• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bacterial Attachment

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Bacterial attachment and penetration to Tetracycline-treated resorbable and nonresorbable membranes for GTR (테트라싸이클린 처리된 흡수성 및 비흡수성 조직유도재생술용 막에의 세균부착과 침투양상)

  • Lee, Ho-Jae;Chung, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.19-43
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    • 1997
  • The barrier membranes for GTR procedure could be affected bY bacterial contamination after exposure to oral environment. This study was done to evaluate whether the tetracycline impregnated barrier membranes could inhibit bacterial attachment and penetration into membranes. The resorbable membrane(polylactic and polyglycolide copolymer, $Resolute^{(R)}$, W.L Gore and Associates, Inc..USA) and the non-resorbable membrane(e-PTFE; Gore-TexTM, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.,USA) were cut into 4mm discs and trated with 5% tridodecylmethylammonium chloride solution in ethanol and dried in air. The membranes were immersed in tetracycline(TC) solution (100mg/ml, pH 8.0) and dried. To the maxillary canine-premolar region in six periodontally healthy volunteers, removable acrylic devices were inserted, on which 8 cylindrical chambers were glued with TC impregnated and non-impregnated discs, the membrane discs were examined for bacterial attachment and penetration, and structural changes under SEM and LM. From the 1st day to the 7th day, membranes showed bacterial plaque formation composed of cocci and rods. Thereafter, filamentous bacteria appeared and the plaque thickness increased. The TC impregnated e-PTFE membranes showed less bacterial attachment and delayed in bacterial plaque maturation than non-treated membranes. As for bacterial penetration, the TC impregnated e-PTFE membranes showed superficial invasion and infrequent presence of bacteria in unexposed inner surface at the 4th week. while the non-treated e-PTFE membranes showed deep bacterial invasion at the 2nd week and frequent presence of internal bacteria at the 4th week. The resorbable membranes started to be resorbed at the 2nd week and were perforated at the 4th week, regardless of TC treatment. In conclusion, bacterial plaque formation and penetration was efficiently delayed in TC impregnated e-PTFE membranes, whereas resorbable membranes were similar in bacterial invasion due to membrane degradation and perforation, regardless of TC treatment.

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Low Ruminal pH Reduces Dietary Fiber Digestion via Reduced Microbial Attachment

  • Sung, Ha Guyn;Kobayashi, Yasuo;Chang, Jongsoo;Ha, Ahnul;Hwang, Il Hwan;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2007
  • In vitro rumen incubation studies were conducted to determine effects of initial pH on bacterial attachment and fiber digestion. Ruminal fluid pH was adjusted to 5.7, 6.2 and 6.7, and three major fibrolytic bacteria attached to rice straw in the mixed culture were quantified with real-time PCR. The numbers of attached and unattached Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminocococcus albus were lower (p<0.05) at initial pH of 5.7 without significant difference between those at higher initial pH. Lowering incubation media pH to 5.7 also increased bacterial numbers detached from substrate regardless of bacterial species. Dry matter digestibility, gas accumulation and total VFA production were pH-dependent. Unlike bacterial attachment, maintaining an initial pH of 6.7 increased digestion over initial pH of 6.2. After 48 h in vitro rumen fermentation, average increases in DM digestion, gas accumulation, and total VFA production at initial pH of 6.2 and 6.7 were 2.8 and 4.4, 2.0 and 3.0, and 1.2 and 1.6 times those at initial pH of 5.7, respectively. The lag time to reach above 2% DM digestibility at low initial pH was taken more times (8 h) than at high and middle initial pH (4 h). Current data clearly indicate that ruminal pH is one of the important determinants of fiber digestion, which is modulated via the effect on bacterial attachment to fiber substrates.

