• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back Fat Thickness

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Effects of Carcass Weight and Back-fat Thickness on Carcass Properties of Korean Native Pigs

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2017
  • Our study analyzed the carcass properties of 170 Korean native pigs in relation to carcass weight and back-fat thickness to provide general data for the production and distribution of high quality pig meat. The 70-74 kg group showed highest yield (73.41%). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the highest thickest back-fat (24.13 mm) (p<0.05). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the best quality grade (1.00). Back-fat thickness showed significant differences in the weight among groups (p<0.05). The ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest carcass weight (75.93 kg). The thickest back-fat group (${\geq}25mm$) showed the highest yield (73.03%). There were significant differences in back-fat thickness among groups (p<0.05), and the ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest thickness back-fat (27.60 mm). We found a strong positive correlation between carcass weight and back-fat thickness (r=0.346) as well as meat quality grade (r=0.739). Backfat thickness had a relatively strong positive correlation with meat quality grade (r=0.444). Therefore, there are required to manage the breeding through selection of excellent native species for increasing their carcass weight and enhance meat quality.

Effects of plasma insulin, and leptin on fat traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) (혈중 인슐린 및 렙틴이 한우 지방형질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Cheul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Dang, Chang-Gwan;Lim, Da-Jeong;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Chang, Sun-Sik;Cho, Young-Moo;Jeon, Gi-Jun;Park, Eung-Woo;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Jun-Heon;Yang, Boh-Suk;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of plasma leptin and insulin concentrations on fat traits in Hanwoo. If a biological indicator such as plasma leptin and insulin was identified, it would be a useful biological marker that can be predicted marbling score in young animal. The relationship between plasma hormone (leptin and insulin) and fat traits (marbling score, back fat thickness and P8 fat thickness) was investigated. The experiment studies 100 Hanwoo that were randomly sampled from Hanwoo Experimental Station Herd. The concentration of plasma insulin was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.02) but was not significantly with back fat thickness (P=0.07) and P8 fat thickness (P=0.09). Statistical model determinant that plasma insulin concentration account for phenotypes was moderate on marbling score (5%), back fat thickness (3%) and P8 fat thickness (9%). On the other hand, plasma leptin concentration was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.03) and back fat thickness (P=0.02), but was not significant on P8 fat thickness (0.07). Statistical model determinant that plasma leptin concentration accounting for phenotypes was moderate effect on marbling score (3%) and back fat thickness (2%), but it has a slightly bigger effect on P8 fat thickness (7%). In conclusion, the plasma leptin and insulin seems to have an effect on fat traits (marbling score, backfat thickness and P8 fat thickness) in Hanwoo.

Study on the Prolactin Receptor 3 (PRLR3) Gene and the Retinol-binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Gene as Candidate Genes for Production Traits in Berkshire Pigs

  • Do, C.H.;Cho, B.W.;Lee, D.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the influence of the prolactin receptor 3 (PRLR3) gene and the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene on the production traits of swine, genotyping was performed on 156 and 141 Berkshire pigs, respectively, that were carefully selected for economic traits. The frequencies of allele A in the PRLR3 locus and allele B in the RBP4 locus were 0.50 and 0.42, respectively. Neither locus was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After a genotype was assigned to the individuals whose parents had the homozygous genotype, a statistical analysis was conducted for 291 pigs. The animals with the PRLR3 and RBP4 genotypes included 182 and 227 head, respectively. Even though the genotypic effects of PRLR3 (p<0.05) and RBP4 (p<0.01) had a significant influence on the pigs' back fat thickness, the interaction of both genes was not highly significant in terms of the back fat thickness (p = 0.1235). While the estimated epistasis effects of aaBB and aaBb decreased the back fat thickness and reduced the growth rate, the effects of AAbb and aabb increased the growth rate. Despite the insignificant difference in the PRLR genotypes in terms of the days to 90 kg and the average daily gain, the back fat thickness showed a significant difference (p<0.05), and the additive effect of allele A and the dominant effect of the hetero-genotype were -0.377 and 1.206 mm, respectively. The RBP4 genotypes had a very significant effect (p<0.01) on the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg, and the average daily gain. The additive effects of allele B of the RBP4 locus on the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg, and the average daily gain were 0.70 mm, -1.3 days and 6.2 g, respectively. Moreover, the dominant effects of the heterozygote for those traits were 0.63 mm, 9.9 days and -45.0 g, respectively. Allele A of the PRLR3 locus favorably influenced the back fat thickness, the days to 90 kg of the body weight, and the average daily gain and its dominant effect unfavorably influenced those traits. Allele B of RBP4 showed an incremental growth rate and back fat thickness, which could lower the lean meat percentage in the carcass. The RBP4 hetero-genotype negatively affected the pork production. These results strongly imply that the selection of allele A of PRLR3 and allele B of RBP4 would produce highly productive pigs in the Berkshire breed. Careful selection of allele B of RBP4 is required because of the increase in the back fat thickness.

