• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back fat

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Construction of Ovine Customer cDNA Chip and Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns in the Muscle and Fat Tissues of Native Korean Cattle (cDNA microarray를 이용하여 한우의 근육과 지방조직의 유전자 발현 패턴 분석 및 bovine customer cDNA chip 구성 연구)

  • Han, Kyung Ho;Choi, Eun Young;Hong, Yeon-Hee;Kim, Jae Yeong;Choi, In Soon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Choi, Yun Jaie;Cho, Kwang Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the molecular events of controlling intramuscular fat (or marbling), which is an important factor in the evaluation of beef quality, we performed cDNA microarray analyses using the longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat tissues. For this study, we constructed normalized cDNA libraries: fat tissues in native Korean cattle (displaying 1,211 specific genes), and muscle tissues in native Korean cattle (displaying 1,346 specific genes). A bovine cDNA chip was constructed with 1,680 specific genes, consisting of 760 genes from muscle tissues and 920 genes from fat tissues. The microarray analysis in this experiment showed a number of differentially expressed genes, which compared the longissimus dorsi muscle (Cy5) with back fat tissue (Cy3). Among many specific differentially expressed genes, 12-lipoxygenase (oxidizing esterified fatty acids) and prostaglandin D synthase (differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes) are the key candidate enzymes that should be involved in controlling the accumulation of intramuscular fat. In this study, differentially and commonly expressed genes in the muscle and fat tissues of native Korean cattle were found in large numbers, using the hybridization assay. The expression levels of the selected genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the results were similar to those of the cDNA microarray.

The effects of subcutaneos fat on the system of clothing weights (체지방률이 착의량체계에 미친 영향)

  • 김양원
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 1997
  • The rates of subcutaneos fat on the system of clothing weights including clothing microclimate subjective sensations were measured to get basic data to develop guideline for healthy clothing life. for this study skinfold thickness the rate of subcutaneos fot clothing microclimate subjective sensations and clothing weights were measured from 85 male and 105 female colligians. The results were as follows: 1. The rate of subcutaneos fat showed negative correlation with the temperature inside clothing in chest but not with the temperatures in back and thigh. The correlation was not significant between the rate of subcutaneos fat and humidity inside clothing 2. The correlation between the rate of subcutaneos fat and thermal sensations was positively significant at 5% level. However no correlation was found between the rate of subcutaneos fat and humid sensations. 3. There was significant correlation between the rate of subcutaneos fat and under clothing weights and total clothing weights.

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Total Body Fat Estimation by Means of Densitometry and Skinfold Thickness in Middle-Aged Men (밀도법 및 피부두겹법에 의한 중년 남자의 총지방량 측정)

  • Nam, Kwang-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1974
  • Formulas for the prediction of total body fat from skinfold thickness in middle aged men were presented. Hydrostatic weighing was made on 35 middle-aged men $(age:\;40{\sim}50\;years)$ sad corrected for residual volume in lung. Skinfold thickness at four sites, namely, arm, back, waist and abdomen were compared with total fat calculated from the formula given by Keys and Brozek and regression equations were derived. In middle-aged men the observed values were: Body density, 1.07478 ; total body fat, 10.51% body weight; lean body mass, 89.49% body weight; arm skinfold thickness, 4.85mm; back, 10.4 ; waist, 7.72; abdomen, 7.62 and mean skinfold thickness of the four sites, 7.59 mm. The correlations between skinfold thickness and body density were high. The correlations between skinfold thickness and total body fat were also high. The coefficient of correlation between total body fat and arm skinfold, mean skinfold thickness were r=0.839 and r=0.862, respectively. Arm and mean skinfold thicknesses (x, mm) could be used as the representative value for the prediction of total body fat (y, % body weight). The regression equations were: On arm y=2.00x+0.99, With mean skinfold y=1.20x+1.41 The coefficient of correlation between body weight (kg) and mean skinfold thickness was r=0.733. The ratio of mean skinfold thickness (mm) to body weight (kg) in middle-aged men was 0.132.

