• Title, Summary, Keyword: BRCA2 genes

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X-linked Gene Expression Profiles by RNAi-Mediated BRCA1 Knockdown in MCF7 Cells

  • Song, Min-Ae;Park, Jung-Hoon;Ahn, Hee-Jeong;Ko, Jung-Jae;Lee, Su-Man
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.154-158
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    • 2005
  • Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene confer an increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 in female cells is directly related with the maintenance of the inactive X chromosome (Xi). The effect by the loss of the BRCA1 function on the X chromosome gene expression remains unclear in cancer cells. We attempted to investigate the expression pattern of the X-linked genes by performing BRCA1 knockdown via RNA interference in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The transcriptional and translational levels of BRCA1 were decreased over 95% in the MCF7 cells after BRCA1 knockdown. The expression patterns of one hundred ninety X-linked genes were profiled by the X chromosome-specific cDNA arrays. A total of seven percent of the X-linked genes (14/190) were aberrantly expressed by over 2-fold in the MCF7-BRCA1 knockdown cells, which contained two up-regulated genes (2/190, 1 %) and 12 down-regulated genes (12/190, 6.3%). It is interesting that 72% of the aberrantly expressed X-linked genes were located on the Xq (10/14,) region. Our data suggests that BRCA1 may not be important to maintain X chromosome inactivation in cancer because the BRCA1 knockdown did increase the expression of the only one percent of X-linked genes in the human breast cancer cells.

Clinically Significant Unclassified Variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes among Korean Breast Cancer Patients

  • Yoon, Kyong-Ah;Park, Boyoung;Lee, Byung Il;Yang, Moon Jung;Kong, Sun-Young;Lee, Eun Sook
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Unclassified variants (UVs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are not defined as pathogenic for breast cancer, and their clinical significance currently remains undefined. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify potentially pathogenic UVs by comparing their prevalence between breast cancer patients and controls. Materials and Methods A total of 328 breast cancer patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic screening at the National Cancer Center of Korea. Genetic variants of BRCA genes that were categorized as unclassified according to the Breast Cancer Information Core database were selected based on allelic frequency, after which candidate variants were genotyped in 421 healthy controls. We also examined family members of the study participants. Finally, the effects of amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function were predicted in silico. Results Genetic tests revealed 33 UVs in BRCA1 and 47 in BRCA2. Among 15 candidates genotyped in healthy controls, c.5339T>C in BRCA1 and c.6029T>G, c.7522G>A in BRCA2 were not detected. Moreover, the c.5339T>C variant in the BRCA1 gene was detected in four patients with a family history of breast cancer. This nonsynonymous variant (Leu1780Pro) in the BRCA1 C-terminal domain was predicted to have an effect on BRCA1 protein structure/function. Conclusion This study showed that comparison of genotype frequency between cases and controls could help identify UVs of BRCA genes that are potentially pathogenic. Moreover, our findings suggest that c.5339T>C in BRCA1 might be a pathogenic variant for patients and their families.

Screening of BRCA1/2 Mutations Using Direct Sequencing in Indonesian Familial Breast Cancer Cases

  • Anwar, Sumadi Lukman;Haryono, Samuel J;Aryandono, Teguh;Datasena, I Gusti Bagus
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1987-1991
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer has emerged as the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, including in Indonesia. The contribution of genes associated with high-risk breast-ovarian cancers, BRCA1 and BRCA2, in the Indonesian population is relatively unknown. We have characterized family history of patients with moderate- to high-risk of breast cancer predisposition in 26 unrelated cases from Indonesia for BRCA1/2 mutation analyses using direct sequencing. Known deleterious mutations were not found in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Seven variants in BRCA2 were documented in 10 of 26 patients (38%). All variants were categorized as unclassified (VUSs). Two synonymous variants, c.3623A>G and c.4035T>C, were found in 5 patients. One variant, c4600T>C, was found in a 38 year old woman with a family history of breast cancer. We have found 4 novel variants in BRCA2 gene including c.6718C>G, c.3281A>G, c.10176C>G, and c4490T>C in 4 unrelated patients, all of them having a positive family history of breast cancer. In accordance to other studies in Asian population, our study showed more frequent variants in BRCA2 compared to BRCA1. Further studies involving larger numbers of hereditary breast cancer patients are required to reveal contribution of BRCA1/2 mutations and/or other predisposing genes among familial breast cancer patients in Indonesia.