Total Body Fat Measurement of Middle School Girls in Suwon, Kyungido, Korea (수원지역 여자 중학생의 총지방량 측정)

  • Choi, Duck-Kyung;Lee, Jeoung-Ku;Pyun, Kyung-Sik
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1975
  • Total body fat measurement by means of skinfold thickness was performed in 295 middle school girls in Suwon, Korea. Skinfold thicknesses on 4 sites, namely, arm, back, abdomen, and waist were obtained and fat was calculated using mean skinfold thickness (MSF) and the following formulas. % Fat=0.747$\times$MSF (mm)+l6.21 Fat (kg) =0.619$\times$MSF (mm) +3.31. The following results were obtained. 1. In 85 (age. 13 yr) of the first year class girls skinfold thickness was: arm 6.9mm; back 8.2; abdomen 8.3; waist 10.7mm, mean thickness was 8.5mm. Fat was 22.6$\pm$1.56% body weight or 8.20±2.68kg. Lean body weight was 31.93$\pm$3.16kg. 2. In 107 (age : 14.2 yr) of the second year class girls skinfold thickness was : arm 7.6mm; back 9.7; abdomen 9.7; waist 12.4mm; and mean thickness was 9.8mm. Fat was 23.0$\pm$5.09% body weight or 9.36$\pm$1.87kg. Lean body weight was 34.29$\pm$1.76 kg. 3. In 103 (age : 15.1 yr) of the third year class girls skinfold thickness was : arm 7.6mm; back 10.3; abdomen 9.4; waist 11.9mm; and mean thickness was 9.8mm. Fat was 23.2$\pm$4.35% body weight or 9.36$\pm$1.18 kg. Lean body weight was 37.10$\pm$5.08 kg. 4. The ratio of mean skinfold thickness (mm) to body weight (kg) was 0.213 in 13 year old girls, 0.225 in 14 year, and 0.213 in 15 year old girls.

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Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness

  • Kim, K.H.;Hosseindoust, A.;Ingale, S.L.;Lee, S.H.;Noh, H.S.;Choi, Y.H.;Jeon, S.M.;Kim, Y.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2016
  • The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16) over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing) and two level of back-fat thickness (<20 or ${\geq}20$) at d 107 of gestation. Gestating sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing) 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in sows having back-fat thickness <20 mm than that of sows with ${\geq}20mm$ back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (p<0.05) feed intake and shorter (p<0.05) weaning-to-estrus interval than that of sows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (p<0.05) in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (p<0.05) in group housed sows. Group housed sows had lesser (p<0.05) farrowing duration and greater (p<0.05) eating time than that of sows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with ${\geq}20mm$ back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.

Studies on Live-carcass Trait of Parity and Region in Hanwoo Cows Measured by Real-time Ultrasound (초음파 진단장치를 이용한 한우 암소의 산차 및 지역별 산육특성 구명)

  • Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Bok;Lee, Chang-Woo;Song, Young-Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2009
  • Current study was conducted to investigate the influence of parity and region variation in ultrasound live carcass traits of Hanwoo cows. A total of 1,386 heads of Hanwoo cows, spreading over six regions in Gangwon province of South Korea, were measured for longissimus muscle area, back fat thickness, marbling score and rump fat thickness by using real-time ultrasound method. The results revealed that, positive correlations were found in all ultrasound live carcass traits. All live carcass traits were increased in accordance with parity until the sixth, and then decreased thereafter. Statistical significant differences (p<0.01) were found among regions in ultrasound live carcass traits, e.g. Hanwoo cows showed highest longissimus muscle area and marbling score in Hwacheon, while the lowest back fat thickness and rump fat thickness were observed in Yanggu. Greater longissimus muscle area and marbling scores were found in Hanwoo cows which were born during autumn, 2000. Moreover, individuals born during autumn, 2005 and 2006 showed a thicker back fat and rump fat thickness. Back fat thickness had the highest positive correlation with rump fat thickness, while rib eye area and rump fat thickness had the lowest correlation.

Seasonal Variation of Total Body Fat in Men (사람의 피부두겹 및 총지방량에 관한 연주 -제1편 총지방량의 계절적 변동-)

  • Cho, Yoon-Sik;Nam, Kee-Yong
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 1969
  • Skinfold thickness measurement and total body fat calculation were made in summer (July) and winter (December or January) On 70 medical students (age: 20 yr),8 national team basketball players (age: 20 yr), and 9 middle-age men. Skinfold thickness measurements were made on 4 sites, namely, back, arm, waist and abdomen. The mean skinfold thickness (mm) of the 4 sites was substituted into the following formulae. For adult of 20 years old: % Fat=0.911x+8.1, and for middle-aged men % Fat=1.199x+1.41. In young medical students and ball players body weight decreased, mean skinfold thickness increased in winter season. As a result total body fat .(% body weight) increased in winter In middle-aged men both body weight and mean skinfold thickness increased in winter and resulted in an increase in the total body fat. The detailed data are as follows: 1. In medical students summer: winter values were: body weight, 59.7 :58.9 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 7.85 : 8.12 mm; and total body fat, 15.0 : 15.5% body weight (P<.30). 2. In national team basketball players summer: winter values were: body weight, 73.5 : 69.1 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 7.2 : 7.5 mm; total body fat, 11.6 : 12.1% (P:NS). 3. In middle-aged men summer vs winter values were: body weight, 61.5 : 63.0 kg; mean skinfold thickness, 10.3 : 11.8 mm; total body fat, 17.2 : 18.0% (P:NS). 4. Skinfold thickness on back showed no seasonal variation and on abdomen the thickness increased in winter. 5. It was concluded that the predominant factor in increasing total body fat in winter is the decrease in body exercise in the winter time.