Effects of Methylcellulose on Fibrolytic Bacterial Detachment and In vitro Degradation of Rice Straw

  • Kim, Min Ji;Sung, Ha Guyn;Upadhaya, Santi Devi;Ha, Jong K.;Lee, Sung Sill
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1459-1465
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    • 2013
  • Two in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose (MC) on i) bacterial detachment from rice straw as well as ii) inhibition of bacterial attachment and fiber digestibility. To evaluate the effect of MC on fibrolytic bacterial detachment (Exp 1), in vitro bacterial cultures with 0.1% (w/v) MC solution were compared with cultures without MC after 8 h incubation. The effect of MC on inhibition of bacterial attachment was determined by comparing with real-time PCR the populations of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus established on rice straw pre-treated with 0.1% MC with those on untreated straw after incubation for 0, 6 and 12 h (Exp 2). The major fibrolytic bacterial attachment on rice straw showed significantly lower populations with either the addition of MC to the culture or pre-treated rice straw compared to controls (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of rice straw with MC was significantly lower compared with control (p<0.05). The F. succinogenes population did not show detachment from rice straw, but showed an inhibition of attachment and proliferation on rice straw in accordance with a decrease of fiber digestion. The detachments of Ruminococcus species co-existed preventing the proliferations with subsequent reduction of fiber degradation by MC during the incubation. Their detachments were induced from stable colonization as well as the initial adhesion on rice straw by MC in in vitro ruminal fermentation. Furthermore, the detachment of R. albus was more sensitive to MC than was R. flavefaciens. These results showed the certain evidence that attachment of major fibrolytic bacteria had an effect on fiber digestion in the rumen, and each of fibrolytic bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus had a specific mechanism of attachment and detachment to fiber.

Attachment of Bacillus subtilis to Al-Fe Bimetallic Oxide-coated Sand : Effect of Oxyanions (알루미늄.철 산화물 동시피복모래에서 Bacillus subtilis의 부착: 산화음이온의 영향)

  • Park, Seong-Jik;Lee, Chang-Gu;Han, Yong-Un;Park, Jeong-Ann;Kim, Song-Bae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.515-520
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the influence of oxyanions (nitrate, carbonate, phosphate) on the attachment of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) to Al-Fe bimetallic oxide-coated sand using column experiments. Results showed that bacterial attachment to the coated sand was independent of nitrate concentration. Bacterial mass recovery remained constant (10.9${\pm}$0.2%) with varying nitrate concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 mM). In case of carbonate, mass recovery increased from 25.6% to 39.0% with increasing carbonate concentration from 0.1 mM to 1 mM, and mass recovery also increased from 50.9% to 78.9% at the same concentration condition in case of phosphate. This phenomenon could be attributed to the hindrance effect of carbonate and phosphate to bacterial attachment to the coated sand. Meanwhile, with increasing carbonate/phosphate concentration from 1 mM to 10 mM, mass recovery decreased from 39.0% to 23.8% and from 78.9% to 52.6%, respectively. This phenomenon could be ascribed to the enhancement effect of free carbonate/phosphate ions present in solution phase due to increasing carbonate/phosphate concentration, which increase ionic strength and thus enhance bacterial attachment to the coated sand. In our experimental conditions, the effect of phosphate to bacterial attachment to the coated sand was the greatest among phosphate, carbonate, and nitrate.

A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT IN DENTINAL TUBULES (상아세관에서 세균부착에 관한 주사전자현미경적 연구)

  • An, Jung-Mo;Im, Mi-Kyung
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.267-279
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    • 1996
  • Microorganisms are implicated the endodontic treatment failures. Persistent endodontic infection may be the result of retention of microorganisms in the dentin of the root canal walls. Dentinal tubules of the root canal walls have been shown to harbor microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the invasion of microorganism into the root dentin and dentinal tubules. The effects of irrigation solutions and smear layer on bacterial colonization of root canal were evaluated using a scanning electron microscopy. Canals of extracted human teeth with single and straight canals were stepback prepared using normal saline. Tooth samples were divided into four groups according to the irrigation solutions -5 % sodium hypochlorite and normal saline-and smear layer treatment. The smear layer was removed by 5% NaOCl and 20% EDTA for 10 min respectively. After sterilization, they were incubated with each strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Sodium hypochlorite solution reduced the adhesion of microorganisms effectively compared to normal saline. The smear layer inhibited colonization of E. faecalis, S. aureus and E. coli in the root canals due to their blocking of dentianl tubules. But S. sanguis invaded dentinal tubules in the root canals without smear layer. It was suggested that bacterial attachment might be different according to the strains. Sodium hypochlorite inhibited bacterial attachment in the dentinal tubules dramatically. The absence or presence of smear layer affected bacterial invasion of the dentinal tubules.

