• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back fat

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Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Kim, Young-Boong;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Jeong, Tae-Jun;Park, Jinhee;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.258-264
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat.

Effects of Carcass Weight and Back-fat Thickness on Carcass Properties of Korean Native Pigs

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2017
  • Our study analyzed the carcass properties of 170 Korean native pigs in relation to carcass weight and back-fat thickness to provide general data for the production and distribution of high quality pig meat. The 70-74 kg group showed highest yield (73.41%). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the highest thickest back-fat (24.13 mm) (p<0.05). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the best quality grade (1.00). Back-fat thickness showed significant differences in the weight among groups (p<0.05). The ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest carcass weight (75.93 kg). The thickest back-fat group (${\geq}25mm$) showed the highest yield (73.03%). There were significant differences in back-fat thickness among groups (p<0.05), and the ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest thickness back-fat (27.60 mm). We found a strong positive correlation between carcass weight and back-fat thickness (r=0.346) as well as meat quality grade (r=0.739). Backfat thickness had a relatively strong positive correlation with meat quality grade (r=0.444). Therefore, there are required to manage the breeding through selection of excellent native species for increasing their carcass weight and enhance meat quality.

Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

  • Choi, Min-Sung;Choi, Yun-Sang;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Lee, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2014
  • The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p<0.05). The redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of reduced-fat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (p<0.05). With increasing BSG pre-emulsion concentration, the fat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05). The BSG pre-emulsion improves the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05), and the reduction in fat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.

Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

  • Yeo, Eui-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Kim, Yong-Jae;Ham, Youn-Kyung;He, Fu-Yi;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2014
  • Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters.

Study on the Prolactin Receptor 3 (PRLR3) Gene and the Retinol-binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Gene as Candidate Genes for Production Traits in Berkshire Pigs

  • Do, C.H.;Cho, B.W.;Lee, D.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the influence of the prolactin receptor 3 (PRLR3) gene and the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene on the production traits of swine, genotyping was performed on 156 and 141 Berkshire pigs, respectively, that were carefully selected for economic traits. The frequencies of allele A in the PRLR3 locus and allele B in the RBP4 locus were 0.50 and 0.42, respectively. Neither locus was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After a genotype was assigned to the individuals whose parents had the homozygous genotype, a statistical analysis was conducted for 291 pigs. The animals with the PRLR3 and RBP4 genotypes included 182 and 227 head, respectively. Even though the genotypic effects of PRLR3 (p<0.05) and RBP4 (p<0.01) had a significant influence on the pigs' back fat thickness, the interaction of both genes was not highly significant in terms of the back fat thickness (p = 0.1235). While the estimated epistasis effects of aaBB and aaBb decreased the back fat thickness and reduced the growth rate, the effects of AAbb and aabb increased the growth rate. Despite the insignificant difference in the PRLR genotypes in terms of the days to 90 kg and the average daily gain, the back fat thickness showed a significant difference (p<0.05), and the additive effect of allele A and the dominant effect of the hetero-genotype were -0.377 and 1.206 mm, respectively. The RBP4 genotypes had a very significant effect (p<0.01) on the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg, and the average daily gain. The additive effects of allele B of the RBP4 locus on the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg, and the average daily gain were 0.70 mm, -1.3 days and 6.2 g, respectively. Moreover, the dominant effects of the heterozygote for those traits were 0.63 mm, 9.9 days and -45.0 g, respectively. Allele A of the PRLR3 locus favorably influenced the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg of the body weight, and the average daily gain and its dominant effect unfavorably influenced those traits. Allele B of RBP4 showed an incremental growth rate and back fat thickness, which could lower the lean meat percentage in the carcass. The RBP4 hetero-genotype negatively affected the pork production. These results strongly imply that the selection of allele A of PRLR3 and allele B of RBP4 would produce highly productive pigs in the Berkshire breed. Careful selection of allele B of RBP4 is required because of the increase in the back fat thickness.

Characteristic of back fat and quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat pork carcasses

  • Lim, Daewoon;Song, Minho;Lee, Juri;Lee, Chulwoo;Lee, Jaechung;Lee, Wangyeol;Seo, Jihee;Jung, Samooel
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.581-588
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of visual discrimination of soft fat pork carcasses when subjecting carcasses to quality grade evaluations. In addition, the quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was investigated. Iodine values of back fat from soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination were significantly higher than those from firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However, those values were lower than the standard for soft fat (iodine value = 70). There were no significant differences in linoleic acid content, b-values, and L-values (p < 0.05) of back fat between firm and soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination. Color of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses (iodine value higher than 70) was not different from that of firm fat carcass (iodine value lower than 70). Except for linoleic acid, there were no significant differences in any fatty acid contents between longissimus dorsi muscles from firm fat and soft fat carcasses. Monounsaturated fatty acid content of longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses was significantly lower than those of firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However polyunsaturated fatty acid content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses. In conclusion, visual discrimination results for soft fat pork carcass were inaccurate. Therefore, other indicators should be required to evaluate soft fat pork carcasses. In contrast, the quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was superior in terms of fatty acid composition compared with that of firm fat carcasses.

