• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back fat

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Total Body Fat Measurement of Middle School Girls in Suwon, Kyungido, Korea (수원지역 여자 중학생의 총지방량 측정)

  • Choi, Duck-Kyung;Lee, Jeoung-Ku;Pyun, Kyung-Sik
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1975
  • Total body fat measurement by means of skinfold thickness was performed in 295 middle school girls in Suwon, Korea. Skinfold thicknesses on 4 sites, namely, arm, back, abdomen, and waist were obtained and fat was calculated using mean skinfold thickness (MSF) and the following formulas. % Fat=0.747$\times$MSF (mm)+l6.21 Fat (kg) =0.619$\times$MSF (mm) +3.31. The following results were obtained. 1. In 85 (age. 13 yr) of the first year class girls skinfold thickness was: arm 6.9mm; back 8.2; abdomen 8.3; waist 10.7mm, mean thickness was 8.5mm. Fat was 22.6$\pm$1.56% body weight or 8.20±2.68kg. Lean body weight was 31.93$\pm$3.16kg. 2. In 107 (age : 14.2 yr) of the second year class girls skinfold thickness was : arm 7.6mm; back 9.7; abdomen 9.7; waist 12.4mm; and mean thickness was 9.8mm. Fat was 23.0$\pm$5.09% body weight or 9.36$\pm$1.87kg. Lean body weight was 34.29$\pm$1.76 kg. 3. In 103 (age : 15.1 yr) of the third year class girls skinfold thickness was : arm 7.6mm; back 10.3; abdomen 9.4; waist 11.9mm; and mean thickness was 9.8mm. Fat was 23.2$\pm$4.35% body weight or 9.36$\pm$1.18 kg. Lean body weight was 37.10$\pm$5.08 kg. 4. The ratio of mean skinfold thickness (mm) to body weight (kg) was 0.213 in 13 year old girls, 0.225 in 14 year, and 0.213 in 15 year old girls.

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Characterization of Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, Class 3 (PIK3C3) Gene and Association Tests with Quantitative Traits in Pigs

  • Kim, J.H.;Choi, B.H.;Lim, H.T.;Park, E.W.;Lee, S.H.;Seo, B.Y.;Cho, I.C.;Lee, J.G.;Oh, S.J.;Jeon, J.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1701-1707
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    • 2005
  • This study deals with the characterization of porcine PIK3C3 and association tests with quantitative traits. PIK3C3 belongs to the class 3 PI3Ks that participate in the regulation of hepatic glucose output, glycogen synthase, and antilipolysis in typical insulin target cells such as those in the such as liver, muscle system, and fat. On the analysis of full-length mRNA sequence, the length of the PIK3C3 CDS was recorded as 2,664 bps. As well, nucleotide and amino acid identities between human and pig subjects were 92% and 99%, respectively. Five SNPs were detected over 5 exons. We performed genotyping by using a SNP C2604T on exon24 for 145 F$_2$ animals (from a cross between Korean native boars and Landrace sows) by PCR-RFLP analysis with Hpy8I used to investigate the relationship between growth and fat depot traits. In the total association analysis, which doesn' consider transmission disequilibrium, the SNP showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on body weight and carcass fat at 30 weeks of age as well as a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on back fat. In an additional sib-pair analysis, C allele still showed positive and significant effects (p<0.05) on back fat thickness and carcass fat. Moreover, the effects of C allele on the means of within-family components for carcass fat and back fat were estimated as 2.76 kg and 5.07 mm, respectively. As a result, the SNP of porcine PIK3C3 discovered in this study could be utilized as a possible genetic marker for the selection of pigs that possess low levels of back fat and carcass fat at the slaughter weight.

