• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back fat

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Quality Characteristics of Pressed Ham Containing Olive Oil (올리브유가 함유된 프레스햄 품질특성)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ill;Yang, Han-Sul;Jeong, Jin-Yeon;Jung, Jae-Doo;Lee, Jin-Woo;Ha, Young-Joo;Kwack, Suk-Chun;Park, Jeong-Suk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of olive oil on the quality characteristics of pressed ham. Five different treatments were tested based on differences in the amount of olive oil added to the pressed ham. As a control, 10% back fat was added without any olive oil. For the first treatment, 5% olive oil replaced a portion of the lard component added to the press ham. For the 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments, 10%, 15% and 20% of olive oil were substituted for lard, respectively. Pressed ham manufactured with olive oil was vacuum packaged and stored for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at $4^{\circ}C$. Samples were analyzed for shear force value, sensory properties, TBARS values and fatty acid composition. Shear force values increased significantly during storage for all treatments. No remarkable differences were found in sensory properties (color, flavor, texture, and acceptability) between the control and olive oil treated hams, and there was no clear change with increased storage time. There was no significant difference in TBARS values between the control and olive oil treated hams. The TBARS values increased significantly during storage for all treatments. With regard to changes in fatty acid composition, the contents of C14:0-C20:4 were decreased significantly by the addition of olive oil. The saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the control were significantly higher than the olive oil treated hams. Higher levels of added olive oil resulted in significantly higher monounsaturated fatty acid contents. Based on these findings, we conclude that the sensory properties and lipid oxidation (TBARS) of manufactured pressed hams are not affected by olive oil addition. These results also indicate that high-quality pressed ham can be manufactured with increased monounsaturated fatty acid content.

Comparison of Breeding Value by Establishment of Genomic Relationship Matrix in Pure Landrace Population (유전체 관계행렬 구성에 따른 Landrace 순종돈의 육종가 비교)

  • Lee, Joon-Ho;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Cho, Chung-Il;Park, Kyung-Do;Lee, Deuk Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2013
  • Genomic relationship matrix (GRM) was constructed using whole genome SNP markers of swine and genomic breeding value was estimated by substitution of the numerator relationship matrix (NRM) based on pedigree information to GRM. Genotypes of 40,706 SNP markers from 448 pure Landrace pigs were used in this study and five kinds of GRM construction methods, G05, GMF, GOF, $GOF^*$ and GN, were compared with each other and with NRM. Coefficients of GOF considering each of observed allele frequencies showed the lowest deviation with coefficients of NRM and as coefficients of GMF considering the average minor allele frequency showed huge deviation from coefficients of NRM, movement of mean was expected by methods of allele frequency consideration. All GRM construction methods, except for $GOF^*$, showed normally distributed Mendelian sampling. As the result of breeding value (BV) estimation for days to 90 kg (D90KG) and average back-fat thickness (ABF) using NRM and GRM, correlation between BV of NRM and GRM was the highest by GOF and as genetic variance was overestimated by $GOF^*$, it was confirmed that scale of GRM is closely related with estimation of genetic variance. With the same amount of phenotype information, accuracy of BV based on genomic information was higher than BV based on pedigree information and these symptoms were more obvious for ABF then D90KG. Genetic evaluation of animal using relationship matrix by genomic information could be useful when there is lack of phenotype or relationship and prediction of BV for young animals without phenotype.

Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content of TMR Feed on the Productivity and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Steers (TMR 사료의 물리적 유효 NDF 함량이 한우 거세비육우의 생산성과 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Byong Tae;Park, Jae Hyun;Cho, Won Mo;Kim, Sang Woo;Jang, Se Young;Moon, Sang Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to evaluate accurately physical characteristics of total mixed rations (TMR) by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in fattening steers. Twelve Hanwoo (Bos Taurus coreanae) steers aged 26 months were used in this trial. Steers were offered one of two total mixed ration (TMR) diets - High or Low physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content groups-that were differentiated by mixing time. The carcass traits of the experimental animals were evaluated by Korea Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE) after slaughter. Body weight gain during the experimental period was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the High group ($30.00{\pm}10.27kg$) compared with the Low group ($17.20{\pm}6.34kg$), and daily weight gain was also high in the former. Although there was no significant difference, the carcass weight was higher in the High group ($414.60{\pm}34.28kg$) compared with the Low group ($377.80{\pm}11.97kg$). However, the beef quality grade of the Low group ($1^{++}$) was higher than that of the High group ($1^+$). Increases in body weight gain, daily gain, and carcass weight for the High group were mainly influenced by a high level of dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility; consequently, back-fat thickness increased and the beef quality grade was lowered. Because growth performance and carcass characteristics were affected by the physical traits of the diet, we suggested that proper peNDF content is also needed for fattening steers.

