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Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

  • Park, Su-Hui;Park, Tae-Sun;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight gain in mice fed high fat diets; epididymal and back fat weights, were lower compared to non-supplemented HD group. 2. Blood lipid concentrations were lower in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. Serum HDL-C concentrations were higher in the HD+GSE group compared with the other groups. 3. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines, (AIAC) in serum and liver were higher in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. 4. GSE supplementation increased mRNA levels of lipolytic genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-l (CPT-1) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). These findings suggest that grape seed extract supplements in high fat diet might normalize body weight, epididymal and back fat weights, lipid concentrations, and carnitine levels through controlling lipid metabolism.

Fermented Kochujang Supplement Shows Anti-obesity Effects by Controlling Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High Fat Diet

  • Koo, Bon-Sun;Seong, So-Hui;Kown, Dae-Young;Sohn, Hee-Sook;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of fermented kochujang supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into 3 groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD), and high fat diet plus kochujang supplemented group (HDK). Results were as follows: 1. Fennented kochujang supplement in high fat diet decreased body weight and epidydimal and back fat weight compared to non-supplement in HD group. 2. Lipid content and blood glucose level were lower in HDK group than HD group. 3. Fermented kochujang supplement increased mRNA level of lipolytic genes such as acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and uncoupling proteins-1 (UCP-1) expression, whereas decreased mRNA level of adipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) expression. These findings suggest that fermented kochujang supplement in high fat diet normalized body weight, epididymal and back fat weight, lipid content, and blood glucose levels through controlling lipid metabolism and provides basic information on the control of obesity.

Genetic and phenotypic relationships of live body measurement traits and carcass traits in crossbred pigs of Korea

  • Do, Chang-Hee;Park, Chan-Hyuk;Wasana, Nidarshani;Choi, Jae-Gwan;Park, Su-Bong;Kim, Si-Dong;Cho, Gyu-Ho;Lee, Dong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2014
  • This study presents the estimates of heritabilities of body measurement traits and carcass traits, and genetic and phenotypic correlations of those traits for crossbred pigs in Korea. Body and ultrasound (A mode: Piglog 105) measurements in 221 pigs including body weight, length, height and width, three back fat thickness at the points of 4th, 14th rib and chine bone, eye muscle area and lean meat percent were collected at the ages of 70, 145 and 180 days and then slaughtered to measure carcass weight, back fat, belly, collar butt, spare rib, picnic shoulder, hind leg, loin, tenderloin, lean meat yield and intramuscular rough fat content in loin. Genetic analysis was done using a multi-trait animal model. Heritabilties of the body measurements were ranged from 0.331 to 0.559 and three measurements of back fat thickness were also high as range varying from 0.402 to 0.475 for the ages of 145 and 180 days. However, eye muscle area was moderate (0.296) at the age of 180 days. Heritabilities of retail cut yields were also high as ranged from 0.387 to 0.474 and of IMF content in loin was 0.499. Heritabilities of the cut percent traits were ranged from 0.249 to 0.488. Important positive genetic and phenotypic correlations were noted for all carcass yield traits (0.298 to 0.875 and 0.432 to 0.922, respectively). IMF showed low negative genetic correlations with carcass yield traits, such as carcass weight, picnic shoulder, hind leg, loin, tenderloin and lean meat yield whereas low positive genetic correlations with back fat, belly, collar butt and spare rib. Loin, tenderloin and lean meat percent showed negative genetic correlations with carcass weight, back fat thickness, collar butt, spare rib and picnic shoulder percent. The four body measurements at the ages of 70, 145 and 180 days had positive genetic correlations with belly, shoulder butt, spare rib, picnic shoulder and hind leg percent, but negative genetic correlations were shown with loin and tenderloin percent except body measurements at 70 days. The results suggest that carcass yield are negatively correlated with intramuscular fat content, which is a major factor deciding pork quality and the yield of loin and tenderloin are not increased as much as increase in body size. However, the proportions of belly and collar butt are increased with the body size. In conclusion, selection strategy should be designed according to the preference on composition of carcass in each country.

Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat

  • Baek, Ki Ho;Utama, Dicky Tri;Lee, Seung Gyu;An, Byoung Ki;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.865-871
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05). The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05). CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05). However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05) because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05); furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05) among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05) over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

A Qualitative Analysis on Paraspinal Muscles in Patients with Acute Low Back Pain and Chronic Low Back Pain (급성 요통환자와 만성 요통환자에서 척추주변근육의 정량적 분석)

  • Jeong, Dae-Keun
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.11
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    • pp.613-620
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to measure and analyze the changes in paraspinal muscles of acute and chronic low back pain patients using MRI, and to provide clinical basic data for diagnosis and treatment for low back pain. For this purpose, 20 patients with acute low back pain frome August 2012 to January 2013 which occurred within 12 weeks, and 20 patients with chronic low back pain that progressed over 12 weeks, were chosen as subjects, and their MRI measurements were compared with one another. As a result, in relation to in the fatty degeneration ratio of the left spine and right spine, there were significant differences in erector spinae and multifidus(p<.001), and in relation to the Fat Infiltration ratio between all the groups, there were significant differences in psoas major, erector spinae and multifidus between the acute low back pain patient group and the chronic low back pain patient group(p<.001). In the post-hoc test, multifidus and erector spinae in the acute low back pain group and chronic low back pain group showed the highest Fat Infiltration ratio. The serious Fat Infiltration of multifidus and erector spinae in the chronic low back pain group led to weakened strength of muscles that stabilize the spine. In conclusion, it is considered that this study would present important data and basis in making acute and chronic low back pain patients pay more attention to multifidus and psoas major during rehabilitation exercise, and selecting a rehabilitation exercise program.

