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Effects of Ramulus mori Extract on Obesity and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat Diet Rats (상지추출물이 고지방식이에 의한 체중 변화와 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현수;정지천
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2002
  • Objective: Ramulus mori (RM) has been known to be effective for the treatment of obesity. To show the effectiveness of RM in a more scientific way, RM extract was prepared and evaluated in high fat diet rats by measuring the changes of body weight and lipid metabolism as described briefly below. Methods: 200 g of crushed RM was extracted withmethyl alcohol. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give 33.4 g. For 10 weeks, control group rats were fed a high fat diet, while the test group rats were fed with the same diet plus RM extract. The normal group was fed with a normal diet. 150 mg of RM extract per 1 kg of body weight was added to the diet in the test group rats. Results: The control group rats on the high fat diet gained weight significantly, whereas the test group rats on the high fat diet plus RM extract gamed less weight. The significant increase of liver weight caused by the high fat diet was also inhibited by the RM extract treatment. Total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of serum in the high fat diet rats were remarkably increased, whereastheir levels on the high fat diet plus RM extract were less increased. While serum HDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably decreased in the high fat diet, its level was less decreased in the high fat diet plus RM extract. Furthermore, we observed that the activities of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase increased under the high fat diet, while their activities under the high fat diet plus RM extract were getting back nearly to the normal levels of the normal diet rats. Conclusions: These result show that the obesity caused by a high fat diet was effectively inhibited by an RM extract. Our results also showed that the abnormal lipid metabolism caused by a high fat diet was effectively cured by adding RM extract.

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A study on Somatotype Classification of the Early Middle-Aged Women (중년 전기 여성의 체형 유형화에 관한 연구)

  • 심정희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1386-1397
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to classify and analyze the somatotype of early middle-aged women and to provide its total data for clothing construction, and to improve clothing culture. The subjects were 277 early middle-aged women between 35 and 44 years old. Data were collected through anthropometry and photometry and analyzed by factor analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results were as follows; 1. The result of factor analysis indicated that 10 factors were extracted through factor analysis and those factors comprised 86.13 percent of total variance. 2. Using factor scores, cluster analysis was carried out and the subject were classified into 4 cluster. Type 1 is tall, slim, and X type in front. Type 2 is standard height and weight, short upper body, and hip-protruded on the side. Type 3 is standard height, thin, H type in front, back and hip are clearly protruded, and lean-back type on the side. Type 4 is standard height, fat, and long upper body. 3. According to the stepwise discriminant analysis, the 8 important iems is classifying the somatotype of early middle-aged women are as follows : bust girth, back length hip breadth-waist breadth, back protruded point depth(back)-back waist depth(back), hip tangent tilt, hip depth(back) waist dapth(back), bust depth-waist depth, and cervical hight, The correct classification rate for these items is as exact as 83.20%.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization and castration in male pigs: effects on growth, hormonal levels, antibody titer response, testicular function, back fat, and consumers' sensory perceptions

  • Yamsakul, Panuwat;Patchanee, Prapas;Yano, Terdsak;Boonma, Thanawish;Somkert, Chalermchart;Sathanawongs, Anucha
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine on pig growth, carcass quality, and sensory perceptions of pork meat by Thai consumers. Male crossbred pigs (n = 30) were separated into three groups of 10 pigs each: boars, immunocastrated pigs, and surgically castrated pigs. The immunocastrated group was immunized at 13 and 19 weeks of age with GnRH vaccine ($400{\mu}g/dose$). All pigs were slaughtered at 24 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected and testes size determined. Testes weight and back fat thickness were recorded at the time of slaughter, and meat samples were collected for sensory assessment by Thai consumers. Testosterone and progesterone concentration levels decreased significantly two weeks after the second dose of GnRH (p < 0.05), and the GnRH antibody titer of the immunocastrated pigs was significantly high two weeks after the second dose of GnRH (p < 0.05). GnRH vaccine significantly reduced the weight and size of testes. Thai consumers reported no significant differences in odor or flavor among meat samples from the three groups. In conclusion, immunocastration improved growth performance, removed the need for castration surgery, and avoided "boar taint" in the meat. It has also no distinct trace of the boar taint same as pork that is currently produced from physically castrated pig which is making it acceptable to consumers.