Effects of Obesity on Lumber Strength and Visual Analogue of Back Pain in Disc Surgical Operated Patients after Rehabilitation (디스크 수술환자의 재활운동 프로그램 적용 후 비만이 요부신전근력 향상 및 요통완화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chang-Jin;Lim, Young-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study were to compare the differences of isometric lumber extension strength and subjective pain degrees between obesity patients group and normal body fat group in disc surgical operated patients. The research purposed to indicate how isometric lumbar extension exercise for 12 weeks affected to lumbar strength and visual analogue scale of patients suffered by chronic back pain. The subjects were 65 low back pain patients(male 30, female 35)who had disease on lumbar in W hospital. The lumbar extension strength was measured at seven degrees of angles, which were $0^{\circ}$ $12^{\circ}$ $24^{\circ}$ $36^{\circ}$ $48^{\circ}$ $60^{\circ}$ and $72^{\circ}$ before and after the exercise program. We got the results of subjective pain degree using the modified visual analogue scale(VAS) of Lawlis et al(1989) and measured the maximal isometric lumbar strength of all subjects using MedX lumbar extension machine. Results were as follows; After the exercise, the lumbar extension strength of normal body fat patients groups included males and female were greater than that of the obesity patients groups in all angles(p<.05). The visual analogue scale of chronic back pain patients was decreased significantly after the exercise(p<.05). The results showed the significance between the lumbar extension strength and the visual analogue scale of chronic back pain patients and showed that the isometric lumbar extension exercise decreased the subjective pain degrees of visual analogue scale with and increased lumbar extension strength. The correlation between the visual analogue scale and the %body fat of chronic back pain patients was no significant after exercise. Therefore, the lumbar extension strength exercise is needed for improvement of back strength, decrease of %body fat.

Effects of plasma insulin, and leptin on fat traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) (혈중 인슐린 및 렙틴이 한우 지방형질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Cheul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Dang, Chang-Gwan;Lim, Da-Jeong;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Chang, Sun-Sik;Cho, Young-Moo;Jeon, Gi-Jun;Park, Eung-Woo;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Jun-Heon;Yang, Boh-Suk;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of plasma leptin and insulin concentrations on fat traits in Hanwoo. If a biological indicator such as plasma leptin and insulin was identified, it would be a useful biological marker that can be predicted marbling score in young animal. The relationship between plasma hormone (leptin and insulin) and fat traits (marbling score, back fat thickness and P8 fat thickness) was investigated. The experiment studies 100 Hanwoo that were randomly sampled from Hanwoo Experimental Station Herd. The concentration of plasma insulin was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.02) but was not significantly with back fat thickness (P=0.07) and P8 fat thickness (P=0.09). Statistical model determinant that plasma insulin concentration account for phenotypes was moderate on marbling score (5%), back fat thickness (3%) and P8 fat thickness (9%). On the other hand, plasma leptin concentration was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.03) and back fat thickness (P=0.02), but was not significant on P8 fat thickness (0.07). Statistical model determinant that plasma leptin concentration accounting for phenotypes was moderate effect on marbling score (3%) and back fat thickness (2%), but it has a slightly bigger effect on P8 fat thickness (7%). In conclusion, the plasma leptin and insulin seems to have an effect on fat traits (marbling score, backfat thickness and P8 fat thickness) in Hanwoo.

Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness

  • Kim, K.H.;Hosseindoust, A.;Ingale, S.L.;Lee, S.H.;Noh, H.S.;Choi, Y.H.;Jeon, S.M.;Kim, Y.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2016
  • The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16) over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing) and two level of back-fat thickness (<20 or ${\geq}20$) at d 107 of gestation. Gestating sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing) 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in sows having back-fat thickness <20 mm than that of sows with ${\geq}20mm$ back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (p<0.05) feed intake and shorter (p<0.05) weaning-to-estrus interval than that of sows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (p<0.05) in group housed sows. Group housed sows had lesser (p<0.05) farrowing duration and greater (p<0.05) eating time than that of sows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with ${\geq}20mm$ back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.

Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

  • Seo, Jin-Kyu;Yum, Hyeon-Woong;Kim, Gap-Don;Jeong, Jin-Yeon;Yang, Han-Sul
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.523-530
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    • 2016
  • This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM.