• Title, Summary, Keyword: Backfat Thickness

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Dominance effects of ion transport and ion transport regulator genes on the final weight and backfat thickness of Landrace pigs by dominance deviation analysis

  • Lee, Young?Sup;Shin, Donghyun;Song, Ki?Duk
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.1331-1338
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    • 2018
  • Although there have been plenty of dominance deviation analysis, few studies have dealt with multiple phenotypes. Because researchers focused on multiple phenotypes (final weight and backfat thickness) of Landrace pigs, the classification of the genes was possible. With genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we analyzed the additive and dominance effects of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The classification of the pig genes into four categories (overdominance in final weight, overdominance in backfat thickness and overdominance in final weight, underdominance in backfat thickness, etc.) can enable us not only to analyze each phenotype's dominant effects, but also to illustrate the gene ontology (GO) analysis with different aspects. We aimed to determine the additive and dominant effect in backfat thickness and final weight and performed GO analysis. Using additive model and dominance deviation analysis in GWASs, Landrace pigs' overdominant and underdominant SNP effects in final weight and backfat thickness were surveyed. Then through GO analysis, we investigated the genes that were classified in the GWASs. The major GO terms of the underdominant effects in final weight and overdominant effects in backfat thickness were ion transport with the SLC8A3, KCNJ16, P2RX7 and TRPC3 genes. Interestingly, the major GO terms in the underdominant effects in the final weight and the underdominant effects in the backfat thickness were the regulation of ion transport with the STAC, GCK, TRPC6, UBASH3B, CAMK2D, CACNG4 and SCN4B genes. These results demonstrate that ion transport and ion transport regulation genes have distinct dominant effects. Through GWASs using the mode of linear additive model and dominance deviation, overdominant effects and underdominant effects in backfat thickness was contrary to each other in GO terms (ion transport and ion transport regulation, respectively). Additionally, because ion transport and ion transport regulation genes are associative with adipose tissue accumulation, we could infer that these two groups of genes had to do with unique fat accumulation mechanisms in Landrace pigs.

Post-parturient Disorders and Backfat Loss in Tropical Sows in Relation to Backfat Thickness before Farrowing and Postpartum Intravenous Supportive Treatment

  • Tummaruk, Padet
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2013
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the evidence of post-parturient disorders and backfat loss during lactation in sows raised in tropical areas in relation to their backfat thickness before farrowing and postpartum intravenous supportive treatment. Backfat thickness was measured using A-mode ultrasonography at farrowing and weaning ($25.5{\pm}1.4$ d) in 70 sows. The sows were divided into three groups according to backfat thickness before farrowing, i.e., 15.0 to 20.0 mm (n = 21), 20.5 to 25.0 mm (n = 35), >25.0 mm (n = 14) and were categorized into two groups according to the postpartum supportive treatment, i.e., control (n = 31) and treatment (n = 39). After farrowing, the sows in treatment group received the same medications as in control sows. Furthermore an intravenous supportive treatment with amino acids and vitamins was administered in treatment groups. Rectal temperature and clinical signs of the sows including vaginal discharge, udder problems and appetite were determined at d 0, 1, 2 and 3 of parturition. It was found that, on average, the backfat thickness was $22.4{\pm}3.9$ mm at farrowing and $19.9{\pm}2.9$ mm at weaning. The backfat loss and the relative backfat loss during the lactation period were 2.6 mm and 10.6%, respectively. The sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm before farrowing lost less backfat than those with a backfat of 20.5 to 25.0 mm and >25.0 mm (p<0.05). Sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm had a better appetite on d 1 postpartum than sows with a backfat of 20.5 to 25.0 mm (p = 0.020). The percentage of sows losing backfat >10% during lactation were higher in sows with a backfat of >25.0 mm before farrowing (85.7%) than sows with a backfat of 15.0 to 20.0 mm before farrowing (35.0%) (p = 0.008). The percentage of sows with a reduced appetite on d 1 (90.3% vs 71.8%, p = 0.018) and d 2 (61.3% versus 33.3%, p = 0.005) postpartum in the treatment group was lower than the control group. In conclusion, the backfat thickness of sows at farrowing influenced backfat loss during lactation under hot and humid climates. The intravenous supportive treatment of sows with amino acid and vitamins significantly improved the appetite of postpartum sows.

