• Title, Summary, Keyword: Baseline emission factor

Search Result 14, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

Establishment of Baseline Emission Factor of Methane in Korean Rice Paddy Soil (국내 벼 논에서 메탄 기본배출계수 개발)

  • Kim, Gun-Yeob;Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Ju, Ok-Jung;Kim, Hee-Kwon;Park, Jun-Hong;Gwon, Hyo-Suk;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.359-365
    • /
    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Methane ($CH_4$) emission is calculated using the default $CH_4$ emission factor as recommended by the International Panel on Climate Change(IPCC guidelines). However, the default emission factor has been derived using including the data from other countries having different soil and environmental conditions and may not reflect the real $CH_4$ emission rates in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the baseline emission factor of $CH_4$ in Korean paddy soils during rice cultivation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methane emission patterns were characterized in four different paddy soils across country for a consecutive 3 years during the rice cultivation period. Rice plants were cultivated under continuous flooding and fertilized using the recommended chemical fertilization in Korea ($N-P_2O_5-K_2O$=90-45-57kg/ha). The mean $CH_4$ emission rate was 2.32 kg $CH_4$/ha/day and the uncertainty of the investigated data was 21.7%, with a valuable error range at 1.82-2.82 kg $CH_4$/ha/day with a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSION(S): Conclusively, the Korean paddy soils' baseline emission factor of $CH_4$ is approximately 2.32 kg $CH_4$/ha/day and can be used to estimate the $CH_4$ emissions more exactly.

Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport Sector in New Town Development (신도시 계획단계에서의 교통부문 온실가스 배출량 산정 및 감축효과 분석방법론 연구)

  • Han, Sang-Jin;Park, Kyung-Uk;Park, Su-Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.45-69
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study estimates baseline greenhouse gas emissions from transport sector when a new town is developed. It has adopted a general greenhouse gas estimation model developed by Schipper, celine, Roger(2000) for the estimation, and showed how various transport related statistics can be utilized in detail. Particularly, it has produced unit greenhouse gas emission factor per vehicle types, vehicle-km, and trip-km. To evaluate effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies, it has calculated how much emissions will be reduced from bicycle promotion. It has turned out that about 369 thousand tons of carbon dioxide will be emitted from transport sector once the 1st Geomdan New Town is developed in Incheon metropolitan city. If the policy of bicycle promotion can attract people to use bicycle as much as 5% of total trips, then it can reduce about 1,869 tons of carbon dioxide.

  • PDF

Comparative study of greenhouse gas emission from coastal and offshore gillnet and trap fisheries by field research (연근해 자망과 통발 어업의 온실가스 배출량 현장실측 연구)

  • LEE, Seok-Hyung;KIM, Hyunyoung;YANG, Yongsu;KANG, Da-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
    • /
    • v.54 no.4
    • /
    • pp.315-323
    • /
    • 2018
  • Fossil fuel combustion during fishing activities is a major contributor to climate changes in the fishing industry. The Tier1 methodology calculation and on-site continuous measurements of the greenhouse gas were carried out through the use of fuel by the coastal and offshore gillnet (blue crabs and yellow croaker) and trap (small octopus and red snow crab) fishing boats in Korea. The emission comparison results showed that the field measurements are similar to or slightly higher than the Tier1 estimates for coastal gillnet and trap. In offshore gillnet and trap fisheries, Tier1 estimate of greenhouse gases was about $1,644-13,875kg\;CO_2/L$, which was more than the field measurement value. The $CO_2$ emissions factor based on the fuel usage was $2.49-3.2kg\;CO_2/L$ for coastal fisheries and $1.46-2.24kg\;CO_2/L$ for offshore fisheries. Furthermore, GHG emissions per unit catch and the ratio of field measurement and Tier1 emission estimate were investigated. Since the total catch of coastal fish was relatively small, the emission per unit catch in coastal fisheries was four to eight times larger. The results of this study could be used to determine the baseline data for responding to changes in fisheries environment and reducing greenhouse gas emission.

Maximum standardized uptake value at pre-treatment PET in estimating lung cancer progression after stereotactic body radiotherapy

  • Park, Jisun;Choi, Yunseon;Ahn, Ki Jung;Park, Sung Kwang;Cho, Heunglae;Lee, Ji Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.37 no.1
    • /
    • pp.30-36
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the feasibility of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) as a predictive factor for prognosis in early stage primary lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven T1-3N0M0 primary lung cancer patients treated with curative SBRT between 2010 and 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients (14.8%) treated with SBRT to address residual tumor after wedge resection and one patient (3.7%) with local recurrence after resection were included. The SUVmax at baseline PET/CT was assessed to determine its relationship with prognosis after SBRT. Patients were divided into two groups based on maximum SUVmax on pre-treatment FDG PET/CT, estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The median follow-up period was 17.7 months (range, 2.3 to 60.0 months). The actuarial 2-year local control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 80.4%, 66.0%, and 78.2%, respectively. With regard to failure patterns, 5 patients exhibited local failure (in-field failure, 18.5%), 1 (3.7%) experienced regional nodal relapse, and other 2 (7.4%) developed distant failure. SUVmax was significantly correlated with progression (p = 0.08, optimal cut-off point SUVmax > 5.1). PFS was significantly influenced by pretreatment SUVmax (SUVmax > 5.1 vs. SUVmax ≤ 5.1; p = 0.012) and T stage (T1 vs. T2-3; p = 0.012). Conclusion: SUVmax at pre-treatment FDG PET/CT demonstrated a predictive value for PFS after SBRT for lung cancer.