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The analyses of blood lipids and physical fitness between normal and obese women of chronic low back pain patients (만성 요통환자중 비만그룹과 정상그룹과의 혈중지질 및 체력분석)

  • Hwang, Jae-Chul;Han, Sang-Wan;Kim, Yong-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.683-696
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    • 2000
  • To examine the blood lipids, muscle strength and flexibility at low back, and muscle strength in the knee joint, 44 women, who were diagnosed as chronic low back pain patients and aged between 40 to 50 years old, were recruited as the subjects. The women were divided into two groups: 1) body fat content less than 25% and 2) body fat content more than 30%. The results were: 1) No differences were found between two groups in blood lipids status. 2) The total cholesterol were less 3.78% in the normal group than the obese group. 3) The HDL-cholesterol were higher 4.85% in the normal group than the obese group. 4) The TG were less 13.1% in the normal group than the obese group. 5) No differences were found between two groups in muscle strength and flexibility 6) No differences were found between two groups in the peak torque of knee joint 7) The total work of the knee joints were higher in the normal group than the obese(P<.05). 8) The abdominal strength were higher 34.04% in the normal group than the obese group. 9) The flexibility of low back were higher 44.54% in the normal group than the obese group.

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The Effect of an Exercise Program on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Obese Female College Students (운동프로그램이 비만여대생의 신체조성과 체력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyang-Dong;Park, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was done to analyze the effects of an exercise program on body composition and physical fitness of obese female college students. Method: Data was collected from September 29, 2003 to December, 29, 2003. The research design was arandomized control group pretest-posttest experimental design. The subjects were college nursing students at K University. Forty four students, 20 in the experimental group and 24 ina control group, with more than $30\%$ body fat were randomly assigned. The subjects in the experimental group participated in an exercise program for 12 weeks, sixty minutes per session, five times per week. Body composition and physical fitness was measured by a body composition analyzer, cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength(grip strength, back strength), flexibility, balance, agility(whole body reaction time) and power(standing long jump). Result: Body weight(F=4.76, p=0.035), body fat(kg)(F=5.68, p=0.022) and body mass index(F=5.73, p=0.021) of the experimental group were significantly different from the control group, but there were no significant differences in body fat($\%$), lean body mass, muscle mass and WHR. Back strength(F=6.50, p=0.015), flexibility(F=14.62, p=0.000), muscle endurance(F=7.98, p=0.007), power(F=5.76, p=0.02l) and balance(F=2.46, p=0.018) of the experimental group were significantly different from the control group, but there were no significant differences in cardiovascular endurance, grip strength or agility. Conclusiton: The exercise program was effective in improving body weight, body fat(kg), body mass index, back strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, balance and power of obese female college students.

Association of GHRH, H-FABP and MYOG Polymorphisms with Economic Traits in Pigs

  • Cho, Eun Seok;Park, Da Hye;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Jung, Won Youg;Kwon, Eun Jung;Kim, Chul Wook
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.307-312
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    • 2009
  • The study of candidate genes is an important tool to identify genes associated with economic traits. Three genes were selected to study the association between polymorphism and economic traits and breed of pigs. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) takes part in growth metabolism and is one of the candidate genes known to be highly associated with economic traits in pigs. Heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is related to back fat thickness and intramuscular fat (IMF) content, and myogenin (MYOG) is associated with the amount of growth rate and lean yield in pigs. By PCR-RFLP analysis, the association between the genotypes of the three genes and the average daily gain, back fat thickness, feed conversion, body length and meat percent in 352 pigs (112 Duroc pigs, 132 Landrace pigs and 108 Yorkshire pigs) were analyzed. GHRH polymorphisms showed differences depending on breed (p<0.01) and were associated with meat percent. H-FABP polymorphisms also showed significant differences among breeds and sex (p<0.01), and were highly associated with average daily gain, feed conversion and back fat thickness (p<0.01) and even showed an association with meat percent (p<0.05). However, the MYOG gene showed no significant effect in this study. These results reconfirmed that GHRH and H-FABP are potential major genes or markers for economic traits.