Effects of Geographic Locations and Year-Seasons of Birth on Ultrasound Scanned Measures and Carcass Traits of Hanwoo Steers (한우 거세우의 초음파 생체진단형질과 도체형질에 대한 지역과 출생년도 및 계절 효과 분석)

  • Cheong, Jae-Kyoung;Oh, Yun-Taek;Choi, Ho-Nam;Lee, Cheol-Hak;Kim, Kang-Hee;Kim, Ki-Yang;Choy, Yun-Ho;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Hwang, Jeong-Mi
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.247-253
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    • 2012
  • Ultrasound measures of back fat thickness (UBF), eye muscle area (UEMA) and marbling score (UMS) and carcass measures of carcass weight (CW), backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA) and marbling score (MS) were available on 26,129 Hanwoo steers. Statistically significant differences by regions of the farms location and birth years-seasons for the steers taken ultrasound measures and their carcass measures (p<0.01) were found. Steers in Gyeonggi province showed the highest values in ultrasound measures and carcass traits except in BF compared to steers in the other provinces. Comparing between ultrasound and carcass measures, UBF was thicker in general than BF in all regions except in Daejeon city. UEMA was higher than EMA in all regions except in Gyeonggior in Jeju provinces. Especially, the difference in Jeonnam province between UEMA and EMA was $7cm^2$ while the differences between UMS and MS ranged from 0.9 to 2.26 depending on the regions of steers located. Steers born in spring showed greater ultrasound or carcass values than those born in autumn. However, carcass measures of steers born in autumn were greater than those born in spring, 2009 except MS. The pearson and residual correlations were 0.63 and 0.65 between UBF and BF, 0.31 and 0.32 between UEMA and EMA and 0.56 and 0.56 between UMS and MS, respectively.

Effect of Feeding Whole Crop Barley Silage- or Whole Crop Rye Silage based-TMR and Duration of TMR Feeding on Growth, Feed Cost and Meat Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (청보리 사일리지 TMR 또는 청호밀 사일리지 TME 급여 및 급여기간이 거세 한우의 증체, 사료비 및 육질특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Jin, Guang Lin;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Qin, Wei-Ze;Jeong, Jun;Jang, Sun-Sik;Sohn, Yong-Suk;Choi, Chang-Won;Song, Man-Kang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2012
  • Feeding trial was conducted with 80 Hanwoo steers (7.5 months of age, 204.4 kg body weight) for 680 days from growing period to late fattening period to examine the feeding value of whole crop barley silage TMR (BS-TMR) and whole crop rye silage TMR (RS-TMR) on body gain, feed cost, slaughter characteristics and quality characteristics of $longissimus$ $dorsi$ muscle. Dietary treatments were conventional separate feeding of concentrate and rice straw (control), feeding BS TMR up to middle fattening period and same diet as for control during late fattening period (BS-TMR I), feeding BS-TMR for whole experimental period (BS-TMR II), feeding RS TMR up to middle fattening period and same diet as for control during late fattening period (RS-TMR I) and RS TMR for whole experimental period (RS-TMR II). Sixteen castrated calves were assigned to each treatment (4 pens, 4 heads per pen). Pens in each treatment were randomly distributed. Feeding both BS silage TMR and RS silage TMR slightly increased body gain of Hanwoo steers at the stages of growing and early fattening, and increased (P<0.0001) at middle fattening compared to feeding control diet while control diet tended to increase body gain at late fattening stage compared to feeding BS-TMR I, BS-TMR II and RS-TMR I diets. Total body gain was slightly increased in Hanwoo steers fed both I and II for BS and RS TMR compared to that in control diet. Feed cost per kg gain per head was relatively low in the Hanwoo steers fed silage TMRs to that fed control diet. Carcass weight, back fat thickness and $longissimus$ $dorsi$ area of Hanwoo steers tended to increase but lowered (P<0.047) yield index by feeding silage TMRs. Feeding BS TMR slightly decreased marbling score but no difference was found in the number of head over grade 1 between diets. Control diet tended to improve yield grade compared to silage TMRs. Chemical composition, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss and pH, color and fatty acid composition of $longissimus$ $dorsi$ were not affected by experimental diets and feeding duration of silage TMRs. Shear force, however, was increased (P<0.046) by silage TMRs without difference between them compared to control diet. Based on the results of the current study, BS TMR and RS TMR could improve body gain and reduce feed cost without deteriorating meat quality compared to separate feeding of concentrate and rice straw. Overall feeding value was similar between BS TMR and RS TMR.