Watershed Modeling for Assessing Climate Change Impact on Stream Water Quality of Chungju Dam Watershed (<2009 SWAT-KOREA 컨퍼런스 특별호 논문> 기후변화가 충주댐 유역의 하천수질에 미치는 영향평가를 위한 유역 모델링)

  • Park, Jong-Yoon;Park, Min-Ji;Ahn, So-Ra;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.42 no.10
    • /
    • pp.877-889
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study is to assess the future potential impact of climate change on stream water quality for a 6,581.1 km$^2$ dam watershed using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The ECHAM5-OM climate data of IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2, A1B, and B1 emission scenarios were adopted and the future data (2007-2099) were corrected using 30 years (1977-2006, baseline period) weather data and downscaled by Change Factor (CF) method. After model calibration and validation using 6 years (1998-2003) observed daily streamflow and monthly water quality (SS, T-N, and T-P) data, the future (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) hydrological behavior and stream water quality were projected.

Assessment of Future Climate Change Impacts on Hydrological Behavior and Stream Water Quality using SWAT Model (SWAT 모형을 이용한 미래 기후변화가 충주댐 유역의 수문학적 거동 및 하천수질에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Park, Jong-Yoon;Park, Min-Ji;Ahn, So-Ra;Park, Geun-Ae;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.57-61
    • /
    • 2009
  • 본 연구에서는 SWAT(Soil and Water Assessment Tool) 모형을 이용하여 미래 기후변화가 댐 유역의 하천수질에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 충주댐 상류유역($6,585.1km^2$)에 대해 민감도 분석을 통해 최적의 유출및 유사관련 매개변수를 선정하였으며, 충주호 유입하천 상류 2개 지점/영월1, 영월2)과 유역 출구점을 대상으로 일별 유출량 및 월별 수질자료를 바탕으로 모형의 보정(1998-2000)및 검증(2001-2003)을 실시하였다. 미래 기후자료는 IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)에서 제공하는 SRES/Special Report on Emission Scenarios) A2, A1B, B1 기후변화시나리오의 MIROC3.2 hires와 ECHAM5-OM 모델의 결과 값을 이용하였다. 먼저 과거 30년 기후자료(1977-2006, baseline)를 바탕으로 각 모델별 20C3M(20th Century Climate Coupled Model)의 모의 결과 값을 이용하여 강수와 온도를 보정한 뒤 Change Factor(CF) Method로 Downscaling 하였으며, 미래 기후변화 시나리오는 2020s, 2050s, 2080s의 세 기간으로 나누어 각각 분석 하였다. 기후변화 시나리오 적용에 따른 SWAT 모의결과로부터 기후변화가 수문학적 거동 및 하천수질에 미치는 영향을 평가하였다.

  • PDF

Anxiety Symptoms are Associated with Progression to Dementia in Patients with Amyloid-Positive Mild Cognitive Impairment

  • Kim, Heeseok;Jhoo, Jin Hyeong;Jang, Jae-Won
    • Journal of Korean geriatric psychiatry
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.70-75
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective : Anxiety is prevalent in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are considered to be a risk factor for conversion to dementia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Anxiety symptoms in MCI promote disease progression in a manner related to amyloid status, and to determine the relationship between anxiety symptoms and longitudinal cerebral structural changes. Methods : Baseline data for 230 patients with amyloid-positive MCI (52 with anxiety and 178 without) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study were analyzed. All participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing, volumetric MRI, and [$^{18}F$]AV45 positron emission tomography amyloid imaging. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. A voxel-based morphometric analysis using volumetric brain MRI data was used to compare longitudinal structural changes related to anxiety symptoms. Results : The conversion rate to dementia was different between patients with and without anxiety in amyloid-positive MCI (37.7% vs. 16.1%, respectively ; p=0.001). Anxiety in amyloid-positive MCI was associated with longitudinal cortical atrophy in the left superior temporal gyrus, left Heschl's gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, left anterior cingulum, bilateral anterior cingulum and right superior orbital gyrus. Conclusion : Our study indicates that the presence of anxiety in patients with amyloid-positive MCI is associated with higher conversion to dementia and longitudinal cortical atrophy.

Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Storage Behavior of Chungju and the Regulation Dams Using SWAT Model (SWAT을 이용한 기후변화가 충주댐 및 조정지댐 저수량에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Jeong, Hyeon Gyo;Kim, Seong-Joon;Ha, Rim
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.46 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1235-1247
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study is to evaluate the climate change impact on future storage behavior of Chungju dam($2,750{\times}10^6m^3$) and the regulation dam($30{\times}10^6m^3$) using SWAT(Soil Water Assessment Tool) model. Using 9 years data (2002~2010), the SWAT was calibrated and validated for streamflow at three locations with 0.73 average Nash-Sutcliffe model Efficiency (NSE) and for two reservoir water levels with 0.86 NSE respectively. For future evaluation, the HadCM3 of GCMs (General Circulation Models) data by scenarios of SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) A2 and B1 of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were adopted. The monthly temperature and precipitation data (2007~2099) were spatially corrected using 30 years (1977~2006, baseline period) of ground measured data through bias-correction, and temporally downscaled by Change Factor (CF) statistical method. For two periods; 2040s (2031~2050), 2080s (2071~2099), the future annual temperature were predicted to change $+0.9^{\circ}C$ in 2040s and $+4.0^{\circ}C$ in 2080s, and annual precipitation increased 9.6% in 2040s and 20.7% in 2080s respectively. The future watershed evapotranspiration increased up to 15.3% and the soil moisture decreased maximum 2.8% compared to baseline (2002~2010) condition. Under the future dam release condition of 9 years average (2002~2010) for each dam, the yearly dam inflow increased maximum 21.1% for most period except autumn. By the decrease of dam inflow in future autumn, the future dam storage could not recover to the full water level at the end of the year by the present dam release pattern. For the future flood and drought years, the temporal variation of dam storage became more unstable as it needs careful downward and upward management of dam storage respectively. Thus it is necessary to adjust the dam release pattern for climate change adaptation.

PM2.5 Simulations for the Seoul Metropolitan Area: (III) Application of the Modeled and Observed PM2.5 Ratio on the Contribution Estimation (수도권 초미세먼지 농도모사: (III) 관측농도 대비 모사농도 비율 적용에 따른 기여도 변화 검토)

  • Bae, Changhan;Yoo, Chul;Kim, Byeong-Uk;Kim, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Soontae
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.33 no.5
    • /
    • pp.445-457
    • /
    • 2017
  • In this study, we developed an approach to better account for uncertainties in estimated contributions from fine particulate matter ($PM_{2.5}$) modeling. Our approach computes a Concentration Correction Factor (CCF) which is a ratio of observed concentrations to baseline model concentrations. We multiply modeled direct contribution estimates with CCF to obtain revised contributions. Overall, the modeling system showed reasonably good performance, correlation coefficient R of 0.82 and normalized mean bias of 2%, although the model underestimated some PM species concentrations. We also noticed that model biases vary seasonally. We compared contribution estimates of major source sectors before and after applying CCFs. We observed that different source sectors showed variable magnitudes of sensitivities to the CCF application. For example, the total primary $PM_{2.5}$ contribution was increased $2.4{\mu}g/m^3$ or 63% after the CCF application. Out of a $2.4{\mu}g/m^3$ increment, line sources and area source made up $1.3{\mu}g/m^3$ and $0.9{\mu}g/m^3$ which is 92% of the total contribution changes. We postulated two major reasons for variations in estimated contributions after the CCF application: (1) monthly variability of unadjusted contributions due to emission source characteristics and (2) physico-chemical differences in environmental conditions that emitted precursors undergo. Since emissions-to-$PM_{2.5}$ concentration conversion rate is an important piece of information to prioritize control strategy, we examined the effects of CCF application on the estimated conversion rates. We found that the application of CCFs can alter the rank of conversion efficiencies of source sectors. Finally, we discussed caveats of our current approach such as no consideration of ion neutralization which warrants further studies.

A Comparative Study of Global Economic Models for Climate Change Policy: A Structural and Technological Analysis (기후변화 글로벌 경제모형의 구조 및 기술적 변화에 따른 비교 분석)

  • Hong, Jong Ho;Kim, Changhun
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.419-457
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study aims at understanding the characteristics of global economic models, which are widely used for climate change policy analysis. A literature review study was conducted in order to derive general features of top-down models such as CGE and bottom-up/hybrid models such as GTEM. Furthermore, a structural analysis was carried out by applying parameter and structural components from other models to a particular model to observe the potential differences in outcomes. Literature review shows that bottom-up or hybrid models generally have higher level of reduction potentials than top-down models in the long run. This contradicts the conclusion presented by IPCC, and raises the need for more rigorous investigation through structural analysis. Structural analysis of EPPA model indicates that the structural component of the energy sector in a particular model is the most influential factor in predicting baseline emissions and reduction potentials. This includes the structure among energy, capital, and labor inputs, and the substitution elasticities within the energy bundle. Technology bundle can establish the conclusions from literature review, and change in Armington elasticities do not significantly affect the outcome in aggregate.

  • PDF