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Genome-wide association study identifies positional candidate genes affecting back fat thickness trait in pigs

  • Lee, Jae-Bong;Kang, Ho-Chan;Kim, Eun-Ho;Kim, Yoon-Joo;Yoo, Chae-Kyoung;Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lim, Hyun-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.707-713
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    • 2018
  • This study was done to search for positional candidate genes associated with the back fat thickness trait using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in purebred Yorkshires (N = 1755). Genotype and phenotype analyses were done for 1,642 samples. As a result of the associations with back fat thickness using the Gemma program (ver. 0.93), when the genome-wide suggestive threshold was determined using the Bonferroni method ($p=1.61{\times}10^{-5}$), the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with suggestive significance were identified in 1 SNP marker on chromosome 2 (MARC0053928; $p=3.65{\times}10^{-6}$), 2 SNP markers on chromosome 14 (ALGA0083078; $p=7.85{\times}10^{-6}$, INRA0048453; $p=1.27{\times}10^{-5}$), and 1 SNP marker on chromosome 18 (ALGA0120564; $p=1.44{\times}10^{-5}$). We could select positional candidate genes (KCNQ1, DOCK1, LOC106506151, and LOC110257583), located close to the SNP markers. Among these, we identified a potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member gene (KCNQ1) and the dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1) gene associated with obesity and Type-2 diabetes. The SNPs and haplotypes of the KCNQ1 and DOCK1 genes can contribute to understanding the genetic structure of back fat thickness. Additionally, it may provide basic data regarding marker assisted selection for a meat quality trait in pigs.

Total Body Fat Estimation by Means of Densitometry and Skinfold Thickness in Middle-Aged Men (밀도법 및 피부두겹법에 의한 중년 남자의 총지방량 측정)

  • Nam, Kwang-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1974
  • Formulas for the prediction of total body fat from skinfold thickness in middle aged men were presented. Hydrostatic weighing was made on 35 middle-aged men $(age:\;40{\sim}50\;years)$ sad corrected for residual volume in lung. Skinfold thickness at four sites, namely, arm, back, waist and abdomen were compared with total fat calculated from the formula given by Keys and Brozek and regression equations were derived. In middle-aged men the observed values were: Body density, 1.07478 ; total body fat, 10.51% body weight; lean body mass, 89.49% body weight; arm skinfold thickness, 4.85mm; back, 10.4 ; waist, 7.72; abdomen, 7.62 and mean skinfold thickness of the four sites, 7.59 mm. The correlations between skinfold thickness and body density were high. The correlations between skinfold thickness and total body fat were also high. The coefficient of correlation between total body fat and arm skinfold, mean skinfold thickness were r=0.839 and r=0.862, respectively. Arm and mean skinfold thicknesses (x, mm) could be used as the representative value for the prediction of total body fat (y, % body weight). The regression equations were: On arm y=2.00x+0.99, With mean skinfold y=1.20x+1.41 The coefficient of correlation between body weight (kg) and mean skinfold thickness was r=0.733. The ratio of mean skinfold thickness (mm) to body weight (kg) in middle-aged men was 0.132.

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Carcass Traits Determining Quality and Yield Grades of Hanwoo Steers

  • Moon, S.S.;Hwang, I.H.;Jin, S.K.;Lee, J.G.;Joo, S.T.;Park, G.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1049-1054
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    • 2003
  • A group of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers (n=14,386) was sampled from a commercial abattoir located in Seoul over one year period (spring, summer, autumn and winter) and their carcass traits were collected. Carcass traits assessed by an official meat grader comprised degree of marbling, meat color, fat color, texture and maturity for quality grade, and back fat thickness, ribeye area and carcass weight for yield grade. A heavier carcass with a higher marbling score, more red meat color and white fat color received better quality grade (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed that the marbling score was the strongest attribute (partial $R^2=0.88$) for quality grade. Lighter carcasses with a thinner back fat and larger ribeye area received higher yield grade score. The back fat thickness was the most negative determinant of yield grade (Partial $R^2=-0.66$). The slaughter season had a little effect on quality and yield grades. As slaughter weight increased, back fat thickness and ribeye area increased linearly, whereas marbling score reached its asymptotic level at approximately 570 kg. As a consequence, quality grade showed a considerable improvement up to 570 kg, but increases in slaughter weight afterward showed a little benefit on quality grade. There was a clear curvilinear relationship between slaughter weight and yield grade in that the yield grade reached its highest point at approximately 490 kg and decreased afterward. These results suggested that 570kg at the age of 24 months might be the economic slaughter weight for quality grade but 490 kg for yield grade.