A Study on Estimation of Edible Meat Weight in Live Broiler Chickens (육용계(肉用鷄)에서 가식육량(可食肉量)의 추정(推定)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Sung Wook;Kim, Jae Hong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.221-234
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    • 1983
  • A study was conducted to devise a method to estimate the edible meat weight in live broilers. White Cornish broiler chicks CC, Single Comb White Leghorn egg strain chicks LL, and two reciprocal cross breeds of these two parent stocks (CL and LC) were employed A total of 240 birds, 60 birds from each breed, were reared and sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks of ages in order to measure various body parameters. Results obtained from this study were summarized as follows. 1) The average body weight of CC and LL were 1,820g and 668g, respectively, at 8 weeks of age. The feed to gain ratios for CC and LL were 2.24 and 3.28, respectively. 2) The weight percentages of edible meat to body weight were 34.7, 36.8 and 37.5% at 6, 8 and 10 weeks of ages, respectively, for CC. The values for LL were 30.7, 30.5 and 32.3%, respectively, The CL and LC were intermediate in this respect. No significant differences were found among four breeds employed. 3) The CC showed significantly smaller weight percentages than did the other breeds in neck, feather, and inedible viscera. In comparison, the LL showed the smaller weight percentages of leg and abdominal fat to body weight than did the others. No significant difference was found among breeds in terms of the weight percentages of blood to body weight. With regard to edible meat, the CC showed significantly heavier breast and drumstick, and the edible viscera was significantly heavier in LL. There was no consistent trend in neck, wing and back weights. 4) The CC showed significantly larger measurements body shape components than did the other breeds at all time. Moreover, significant difference was found in body shape measurements between CL and LC at 10 weeks of age. 5) All of the measurements of body shape components except breast angle were highly correlated with edible meat weight. Therefore, it appeared to be possible to estimate the edible meat wight of live chickens by the use of these values. 6) The optimum regression equations for the estimation of edible meat weight by body shape measurements at 10 weeks of age were as follows. $$Y_{cc}=-1,475.581 +5.054X_{26}+3.080X_{24}+3.772X_{25}+14.321X_{35}+1.922X_{27}(R^2=0.88)$$ $$Y_{LL}=-347.407+4.549X_{33}+3.003X_{31}(R^2=0.89)$$ $$Y_{CL}=-1,616.793+4.430X_{24}+8.566X_{32}(R^2=0.73)$$ $$Y_{LC}=-603.938+2.142X_{24}+3.039X_{27}+3.289X_{33}(R^2=0.96)$$ Where $X_{24}$=chest girth, $X_{25}$=breast width, $X_{26}$=breast length, $X_{27}$=keel length, $X_{31}$=drumstick girth, $X_{32}$=tibotarsus length, $X_{33}$=shank length, and $X_{35}$=shank diameter. 7) The breed and age factors caused considerable variations in assessing the edible meat weight in live chicken. It seems however that the edible meat weight in live chicken can be estimated fairly accurately with optimum regression equations derived from various body shape measurements.

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