Growth Curves Fitting for Body Weight and Backfat Thickness of Swine by Sex (성별에 따른 돼지 체중 및 등지방두께 성장곡선 추정)

  • Choi, Te-Jeong;Seo, Kang-Seok;Choi, Je-Gwan;Kim, Si-Dong;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Choe, Ho-Sung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to establish proper shipping weight and backfat thickness by applying the growth model to backfat thickness, measured by means of not only body weight, but also ultrasonography, and predicting the changes by age. Three breeds, i.e. Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshie, were analyzed, and the Gompertz, logistic, and Von Bertalanffy model were used for inference with the parameter of the growth model being sex. As a result, both body weight and backfat thickness showed different growth curve parameters and characteristics at inflection points depending on model selection and sex. As for backfat thickness, in estimating the inflection point, unlike the case of body weight, the inflection ages of the boars of the Duroc breed was earlier than that of sows, whereas the inflection ages of the sows of the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds was earlier than that of boars. More than anything else, in the analysis of the changes in backfat thickness according to body weight, as the body weight reached 145kg, the backfat thickness showed much variation as great as 1.7-3.2 cm in each breed and sex. In addition, unlike the other breeds, the boars of the Landrace breed showed an exponential type of relationship between body weight and backfat thickness. As they grow to become 100 kg or heavier, abrupt change in back fat thickness was confirmed. If the growth of body weight and backfat thickness is understood and the genetic relationship is taken advantage of like this, it would be possible to set desired body weight and backfat thickness, and thus help effectively set the shipping time. If not only the phenotype, but also genetic parameters about growth characteristics are estimated and analyzed additionally, more effective data can be generated.

Relationships of Concentrations of Endocrine Factors at Antemortem and Postmortem Periods to Carcass Weight and Backfat Thickness in Pigs

  • Yun, J.S.;Seo, D.S.;Rhee, M.S.;Oh, S.;Kim, B.C.;Ko, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2003
  • Carcass weight and backfat thickness are two of important elements in determining the carcass trait in pigs and are studied on animal genetics, nutrition, and endocrinology. Growth factors stimulate or inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In particular, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-$\beta$, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are involved in the growth and maintenance of muscle. Also, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol are known to be related to the obesity and subcutaneous fat depth in pigs. Therefore, this study was performed to relate growth factors (IGFs, TGF-${\beta}1$, and EGF) and hormones (cortisol and DHEA-S) concentrations at antemortem and postmortem periods to carcass traits including carcass weight and backfat thickness. Blood and m. Longissimus were collected in pigs at antemortem (30 days before slaughter) and postmortem periods. After slaughtered, carcass weight and backfat thickness were measured. Growth factors and hormones in serum and m. Longissimus were measured by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assay. Before antemortem period, serum IGF-I and -II concentrations were positively correlated with the carcass weight and backfat thickness in gilts, and the concentrations of TGF- ${\beta}1$ and cortisol in barrows show the correlation with only carcass weight. Also, the positive correlations of muscular IGFs and TGF-${\beta}1$ at postmortem 45 min with the carcass weight and backfat thickness were detected. Consequently, these results suggest that the serum and muscular endocrine factors are involved in the carcass weight and backfat thickness in pigs.

Genetic Parameter Estimates for Backfat Thickness at Three Different Sites and Growth Rate in Swine

  • Kim, J.I.;Sohn, Y.G.;Jung, J.H.;Park, Y.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for backfat thickness at shoulder, mid back and loin and days to 90 kg using a derivative-free REML procedure. Data were collected from 6,146 boars and gilts of purebred Durocs, Landraces and Large Whites performance tested at breeding farms of National Agricultural Cooperatives Federation in Korea from 1998 to 2001. Estimated heritability for backfat measurements at shoulder, mid-back and loin and an average of those backfat measurements were 0.14, 0.32, 0.22 and 0.25 in Durocs, 0.34, 0.50, 0.42 and 0.46 in Landraces and 0.33, 0.52, 0.43 and 0.49 in Large Whites. Heritabilities of backfat measurements estimated were hightest in mid-back and lowest at shoulder. Phenotypic variances of backfat measurements estimated were largest at shoulder and smallest at mid-back. Estimated heritabilities for days to 90 kg were 0.37 in Durocs, 0.42 in Landraces and 0.54 in Large Whites. Genetic correlations among backfat measurements at shoulder, mid-back and loin and an average of those backfat measurements estimated were positive and very high. Genetic correlations of days to 90 kg with the backfat measurements estimated were _0.19 ~ _0.30 in Durocs, _0.04 ~ _0.17 in Landraces and _0.10 ~ _0.13 in Large Whites.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Economic Traits of Hanwoo Cows Using Ultrasound