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Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis Attachment to Granular Activated Carbon with a Column Experiment (칼럼실험에 의한 입상활성탄에서 Enterococcus faecalis의 부착 연구)

  • Kim, Hyon-Chong;Park, Seong-Jik;Lee, Chang-Gu;Han, Yong-Un;Kim, Song-Bae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ionic strength and iron impregnation on the attachment of Enterococcus faecalis to granular activated carbon (GAC). Column experiments were performed to examine bacterial adhesion to coconutbased GAC (c-GAC), iron-impregnated c-GAC (fc-GAC), acid-washed c-GAC (a-GAC) and iron-impregnated a-GAC (fa-GAC) under two different solution (NaCl 1, 10 mM) conditions. Results showed that bacterial mass recovery in c-GAC decreased from 77.3 to 61.6% while in a-GAC it decreased from 71.6 to 32.3% with increasing ionic strength from 1 to 10 mM. This indicates that bacterial attachment to GAC can be enhanced with increasing ionic strength. Results also showed that the mass recoveries in fc-GAC were 62.6% (1 mM) and 53.3% (10 mM) while they were 50.8% (1 mM) and 16.9%(10 mM) in fa-GAC, which were lower than those in c-GAC and a-GAC. This demonstrates that bacterial adhesion to GAC can be enhanced through iron impregnation. This study provides information regarding the effects of ionic strength and iron impregnation on bacterial attachment to GAC. Furthermore, this study will advance our knowledge of bacterial removal in surface-modified granular media.

Quantification of Bacterial Attachment-related Parameters in Porous Media

  • Park, Seong-Jik;Lee, Chang-Gu;Kim, Song-Bae
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2008
  • Transport of Escherichia coli ATCC 11105 through porous media was investigated in this study using two sets of column experiments to quantify the attachment-related parameters (sticking efficiency, attachment rate coefficient and filter factor). The first set of experiments was performed in quartz sand under different ionic strength conditions (1, 20, 100, 200 mM) while the second experiments were carried out in quartz sand mixed with metal oxyhydroxide-coated sand (0, 5, 10, 25%). The breakthrough curves of bacteria were obtained by monitoring effluent, and then bacterial mass recovery and attachment-related parameters were quantified from these curves. The first experiments showed that the mass recoveries were in the range of 13.3 to 64.7%, decreasing with increasing ionic strength. In the second experiments, the mass recoveries were in the range of 15.0 to 43.4%, decreasing with increasing coated sand content. The analysis indicated that the sticking efficiency, attachment rate coefficient and filter factor increased with increasing ionic strength and coated sand content. The value of filter factor in the first experiments ranged from 1.45 e-2 to 6.72 e-2 1/cm while in the second experiments it ranged from 2.78 e-2 to 6.32 e-2 1/cm. Our filter factor values are one order of magnitude lower than those from other studies. This discrepancy can be attributed to the size of sand used in the experiment. The analysis demonstrated that the travel distance of bacteria estimated using the filter factor can be varied greatly depending on the solution chemistry and charge heterogeneity of porous media.