Seasonal Variation of Total Body Fat in Men (사람의 피부두겹 및 총지방량에 관한 연주 -제1편 총지방량의 계절적 변동-)

  • Cho, Yoon-Sik;Nam, Kee-Yong
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 1969
  • Skinfold thickness measurement and total body fat calculation were made in summer (July) and winter (December or January) On 70 medical students (age: 20 yr),8 national team basketball players (age: 20 yr), and 9 middle-age men. Skinfold thickness measurements were made on 4 sites, namely, back, arm, waist and abdomen. The mean skinfold thickness (mm) of the 4 sites was substituted into the following formulae. For adult of 20 years old: % Fat=0.911x+8.1, and for middle-aged men % Fat=1.199x+1.41. In young medical students and ball players body weight decreased, mean skinfold thickness increased in winter season. As a result total body fat .(% body weight) increased in winter In middle-aged men both body weight and mean skinfold thickness increased in winter and resulted in an increase in the total body fat. The detailed data are as follows: 1. In medical students summer: winter values were: body weight, 59.7 :58.9 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 7.85 : 8.12 mm; and total body fat, 15.0 : 15.5% body weight (P<.30). 2. In national team basketball players summer: winter values were: body weight, 73.5 : 69.1 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 7.2 : 7.5 mm; total body fat, 11.6 : 12.1% (P:NS). 3. In middle-aged men summer vs winter values were: body weight, 61.5 : 63.0 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 10.3 : 11.8 mm; total body fat, 17.2 : 18.0% (P:NS). 4. Skinfold thickness on back showed no seasonal variation and on abdomen the thickness increased in winter. 5. It was concluded that the predominant factor in increasing total body fat in winter is the decrease in body exercise in the winter time.

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Relation of Production Traits and Reproduction Traits in Swine (돼지에서 산육형질과 번식형질간의 관계)

  • Do, C.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2007
  • In order to investigate the relation of production traits and reproduction traits the data from Gyungnam heugdon(Berkshire) were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficients of the reproductive traits including days to first farrowing, days to first breeding and no. of breeding for first litter with back fat thickness were ranged -.24 to -.26. Estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for the reproductive traits including days to first farrowing, days to first breeding and no. of breeding for first litter showed frequent and wide fluctuation due to lack of reproductive records. Pearson correlation coefficients of back fat with litter traits were low, but genetic correlation coefficients were relatively high. Genetic correlation coefficients of back fat with total litter size, pigs born alive, litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning were .21, .24, .11 and .07 respectively. It suggests that thin back fat thickness deteriorates performance of litter traits. Genetic correlation coefficients of days to 90kg with total litter size, pigs born alive, litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning were .14, .17, .09 and .00 respectively. This result imply that genetic improvement on the production traits reduce the litter trait performance.

Effect of anise flavor on the performance of sows and their litters with different weaning ages

  • Sun, Hao Yang;Lei, Yan;Kim, Inho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.273-283
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of anise flavor on the performance of lactating sows and suckling pigs at different weaning ages. A total of 120 sows (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) were used in this experiment. Sows were fed with a commercial lactation diet (60 sows) or diet with flavor (60 sows) during days 100 to 114 of gestation period and the whole lactation period. Piglets were allotted to 2 dietary treatments based on their initial body weight (BW) using a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of anise flavor (0 or 0.5 g/kg) and weaning periods (weaned at 21 day or 28 day after birth). Sows fed with flavor supplemented diets had higher (p < 0.05) back fat and average daily feed intake (ADFI) at weaning, lower (p < 0.05) back fat loss than those fed with non-flavor diets. Sows weaned at 28 day had higher (p < 0.05) weaning back fat and lower (p < 0.05) back fat loss than those weaned on 21 day. During weaning, piglet average daily gain (ADG), ADFI, digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and gross energy (GE) and fecal score were affected by anise flavor, respectively. In conclusion, dietary flavor supplementation could increase feed intake of lactating sows, improve growth performance and reduce weaning stress of piglets, especially effective in the early weanling piglets. Meanwhile, interactive effects were observed about the piglet performance between weaning ages and anise flavor supplementation after weaning.

The effect of muscle strength, endurance and flexibility on Graded Low back exercise and education of chronic low back pain patents. (만성요통환자의 점증적 요통 운동과 교육이 근력과 근지구력, 유연성에 미치는 효과)

  • Han, Sang-Wan;Kong, Sung-Ah;Lee, Jun-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of graded low back exercise program with patient education about low back pain care on abdominal strength, endurance and flexibility of waist of chronic low back pain patents. For this study 13 patients aged 40 to 60 were selected as subjects, who suffered from low back pain and got diagnosed by physician. The exercise program and the education were executed for total 6 weeks, posture education were executed with physical exercises over first 1 to 4 weeks period and over 5 to 6 weeks the exercises were executed. The effect of the exercises and the education were evaluated through weights, WHR, fat(%), flexibility by sit-and-reach and trunk extension test, strength by sit-up test and back sit-up test. Weights were, decreased after physical exercise and education, but there was no statistical significance. Wasit hip ratio(WHR) and fat(%) were decreased after physical exercise and education, but there were no statistical significances. Sit-and-reach was significantly increased from $13.68{\pm}5.59cm$ to $19.45{\pm}3.81cm$ after education and physical exercise(P<0.05). Trunk extension was significantly increased from $30.31{\pm}11.34cm$ to $40.88{\pm}6.16cm$ after education and physical exercise(P<0.05). Sit-up and Back sit-up were increased after physical exercise and education, but there were no statistical significances. These results suggest that graded low back exercise program with patient education about low back pain care increase the abdominal strength, endurance and the flexibility of waist in low back pain patients.

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