  • Choy, Yun-Ho;Son, Jun-Kyu;Kong, Hong-Sik;Lee, Hak-Kyo;Park, Kyung-Do
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.505-509
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters and breeding values of the economic traits measured from the cows (aged 15 months or older) using ultrasound and to use them as the information for the selection of stock animals at the farm level. The means and standard deviations of longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score were $54.11\;cm^2{\pm}9.06$, $3.57\;mm{\pm}2.45$ and $2.65{\pm}2.88$, respectively. While the linear regression coefficients of longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score for age (in months) were all positive (0.3532, 0.0868 and 0.0833), the quadratic regression coefficients of them for age (in months) were all negative (-0.0023, -0.0005 and -0.0006), and as the body condition score increased longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score increased collectively. The heritability estimates for the longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.13, respectively and the estimated annual genetic gains for the longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score were 0.00334 $cm^2$, -0.0073 mm and 0.0043 score, respectively, which were not significantly different from zero.

FACTORS INFLUENCING FEED EFFICIENCY AND BACKFAT THICKNESS IN STATION TESTED BEEF BULLS

  • Liu, M.F.;Makarechian, M.;Price, M.A.;Huedepohl, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.495-498
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    • 1995
  • Records taken on 372 young beef bulls tested at the Ellerslie Bull Test Station, Alberta, Canada from November 1981 to April 1987 were analyzed to quantify the effects of age of dam, on-test age, on-test liveweight and herd of origin of bull on feed efficiency (feed/gain, kg/kg) in the test period (n = 231) and ultrasonic measurement of bakcfat thickness (mm) at the end of the test (n = 372). The reduction in $R^2$ due to each influencing factor (i.e. the variation accounted for by the factor) was used to indicate the importance of the influencing factor. Age of dam and on-test age of bull were not important factors on feed/gain and ultrasonic backfat thickness, as they accounted for less than 0.5% of the variation in feed/gain and ultrasonic backfat thickness, respectively (p > 0.1). On-test liveweight had some influence on feed/gain and ultrasonic backfat thickness, accounting for 3.5% (p < 0.01) and 0.4% (p < 0.05) of the total variation, respectively. The regression coefficients of feed/gain and ultrasonic backfat thickness on on-test liveweight were 0.016 (kg/kg)/kg and .013 mm/kg, respectively, both being significant (p < 0.05), indicating that lighter bulls entering the test were generally more efficient in feed utilization in the test period and had less backfat at the end of the test than heavier entering bulls. Herd of origin of bull accounted for a substantial amount of the total variation (> 16%) in feed/gain and ultrasonic backfat thickness (p = 0.08), indicating that a prolonged aqjustment period was needed to reduce the influence of herd of origin when assessing aggregate genetic merit of beef bulls for growth rate, feed efficiency and lean meat production using a central station performance testing program.

Association of Backfat Thickness with Postheparin Lipoprotein Lipase Activity and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Subfractions in Growing Pigs

  • Loh, T.C.;Lean, I.J.;Dodds, P.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1592-1597
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    • 2001
  • Sixteen pigs from 2 distinct genetic lines (LGAH and VFIL) obtained after eight generations of divergent selection for high (H) and low (L) lean tissue growth rate with ad-libitum feeding (LGA) and voluntary feed intake (VF1), respectively, were used in this study. The objectives of this investigation were to establish appropriate working conditions for the postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) assay and to study relationships between fat deposition and plasma lipids, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipids, VLDL-subfractions and postheparin plasma LPL activity in growing pigs. Four preliminary experiments were performed to determine the appropriate working conditions for the postheparin plasma LPL assays. Postheparin plasma preincubated with SDS (20-50 mM) at $26^{\circ}C$ for 45 minutes inhibited hepatic lipase activity. A total of $2{\mu}l$ VLDL/assay produced maximum stimulation of LPL activity. Postheparin plasma protein and increasing incubation time contributed an optimum response. LGAH pigs had a significantly higher proportion subtraction 2 than VFIL pigs. No differences were observed in postheparin plasma LPL activity and backfat thickness for two lines of pigs. There were positive correlations between backfat thickness and proportion of subtractions 2 and postheparin plasma LPL activity but the results were not statistically significant. Backfat thickness was not statistically correlated with proportion of subtraction 2 and postheparin plasma LPL activity in a multiple regression analysis. It is believed that the apolipoprotein E, which is present in higher quantities in VLDL-subfraction 2 plays an important role for clearing VLDL triacylglycerol into adipose tissue. LPL activity of pigs can be measured by using postheparin plasma technique. If the relationships of backfat thickness and VLDL-subfraction 2 and postheparin plasma LPL activity can be established, it suggests that these parameters could be used as indicators in selection programmes. Further experiments need to be conducted by using larger sample size and different breed of pigs with greater differences in backfat thicknesses to confirm these trends.