Association of a Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) Polymorphism with Back Fat Thickness in Berkshire Pigs

  • Cho, Eun-Seok;Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong;Lee, Si-Woo;Park, Jong-Woon;Raveendar, Sebastian;Jang, Gul-Won;Kim, Tae-Hun;Lee, Kyung-Tai
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.515-520
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    • 2013
  • Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key regulatory enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. It is one of four pyruvate kinase isoenzymes that widely differ in their occurrence according to tissue type. PKM2 is expressed in differentiated tissues, such as fat tissues, lung, as well as normal proliferating cells, embryonic cells, and tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PKM2 gene with meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We detected a SNP (g.34341 A>G) in the 3'UTR region of the PKM2 gene in 670 Berkshire pigs through DNA sequencing. Three genotypes, AA, AG, and GG, were found for this SNP, but based on an association analysis with meat quality traits, genotype AA was significantly associated with thicker back fat than genotype GG (p=0.027). Therefore, the g.34341 A>G polymorphism in the 3'UTR region of the porcine PKM2 gene could be applied in pig breeding programs to improve back fat thickness.

The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

  • Ha, Ki-Young;Park, Hojin;Park, Seung-Ha;Lee, Byung-Il;Ji, Yi-Hwa;Kim, Tae-Yeon;Yoon, Eul-Sik
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2015
  • Background The survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the process of fat absorption were studied. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at $-20^{\circ}C$ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination. Results In the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively. Conclusions ASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results.

The Quality Improvement of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages Formulated by Substituting Pork Back fat with Rice Bran Oil

  • Yum, Hyeon-Woong;Seo, Jin-Kyu;Jeong, Jin-Yeon;Kim, Gap-Don;Rahman, M. Shafiur;Yang, Han-Sul
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.123-134
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    • 2018
  • The effects of pork back fat (PBF) substitution with various concentrations of rice bran oil (RBO) (50%, 45%, 40% and 35%) on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of emulsion-type pork sausages were studied. The modified pork sausages were compared with control sausages produced using PBF only. The sausages with RBO had significantly lower (p<0.05) moisture content than the control sausages. Sausages made from PBF substituted with 40% RBO showed the lowest cooking loss. Substitution of PBF with RBO had no significant effect on the emulsion stability of pork sausages. All sausages with RBO showed significantly lower (p<0.05) hardness values than control sausages. Sausages with RBO also had significantly higher values (p<0.05) of unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid contents than the controls. RBO substitution had no effect on the flavor intensity of sausages, but it improved the tenderness and produced a softer texture.

Reduction of Fat Accumulation in Broiler Chickens by Sauropus Androgynus (Katuk) Leaf Meal Supplementation

  • Santoso, Urip;Sartini, Sartini
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.346-350
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    • 2001
  • The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of Sauropus. androgynus leaf (SAL) meal on reducing fat accumulation in broiler chickens. Eighty unsexed broiler chickens were allocated to four treatment groups with five replicates of four chickens each. SAL meal supplementation had no effect on body, leg, back, breast, wing, liver and heart weights, carcass protein, moisture and ash contents (p>0.05). Broilers fed diets supplemented with 30 g of SAL meal had lower feed intake with better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) than did the control chickens. SAL supplementation at all levels significantly reduced fat accumulation in abdomen region, and liver (p<0.01), and in carcass (p<0.05). Higher SAL supplementation resulted in lower fat accumulation in the carcass ($r^{2}=0.94$; p<0.01), abdomen ($r^{2}=0.99$; p<0.01) and liver ($r^{2}=0.98$; p<0.01). The current study showed that a 30 g supplementation of SAL meal to the broiler diet was effective to improve feed conversion ratio without reducing body weight. SAL meal supplementation to the diet reduce fat accumulation in broiler chickens.