Effects of Lower Dietary Lysine and Energy Content on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Zhang, Jinxiao;Yin, Jingdong;Zhou, Xuan;Li, Fengna;Ni, Jianjun;Dong, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1785-1793
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    • 2008
  • Fifty-four PIC barrows were used to evaluate the effects of lower dietary lysine content and energy level on carcass characteristics and meat quality in slaughter pigs. Pigs were allotted to one of three treatments by body weight with six replicate pens in each treatment. The dietary treatments for body weights of 20-50 kg, 50-80 kg and 80-90 kg were as follows, respectively: control diet (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.67 g/MJ, 0.53 g/MJ and 0.42 g/MJ); a low lysine group (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ); and a low lysine-low energy group or low nutrient group (digestible energy 13.11 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency were calculated in the overall growth period (nearly 12 weeks). Meanwhile, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated at 60 and 90 kg body weight respectively. During the overall growth trial, lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level both decreased weight gain (p<0.05) and feed efficiency (p<0.01). At 60 kg body weight, decreasing dietary lysine and nutrient level noticeably decreased dressing percentage (p<0.01) and back fat depth at last rib of PIC pigs (p<0.01), but enhanced marbling scores (p<0.10), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10) and water loss rate (p<0.01) of the longissimus dorsi muscle. At 90 kg body weight, lean percentage (p<0.01) was evidently reduced by both lowering lysine content and nutrient level in the diet. However, the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.05) and marbling scores of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05) were increased; Lowering dietary nutrient level could improve back fat depth of 10th rib (p<0.01) and last rib (p<0.01), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10), redness (p<0.01) and water loss rate of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05), but decrease loin area (p<0.05). Finally, when comparing the 60 kg and 90 kg slaughter weights, it was found that the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.10), 6th-7th rib (p<0.01, p<0.01), 10th-rib (p<0.01, p<0.01) and last rib back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.01) of the low lysine and low nutrient group were all obviously increased comparing with the control group. Taken together, the results showed that decreasing dietary lysine content and nutrient level increased intramuscular fat content and water loss rate of longissimus dorsi muscle; On the other hand, both lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level markedly compensated to increase back fat deposition in the later finishing period (body weight from 60 to 90 kg) in contrast to the control group.

Studies on Live-carcass Trait of Parity and Region in Hanwoo Cows Measured by Real-time Ultrasound (초음파 진단장치를 이용한 한우 암소의 산차 및 지역별 산육특성 구명)

  • Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Bok;Lee, Chang-Woo;Song, Young-Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2009
  • Current study was conducted to investigate the influence of parity and region variation in ultrasound live carcass traits of Hanwoo cows. A total of 1,386 heads of Hanwoo cows, spreading over six regions in Gangwon province of South Korea, were measured for longissimus muscle area, back fat thickness, marbling score and rump fat thickness by using real-time ultrasound method. The results revealed that, positive correlations were found in all ultrasound live carcass traits. All live carcass traits were increased in accordance with parity until the sixth, and then decreased thereafter. Statistical significant differences (p<0.01) were found among regions in ultrasound live carcass traits, e.g. Hanwoo cows showed highest longissimus muscle area and marbling score in Hwacheon, while the lowest back fat thickness and rump fat thickness were observed in Yanggu. Greater longissimus muscle area and marbling scores were found in Hanwoo cows which were born during autumn, 2000. Moreover, individuals born during autumn, 2005 and 2006 showed a thicker back fat and rump fat thickness. Back fat thickness had the highest positive correlation with rump fat thickness, while rib eye area and rump fat thickness had the lowest correlation.

Genome-wide association study identifies positional candidate genes affecting back fat thickness trait in pigs

  • Lee, Jae-Bong;Kang, Ho-Chan;Kim, Eun-Ho;Kim, Yoon-Joo;Yoo, Chae-Kyoung;Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lim, Hyun-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.707-713
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    • 2018
  • This study was done to search for positional candidate genes associated with the back fat thickness trait using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in purebred Yorkshires (N = 1755). Genotype and phenotype analyses were done for 1,642 samples. As a result of the associations with back fat thickness using the Gemma program (ver. 0.93), when the genome-wide suggestive threshold was determined using the Bonferroni method ($p=1.61{\times}10^{-5}$), the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with suggestive significance were identified in 1 SNP marker on chromosome 2 (MARC0053928; $p=3.65{\times}10^{-6}$), 2 SNP markers on chromosome 14 (ALGA0083078; $p=7.85{\times}10^{-6}$, INRA0048453; $p=1.27{\times}10^{-5}$), and 1 SNP marker on chromosome 18 (ALGA0120564; $p=1.44{\times}10^{-5}$). We could select positional candidate genes (KCNQ1, DOCK1, LOC106506151, and LOC110257583), located close to the SNP markers. Among these, we identified a potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member gene (KCNQ1) and the dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1) gene associated with obesity and Type-2 diabetes. The SNPs and haplotypes of the KCNQ1 and DOCK1 genes can contribute to understanding the genetic structure of back fat thickness. Additionally, it may provide basic data regarding marker assisted selection for a meat quality trait in pigs.