Evaluation of Genetic Variations in miRNA-Binding Sites of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes as Risk Factors for the Development of Early-Onset and/or Familial Breast Cancer

  • Erturk, Elif;Cecener, Gulsah;Polatkan, Volkan;Gokgoz, Sehsuvar;Egeli, Unal;Tunca, Berrin;Tezcan, Gulcin;Demirdogen, Elif;Ak, Secil;Tasdelen, Ismet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8319-8324
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    • 2014
  • Although genetic markers identifying women at an increased risk of developing breast cancer exist, the majority of inherited risk factors remain elusive. Mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene confer a substantial increase in breast cancer risk, yet routine clinical genetic screening is limited to the coding regions and intronexon boundaries, precluding the identification of mutations in noncoding and untranslated regions. Because 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) polymorphisms disrupting microRNA (miRNA) binding can be functional and can act as genetic markers of cancer risk, we aimed to determine genetic variation in the 3'UTR of BRCA1/BRCA2 in familial and early-onset breast cancer patients with and without mutations in the coding regions of BRCA1/BRCA2 and to identify specific 3'UTR variants that may be risk factors for cancer development. The 3'UTRs of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were screened by heteroduplex analysis and DNA sequencing in 100 patients from 46 BRCA1/2 families, 54 non-BRCA1/2 families, and 47 geographically matched controls. Two polymorphisms were identified. SNPs $c.^*1287C$ >T (rs12516) (BRCA1) and $c.^*105A$ >C (rs15869) (BRCA2) were identified in 27% and 24% of patients, respectively. These 2 variants were also identified in controls with no family history of cancer (23.4% and 23.4%, respectively). In comparison to variations in the 3'UTR region of the BRCA1/2 genes and the BRCA1/2 mutational status in patients, there was a statistically significant relationship between the BRCA1 gene polymorphism $c.^*1287C$ >T (rs12516) and BRCA1 mutations (p=0.035) by Fisher's Exact Test. SNP $c.^*1287C$ >T (rs12516) of the BRCA1 gene may have potential use as a genetic marker of an increased risk of developing breast cancer and likely represents a non-coding sequence variation in BRCA1 that impacts BRCA1 function and leads to increased early-onset and/or familial breast cancer risk in the Turkish population.

Targeted Resequencing of 30 Genes Improves the Detection of Deleterious Mutations in South Indian Women with Breast and/or Ovarian Cancers

  • Rajkumar, Thangarajan;Meenakumari, Balaiah;Mani, Samson;Sridevi, Veluswami;Sundersingh, Shirley
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5211-5217
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    • 2015
  • Background: We earlier used PCR-dHPLC for mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this article we report application of targeted resequencing of 30 genes involved in hereditary cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 91 patient samples were analysed using a panel of 30 genes in the Illumina HiScan SQ system. CLCBio was used for mapping reads to the reference sequences as well as for quality-based variant detection. All the deleterious mutations were then reconfirmed using Sanger sequencing. Kaplan Meier analysis was conducted to assess the effect of deleterious mutations on disease free and overall survival. Results: Seventy four of the 91 samples had been run earlier using the PCR-dHPLC and no deleterious mutations had been detected while 17 samples were tested for the first time. A total of 24 deleterious mutations were detected, 11 in BRCA1, 4 in BRCA2, 5 in p53, one each in RAD50, RAD52, ATM and TP53BP1. Some 19 deleterious mutations were seen in patients who had been tested earlier with PCR-dHPLC [19/74] and 5/17 in the samples tested for the first time, Together with our earlier detected 21 deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, we now had 45 mutations in 44 patients. BRCA1c.68_69delAG;p.Glu23ValfsX16 mutation was the most common, seen in 10/44 patients. Kaplan Meier survival analysis did not show any difference in disease free and overall survival in the patients with and without deleterious mutations. Conclusions: The NGS platform is more sensitive and cost effective in detecting mutations in genes involved in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers.

Absence of 185delAG and 6174delT Mutations among Breast Cancer Patients of Eastern India

  • Chakraborty, Abhijit;Banerjee, Debolina;Basak, Jayasri;Mukhopadhyay, Ashis
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7929-7933
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    • 2015
  • Background: The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the number one cancer in females, pushing the cervical cancer to the second position. Most of the predisposition to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has been attributed to inherited defects in two tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Alterations in these genes have been reported in different populations, some of which are population-specific mutations showing founder effects. Two specific mutations in the BRCA1 (185delAG) and BRCA2 (6174delT) genes have been reported to be of high prevalence in different populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the carrier frequency of 185delAG and 6174delT mutations in eastern Indian breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We selected 231 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients from our tertiary cancer care center in eastern India. Family history was obtained by interview or a self-reported questionnaire. The presence of the mutation was investigated by allele specific duplex/multiplex-PCR on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. Results: A total of 231 patients (age range: 26-77 years), 130 with a family history and 101 without were screened. The two founder mutations 185delAG in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 were not found in any of the subjects. This was confirmed by molecular analysis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these BRCA mutations may not have a strong recurrent effect on breast cancer among the eastern Indian population. The contribution of these founder mutations to breast cancer incidence is probably low and could be limited to specific subgroups. This may be particularly useful in establishing further pre-screening strategies.

