• Title, Summary, Keyword: Baltic State

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Characterization of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Tan Spot of Wheat) Races in Baltic States and Romania

  • Abdullah, Sidrat;Sehgal, Sunish Kumar;Ali, Shaukat;Liatukas, Zilvinas;Ittu, Mariana;Kaur, Navjot
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2017
  • Tan spot, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is economically important foliar disease in Latvia, Lithuania, and Romania; however, race structure from Baltic States and Romania is not known. In this study, we performed genotypic and phenotypic race characterization of a large collection of P. tritici-repentis isolates from these countries to determine race structure and utilize this information for better disease management and breeding wheat for tan spot resistance. We characterized 231 single spore isolates from Latvia (n = 15), Lithuania (n = 107), and Romania (n = 109) for Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB genes using two genes specific primers. A subset (139) of 231 isolates were further characterized for their race structure by inoculating them individually on tan spot wheat differentials set. Majority (83%) of the 231 isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene suggesting prevalence of race 1 and 2. Further, phenotypic characterization of 139 isolates also showed wide prevalence of races 1 (68%), 2 (8%), 3 (11%), and 4 (5%) were also identified from Baltic States as well as Romania. Eighteen of the isolates (13%) did not seem to be of any of the eight known races as they lacked Ptr ToxA gene but they behaved like either race 1 or race 2, suggesting possibility of novel toxins in these isolates as their virulence tools.

Transnational Identity and Regional Integration

  • Lamasheva, Yulia
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.73-95
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    • 2010
  • European integration is characterized by the development of a transnational European identity, which is considered an integral part of the process. Northeast Asia has no similar projects to address the common identity issue, although cooperation is highly valued there as well. Identity and cooperation both require interdisciplinary approaches combining social psychology, international relations theory and international economics. This article considers the problems of applying existing studies on cooperation and identity as well as the European experience (with the Baltic Sea example) to the case of Northeast Asia. Transnational identities promote cooperation beyond the limits of rationalistic game theory, if countries of the region can define their identities and interests, commit to common goals, create shared discourses and reach a balance between nationalism and internationalism. In view of proposed negotiations on the free trade area between China, Korea and Japan and ongoing discussions about a possibility of introducing a common currency (ACU) it can be crucial to consider the importance of identity building as early as possible, before regional integration meets a stumbling block of egoistic rationality that is a problem in any model of cooperation.

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