Carcass Traits Determining Quality and Yield Grades of Hanwoo Steers

  • Moon, S.S.;Hwang, I.H.;Jin, S.K.;Lee, J.G.;Joo, S.T.;Park, G.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1049-1054
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    • 2003
  • A group of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers (n=14,386) was sampled from a commercial abattoir located in Seoul over one year period (spring, summer, autumn and winter) and their carcass traits were collected. Carcass traits assessed by an official meat grader comprised degree of marbling, meat color, fat color, texture and maturity for quality grade, and back fat thickness, ribeye area and carcass weight for yield grade. A heavier carcass with a higher marbling score, more red meat color and white fat color received better quality grade (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed that the marbling score was the strongest attribute (partial $R^2=0.88$) for quality grade. Lighter carcasses with a thinner back fat and larger ribeye area received higher yield grade score. The back fat thickness was the most negative determinant of yield grade (Partial $R^2=-0.66$). The slaughter season had a little effect on quality and yield grades. As slaughter weight increased, back fat thickness and ribeye area increased linearly, whereas marbling score reached its asymptotic level at approximately 570 kg. As a consequence, quality grade showed a considerable improvement up to 570 kg, but increases in slaughter weight afterward showed a little benefit on quality grade. There was a clear curvilinear relationship between slaughter weight and yield grade in that the yield grade reached its highest point at approximately 490 kg and decreased afterward. These results suggested that 570kg at the age of 24 months might be the economic slaughter weight for quality grade but 490 kg for yield grade.

Effects of ADMIRE Algorithms on Fat Measurements Using Computed Tomography (CT) (CT를 이용한 지방측정에 ADMIRE 알고리즘이 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chang Wook;Lee, Sang Heon;Im, In Chul;Lee, Hyo Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.465-472
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the effects of iterative reconstruction algorithms on fat measurements using computed tomography (CT), we comparatively and quantitatively analyzed the ratios of visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat areas as well as the variations of HU and noise of visceral and subcutaneous fat using ADMIRE strength and attempted to identify any difference between them. Experimental results showed that no statistically significant difference existed among the visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat area ratios HU of visceral fat area and HU of subcutaneous fat area when applying ADMIRE as compared with existing conventional filtered back projection algorithms. However, as the ADMIRE strength increases, the noise of visceral and subcutaneous fat decreases by up to 12.1% and 19.2%, respectively. In conclusion, iterative reconstruction algorithms have no effect on the visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat area ratios, which are indicators of fat measurement using CT.

Optimization for Reduced-Fat / Low-NaCl Meat Emulsion Systems with Sea Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and Phosphate

  • Kim, Cheon-Jei;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Jeong, Tae-Jun;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Young-Boong;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.515-523
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    • 2015
  • The effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 20% and salt concentrations from 1.5% to 1.0% by partially substituting incorporated phosphate and sea mustard were investigated based on physicochemical properties of reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems. Cooking loss and emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness for reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems with 20% pork back fat and 1.2% sodium chloride samples with incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard were similar to the control with 30% pork back fat and 1.5% sodium chloride. Results showed that reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion system samples containing phosphate and sea mustard had higher apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that the incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard in the formulation will successfully reduce fat and salt in the final meat products.

Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Sung, Jung-Min;Park, Jong-Dae;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Lee, Cheol-Won;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Young-Boong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 2016
  • The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

Expression Analysis of Galectin-1 from Fat in Berkshire Pigs

  • Jung, Won Yong;Cho, Eun Seok;Kwon, Eun Jung;Park, Da Hye;Chung, Ki Hwa;Kim, Chul Wook
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2008
  • Galectins are a group of animal lectins consisting of galectin-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) with relatively minor domains. The biological properties of galectins include the regulation of inflammation, intercellular adhesion, cell differentiation and cell death. The diverse kinds of galectin suggest variety in their biological roles. Galectin-1 is released during adipocyte differentiation and is associated with fat which is one of the important factors for meat quality. To verify expression level, a 0.5 kb clone of galectin-1 was obtained from cDNA prepared from back fat tissue of a Sancheong Berkshire pig with good quality meat, and the galectin-1 gene identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the galectin-1 gene was compared with those obtained from other species. By using RT-PCR and Real time-PCR, an attempt was made to determine the expression level of galectin-1 and to compare with various tissues (tenderloin and back fat) taken from pigs in different groups. Grouping of pigs was based on growth-stage (weighing 60, 80, and 110 kg) and the sub-speciation (Yorkshire and Sancheong Berkshire pigs). We attempted to determine influences of pig species, growth stages and tissue variations on the expression level of the galectin-l gene and it was revealed that the expression pattern of the galectin-1 gene was significantly different (p<0.01 or p<0.05). Galectin-1 genes were expressed more highly in the back fat tissues of pigs weighing 110 kg than in those weighing 60 kg or 80 kg. However, the lowest expression was seen in the tenderloin tissues of pigs weighing 110 kg. Sancheong Berkshire pigs showed higher expression of the galectin-1 gene compared to Yorkshire pigs. Accordingly, it is considered that the expression pattern of the galectin-1 gene influences the growth of back fat tissues and the pig speciation relationship. Previous studies suggested that different expression of galectin-1 genes represents variety among the breeds and is closely related to fat tissue growth, conjugation and catabolism. Further, this study suggests that the expression of galectin-1 at a specific growth stage and tissue contributes significantly to the overall meat quality of Sancheong Berkshire pigs.