Identification of genetic polymorphisms in FABP3 and FABP4 and putative association with back fat thickness in Korean native cattle

  • Cho, Seo-Ae;Park, Tae-Sung;Yoon, Du-Hak;Cheong, Hyun-Sub;Namgoong, Sohg;Park, Byung-Lae;Lee, Hye-Won;Han, Chang-Soo;Kim, Eun-Mi;Cheong, Il-Cheong;Kim, Hee-Bal;Shin, Hyoung-Doo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the beef cattle adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein 3 and 4 (FABP3 and FABP4) genes are associated with carcass weight (CW) and back fat thickness (BF) of beef cattle. By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean native cattle, we identified 20 SNPs in FABP3 and FABP4. Among them, 10 polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle. We performed SNP, haplotype and linkage disequilibrium studies on 419 Korean native cattle with the 10 SNPs in the FABP genes. Statistical analysis revealed that 220A>G (I74V) and 348+303T>C polymorphisms in FABP4 showed putative associations with BF traits (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms in FABP4 may play a role in determining one of the important genetic factors that influence BF in beef cattle.

Skinfold thickness and total body fat in children (사람의 피부두겹 및 총지방량에 관한 연구 - 제 2 편 아이의 피부두겹 두께 및 총지방량 -)

  • Cho, Yoon-Shik
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1971
  • Body volume, density and %fat were calculated by means of formulas using body height, weight, and surface area in 1,732 children aged between 6 and 12 years. Skinfold thicknesses on back, arm, waist and abdomen were measured by means of a Lange caliper. The course of increase in body volume was identical to those of body height, weight, relative weight and surface area. Curves of boys and girls showed a cross at the age of between 10 and 11 years. Body density of boys increased with the age and it decreased in girls. Total body fat showed a progressive decrease from the age of 6 in boys. In girls body fat increased progressively with the age. Skinfold thickness increased both in boys and girls with the age. At the same age skinfold thicknesses on all sites were greater in girls than boys.

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Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis -A case report- (척추 경막외 지방종증 -증례보고-)

  • Kim, Sae Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.249-252
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    • 2009
  • Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition of pathological overgrowth of fat tissue in the vertebral canal. SEL leads to back pain, radiculopathy or paraparesis. Glucocorticoids seem to play a major role in the development of SEL. SEL is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. The treatment of SEL is directed at reducing the body weight and decreasing the excess glucocorticoid. In severe cases, decompressive laminectomy with removal of the excess epidural fat might become necessary to alleviate the neurological symptoms caused by spinal cord compression.

Genetic Analyses of Carcass Characteristics in Crossbred Pigs: Cross between Landrace Sows and Korean Wild Boars

  • Choy, Y.H.;Jeon, G.J.;Kim, T.H.;Choi, B.H.;Cheong, I.C.;Lee, H.K.;Seo, K.S.;Kim, S.D.;Park, Y.I.;Chung, H.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1080-1084
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    • 2002
  • Carcass characteristics of 241 crossbred pigs (Korean wild boars ${\times}$ Landrace sows) were analyzed to examine variations in fasted body weight (FASTWT), carcass weight (CARCWT), dressing percentage (DP), back fat thickness (BFT) and longissimus muscle weight (LMW), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using three different slaughter-end points. Covariates in the least squares full sib model were slaughter age, fasted body weight and back fat thickness of the carcass. Coefficient of variation was highest for BFT followed by LMW, CARCWT, FASTWT and DP in magnitude. Regressions of three covariates on traits were all linear. However, slaughter age was not significant as a linear covariate for five traits while FASTWT was significant for CARCWT and LMW and BFT was significant for all remaining traits. Genetic and phenotypic variation was considerably reduced by regressing FASTWT or BFT in the model. Heritability estimates of FASTWT, CARCWT, DP and BFT were 0.68, 0.61, 0.11 and 0.49, respectively, using slaughter age as covariate (model 1). Those of CARCWT, DP, BFT and LMW were 0.15, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.11, respectively, using FASTWT as covariate (model 2). Heritability estimates of the traits using LMW as covariate (model 3) were similar to the estimates from Model 1 except that the estimate of CARCWT was reduced to 0.39. Genetic or phenotypic correlations among FASTWT, CARCWT and BFT were all positive and moderate to high. Those between BFT and LMW were also positive and low to moderate. However, genetic and phenotypic correlations between DP and CARCWT were positive while those between DP and FASTWT were negative. It was suggested from this study that differences in carcass yield traits be determined using slaughter age or back fat thickness as slaughter-end point and carcass quality traits using fasted body weight as slaughter-end point.

