosis of cells that has increased after ischemia has occurred.

HSV-1 ICP27 induces apoptosis by promoting Bax translocation to mitochondria through interacting with 14-3-3θ

  • Kim, Ji Ae;Kim, Jin Chul;Min, Jung Sun;Kang, Inho;Oh, Jeongho;Ahn, Jeong Keun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.257-262
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    • 2017
  • The subcellular localization of Bax plays a crucial role during apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, Bax translocates from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria, where it promotes the release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm. In cells infected with HSV-1, apoptosis is triggered or blocked by diverse mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate how HSV-1 ICP27 induces apoptosis and modulates mitochondrial membrane potential in HEK 293T cells. We found that ICP27 interacts with $14-3-3{\theta}$ which sequesters Bax to the cytoplasm. In addition, ICP27 promotes the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria by inhibiting the interaction between $14-3-3{\theta}$ and Bax. Our findings may provide a novel apoptotic regulatory pathway induced by ICP27 during HSV-1 infection.

Postnatal Development of Subcallosal Zone Following Suppression of Programmed Cell Death in Bax-deficient Mice

  • Kim, Woon Ryoung;Sun, Woong
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2013
  • Neural stem cells are found in adult mammalian brain regions including the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ). In addition to these two regions, other neurogenic regions are often reported in many species. Recently, the subcallosal zone (SCZ) has been identified as a novel neurogenic region where new neuroblasts are spontaneously generated and then, by Bax-dependent apoptosis, eliminated. However, the development of SCZ in the postnatal brain is not yet fully explored. The present study investigated the precise location and amount of neuroblasts in the developing brain. To estimate the importance of programmed cell death (PCD) for SCZ histogenesis, SCZ development in the Bax-knockout (KO) mouse was examined. Interestingly, an accumulation of extra neurons with synaptic fibers in the SCZ of Bax-KO mice was observed. Indeed, Bax-KO mice exhibited enhanced startle response to loud acoustic stimuli and reduced anxiety level. Considering the prevention of PCD in the SCZ leads to sensory-motor gating dysfunction in the Bax-KO mice, active elimination of SCZ neuroblasts may promote optimal brain function.

Different Expressions of HIF-$1\alpha$, Bcl-2 and Baxin DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells Transplanted in Nude Mouse between X-Ray and Neutron Irradiation (누드마우스에 주입된 DU-145 전립샘암에서 엑스선과 중성자선에 의한 HIF-$1\alpha$, Bcl-2, Bax 발현의 차이)

  • Kong, Moon-Kyoo;Kang, Jin-Oh;Kim, Sang-Ki;Shin, Dong-Oh;Park, Seo-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Ju;Chang, Hyun-Kyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.218-227
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To investigate the radiobiologic effects of neutron and X-ray irradiation on DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells by identifying the differences of HIF-$1\alpha$ expression and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Nude mice were injected with the human prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, and then irradiated with 2 Gy and 10 Gy X-rays, or 0.6 Gy and 3.3 Gy neutrons, respectively. The mice were sacrificed at 24 hours and 120 hours after irradiation. The expression levels of HIF-$1\alpha$, Bcl-2 and Bax were compared with immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The apoptotic indexes were compared with the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl biotin-dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results: At day 1, HIF-$1\alpha$ and Bcl-2 expression decreased, while Bax expression and the number of TUNEL positive cells increased in neutron irradiated groups for the control and X-ray irradiated groups. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly lower in the neutron irradiated groups regardless of dose (p=0.001). The same pattern of the differences in the expressions of the HIF-$1\alpha$, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and apoptotic indexes were indentified at day 5. HIF-$1\alpha$ expression was related with Bcl-2 (p=0.031), Bax (p=0.037) expressions and the apoptotic indexes (p=0.016) at day 5. Conclusion: Neutron irradiation showed a decrease in HIF-$1\alpha$, Bcl-2 expression, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, but increased Bax expression regardless of dose. This study suggests that the differences radiobiological responses between photon and neutron irradiation may be related to different HIF-$1\alpha$ expression and subsequent apoptotic protein expressions.