Pork Quality Characteristics by Different Backfat Thickness (등지방 두께에 따른 돈육의 품질 특성)

  • Hah Kyoung-Hee;Jin Sang-Keun;Kim Il-Suk;Song Young-Min;Lee Jae-Ryong;Chung Ku-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.391-396
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was carried out investigate the changes of carcass characteristics, physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition in crossbred pigs (Korean native breed ${\times}$ Landrace breed) by backfat thickness. A total 182 Pigs were divided into 3 groups by there backfat thickness, i.e., <11.80mm, $11.80\~25.01mm\;and\;25.01mm<.$ The live weight carcass weight and dressing percent of backfat thickness 25.01mm< group were higher compared to those for backfat thickness <11,80mm and $11.80\~25.01mm group, but the final grade were lower. The pH of backfat thickness 25.01mm< group were higher compared to those for backfat thickness <11.80mm and $11.80\~25.01mm$ group. Shear lone of 25.01 mm< group were lower than that of other groups. Water, crude fat content and cooking loss have no difference between the 3 groups. The hardness of backfat thickness 25.01mm< group were higher compared to those for backfat thickness <11.80mm and $11.80\~25.01mm$ group. The yellowness $(b^*)$ of meat and fat color in backfat thickness 25.01mm< group were lower compared to those for backfat thickness <11.80mm and $11.80\~25.01mm$ group. The stearic acid and saturated fatty acid content were higher compared to those for backfat thickness <11.80mm and $11.80\~25.01mm$ group but the linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acid content were lower.

Studies on Early Selection of Excellent Gilts for Improvement of Reproductive Efficiency I. First Estus and Litter Size of Candidate Gilts (번식효율 증진을 위한 후보 종빈돈의 조기선발에 관한 연구 I. 후보 종빈돈의 첫발정 일령과 산자수)

  • 손동수;이장희;최선호;연성흠;류일선;서국현;허태영;박성재;조규호
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2003
  • These studies were performed to improve the reproductive efficiency of gilts and we investigated the effects of puberty periods, first mating time and backfat thickness and will adapt to these results for early selection of excellent gilts. The main results were as follows; 1. First heats on birth season were showed 194.14 day, 163.25 day, 160.25 day and 157.92 day at birth of spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively and birth of spring was significantly latest among other seasons (p<0.01). 2. First service on birth season were revealed 222.05 day in spring, 193.00 day in summer, 199.20 day in autumn and 190.11 day in winter. birth of spring was significantly latest among others (p<0.01). 3. First heat period of cadidated gilt had 13∼16 mm backfat thickness was 180.32 day, 171.24 day in 17∼20 mm and 162.20 day in 21∼23 mm and was showed delay in thin backfat gilts. There was no differences among backfat thickness. 4. First service of cadidate gilt had 13∼16mm backfat thickness was 211.12 day, 202.43 day in 17∼20 mm and 195.43 day in 21∼23 mm and was showed delay in thin backfat gilts. There was no differences among backfat thickness. 5. The litter size were 9.64 in gilts under 160 day of first heat, 10.14 in 161∼180 day, 9.56 in 181∼200 day and 9.13 in over 201 day. There showed the largest litter size in 161∼180 day of first heat but was no differences. 6. The litter size in gilts under 180 day of first service was 9.13, 9.75 in 181∼200 day, 10.13 in 201∼220 day and 9.45 in over 221 day. There showed the largest litter size in 201∼220 day of first service but was no differences. 7. The litter size of gilt had 13∼16 mm backfat thickness on first service was 9.33, 9.81 in 17∼20 mm and 10.17 in 21∼23 mm and was showed delay in thin backfat gilts. There was no differences among backfat thickness.