Relationship between Low Back Pain and Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles Fat Change in MRI (편측 요통을 호소하는 환자에 있어서 척추 주위 근육의 지방량과 통증과의 관계)

  • Kim, Ha-Neul;Kim, Kyoung-Hun;Kim, Joo-Won;Jin, Eun-Seok;Ha, In-Hyuk;Koh, Dong-Hyun;Hong, Soon-Sung;Kwon, Hyeok-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.135-143
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : Low back pain(LBP) is a common disabling disease in clinical practice and loss of working hours due to this condition is huge. The aim of this study was to determine if there was an association between fat deposit of paraspinal muscles as observed on MRI scans in patients presenting with unilateral LBP. Methods : 24 patients who visiting our hospital with a clinical presentation of unilateral LBP were recruited to the study. Patients were between 20 and 30 years and had a history of unilateral LBP within 12 months. After MRI scaning, the images were saved in DICOM file format for Picture Archiving and Communication System(PACS). The percentage of fat infiltrated area was measured using a pseudocoloring technique. Data were analyzed comparing the fat deposits of the muscles on the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. Paired t-test was used to find the difference between the measurements of fat tissue in individual patients. Results : The amount of fat in the symptomatic side was $7.6{\pm}4.51%$, asymptomatic side was $6.7{\pm}4.29%$. There were increases, statistically significant, in the fat changes of the paraspinal muscles at the L4-5 disc level(P <0.05). Also, men were likely than women to have more fat deposit in symptomatic side(men $8.5{\pm}5.1%$, women $6.5{\pm}3.6%$). Conclusions : The amount of fat in the symptomatic side shows significantly increased than asymptomatic side in the paraspinal muscles at the L4-5 disc level. It suggested that fat infiltration in the muscles associated with LBP. Further studies will be needed to confirm the relationship between the muscle fatty changes and LBP in the large sample size. In addition, the correlation of pain severity with fat infiltration needs to be addressed.

Total Body Fat Estimated by Means of Densitometry and Skinfold Thickness Method in Middle Aged Housewives (밀도법 및 피부두겹법에 의한 중년부인의 총지방량 측정)

  • Choi, D.K.;Shin, H.S.;Hwang, E.R.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.89-93
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    • 1968
  • Total body fat measurements were performed in 342 housewives. In 44 of them(age 38.4 yr.) both the densitometry and skinfold thickness methods were made and regression equations between skinfold and total body fat were derived. In the 298 housewives(age 35.0 yr.) skinfold thickness at four sites (arm, back, waist, abdomen) were measured and total body fat was calculated. The following results were obtained. 1. The data in 44 subjects by means of densitometry and skinfold thickness were: body weight: 51.8 kg, body length: 153.4 cm, body surface area: $1.47\;m^2$, body volume: 50.2 l, body density: 1.0334 kg/l, total body fat: 25.2% body weight, mean skinfold thickness at four sites 14.9 mm. 2. There were correlations of high degree between skinfold thickness and fat (%), fat (kg), and body density. The correlation coefficients were r=0.767, r=0.846, r= -0.765, respectively. Subsequently, the following regression equations were obtained. %fat=$0.39{\times}Mean$ skinfold thickness(mm)+19.36 Fat(kg)=$0.414{\times}Mean$ skinfold thickness(mm)+7.01 Body density=$-0.00099{\times}Mean$ skinfold thickness(mm)+1.0489 3. In 298 subjects mean skinfold thickness of four sites was 20.6mm and total body fat was calculated as 27.4% body weight from the above equation.

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Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

  • Yusuf, A.L.;Goh, Y.M.;Samsudin, A.A.;Alimon, A.R.;Sazili, A.Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2014
  • The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).