Physiological Studies on the Formation of Hairy Root by the A. rhizogenes. III. Attachment of A. rhizogenes strain A4 to Carrot(Daucus carota L.) Cells (Agrobacterium rhizogense에 Hairy Root 형성에 대한 생리학적 연구. III. 당근 세포에의 A. rhizogenes의 부착)

  • Hwang, B.;Hwang, S. J.;Ann, J. C.;Jo, H. S.
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.94-98
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    • 1989
  • In vitro attachment experiments of bacteria to surface of host plant cell were carried out using C14 labeled cells of A. rhizogenes strain A4 and carrot protoplasts isolated from suspension culture of cells. Protoplasts were cocultivated with A. rhizogenes at various times after their isolation. Attachment kinetics showed that adherence of bacteria to protoplasts attained a maximum level within 120mins of co-cultivation. Maximum attachment occured at pH 6.0 and 24-35$^{\circ}C$. Bacterial attachment was observed at botg carrot cells with and without primary cell wall. The inhibition of transformation on the carrot root discs by A. rhizogenes was observed when non-related strain and heat inactivated bacterial strain cells were pretreated.

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Bacterial Adhesion And Penetration To e-PTFE Membrane Used For The Guided Tissue Regeneration (치주조직재생유도술용 비흡수성 차폐막 (e-PTFE membrane)에의 세균부착 및 침투)

  • Chung, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Sung-Mi;Lee, Ho-Jae;Kim, Ok-Soo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.103-116
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to observe the bacterial adhesion and penetration to e-PTFE membrane following guided tissue regeneration(GTR) procedure and to evaluate the association of the membrane exposure and bacterial contamination with the clinical outcome. For the study, ten infrabony defects in 9 patient were treated by mucoperiosteal flap operation including placement of the e-PTFE membrane. The treated teeth were monitored weekly for the membrane exposure, gingival recession and gingival inflammation. The membranes were retrieved after 4 to 6 weeks, examined by SEM for bacterial contamination and adherent connective tisue elements, and observed under LM for the bacterial penetration into membrane. Three months postsurgery, the defect sites were clinically reexamined for the changes in attachment level and probing depth. Comparison of the ultrastuctural findings and clinical outcome revealed that extent of membrane exposure and bacterial contamination of the membrane was inversely associated with clinical attachment gain. From this finding, the extent of membrane exposure and the bacterial contamination on the apical portion of the e-PTFE membrane at the time of removal seemed to be a critical determinant on the clinical outcome of GTR and the membrane exposure needs to be controlled for optimal results.

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An Effect of Pre-attached Bacteria on Attachment of Diatoms to Artificial Surf aces Immersed in Seawater (해수에 잠긴 인공기질 표면에 먼저 부착된 박테리아가 규조류의 부착에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon;Cho, Byung-Cheol;Shim, Jae-Hyung;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • The Sea
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 1998
  • Controversial observations on the effect of pre-attached bacteria on the attachment of diatoms to artificial surfaces immersed in seawater have been made. Furthermore, it is not known whether or not pre-attached bacteria on artificial surfaces influence attachment of diatoms in natural seawater. In this study, we used various surfaces to which marine bacteria were pre-attached for different incubation periods. In the first experiment, glass slides were initially attached by marine natural bacteria with different exposure time (0-133 hr) and then immersed into seawater for a certain time period. The attachment of diatoms was not affected by the abundance of pre-attached bacteria (p > 0.05). The maximum abundance of attached diatoms was found on control surfaces, and the minimum abundance on surfaces where attached bacterial abundance was highest. In the second experiment, glass slides and acryl slides, either attached by marine natural bacteria for 6 days or coated by agar, were immersed in seawater. Untreated slides were also employed. On the surfaces of acryl slides with the most abundant attached bacteria ($5.4{\pm}0.02{\times}10^5\;cells\;cm^{-2}$), abundances of attached diatoms were less than those on untreated slides. On the surfaces of glass slides with bacterial abundance of $2.5{\pm}1.0{\times}10^5\;cells\;cm^{-2}$, however, abundances of attached diatoms were not different from those of untreated slides. On the agar-coated slides, the immigration rate and immigration coefficient were on average > 2 folds compared to other surfaces, indicating high rates of diatom attachment on mucilage simulated surfaces. Therefore, it seems that pre-attachment of bacteria is not prerequisite for the attachment of diatoms on artificial surfaces.

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