The Effect of Reproductive Factors on Breast Cancer Presentation in Women Who Are BRCA Mutation Carrier

  • Kim, Ju-Yeon;Moon, Hyeong-Gon;Kang, Young-Joon;Han, Wonshik;Noh, Woo-Chul;Jung, Yongsik;Moon, Byung-In;Kang, Eunyoung;Park, Sung-Shin;Lee, Min Hyuk;Park, Bo Young;Lee, Jong Won;Noh, Dong-Young
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer increased risks for breast cancers. However, the clinical presentation of breast cancer among women who are carriers of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2 carriers) mutations is heterogenous. We aimed to identify the effects of the reproductive histories of women with the BRCA1/2 mutations on the clinical presentation of breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on women with proven BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations who were recruited to the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study, from 2007 to 2014. Results: Among the 736 women who were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, a total of 483 women had breast cancers. Breast cancer diagnosis occurred at significantly younger ages in women who experienced menarche at ${\leq}14$ years of age, compared to those who experienced menarche at >14 years of age ($37.38{\pm}7.60$ and $43.30{\pm}10.11$, respectively, p<0.001). Additionally, the number of full-term pregnancies was significantly associated with the age of diagnosis, especially in women with the BRCA2 mutation. The prevalence of advanced stages (stage II or III vs. stage I) of disease in parous women was higher than in nulliparous women (68.5% vs. 55.2%, p=0.043). This association was more pronounced in women with the BRCA2 mutation (hazard ratio, 2.67; p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results suggest that reproductive factors, such as the age of onset of menarche and the presence of parity, are associated with the clinical presentation patterns of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

Identification of a Novel BRCA2 and CHEK2 A-C-G-C Haplotype in Turkish Patients Affected with Breast Cancer

  • Haytural, Hazal;Yalcinkaya, Nazli;Akan, Gokce;Arikan, Soykan;Ozkok, Elif;Cakmakoglu, Bedia;Yaylim, Ilhan;Aydin, Makbule;Atalar, Fatmahan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3229-3235
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    • 2013
  • Background: Many breast cancers are caused by certain rare and familial mutations in the high or moderate penetrance genes BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2. The aim of this study was to examine the allele and genotype frequencies of seven mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes in breast cancer patients and to investigate their isolated and combined associations with breast cancer risk. Methods: We genotyped seven mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes and then analyzed single variations and haplotype associations in 106 breast cancer patients and 80 healthy controls. Results: We found significant associations in the analyses of CHEK2- 1100delC (p=0.001) and BRCA1-5382insC (p=0.021) mutations in breast cancer patients compared to controls. The highest risk was observed among breast cancer patients carrying both CHEK2-1100delC and BRCA2- Met784Val mutations (OR=0.093; 95%CI 0.021-0.423; p=0.001). We identified one previously undescribed BRCA2 and a CHEK2 four-marker haplotype of A-C-G-C which was overrepresented ($X^2$=7.655; p=0.0057) in the patient group compared to controls. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a previously undescribed BRCA2 and CHEK2 A-C-G-C haplotype in association with the breast cancer in our population. Our results further suggest that the CHEK2-1100delC mutation in combination with BRCA2-Met784Val may lead to an unexpected high risk which needs to be confirmed in larger cohorts in order to better understand their role in the development and prognosis of breast cancer.

Expression of DNA Damage Response Proteins and Associations with Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Chinese Familial Breast Cancer Patients with BRCA1/2 Mutations

  • Zhu, Xinyi;Tian, Tian;Ruan, Miao;Rao, Jia;Yang, Wentao;Cai, Xu;Sun, Menghong;Qin, Guangqi;Zhao, Zhonghua;Wu, Jiong;Shao, Zhimin;Shui, Ruohong;Hu, Zhen
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.297-305
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The characteristic expression of DNA damage response proteins in familial breast cancers with BRCA1, BRCA2, or non-BRCA1/2 mutations has not been analyzed in Chinese patients. Our study aimed to assess the differential expression of microcephalin 1 (BRIT1), ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), BRCA1, RAD51 recombinase (RAD51), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and establish the profile of Chinese familial breast cancers with different mutation status. Methods: We constructed five tissue microarrays from 183 familial breast cancer patients (31 with BRCA1 mutations; 14 with BRCA2 mutations, and 138 with non-BRCA1/2 mutations). The DNA response and repair markers used for immunohistochemistry analysis included BRIT1, ATM, CHEK2, BRCA1, RAD51, and PARP-1. The expressions of these proteins were analyzed in BRCA1/2 mutated tumors. The association between pathologic characteristics with BRCA1/2 mutation status was also analyzed. Results: In familial breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutated tumors were more frequent with high nuclear grade, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, low Ki-67, and positive CK5/6. BRCA1 mutated tumors had lower CHEK2 and higher cytoplasmic BRIT1 expression than BRCA2 and non-BRCA1/2 mutation tumors. BRCA2-associated tumors showed higher CHEK2 and cytoplasmic RAD51 expression than those in other groups. Nuclear PARP-1 expression in BRCA1/2-associated tumors was significantly higher than in non-BRCA1/2 mutation tumors. Moreover, we found quite a few of negative PARP-1 expression cases in BRCA1/2 mutated groups. Conclusion: The clinicopathologic findings of BRCA1-associated Chinese familial breast cancers were similar to the results of other studies. Chinese familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations might have distinctive expression of different DNA damage response proteins. The reduced expression of PARP-1 in Chinese BRCA1/2 mutated breast cancer patients could influence the therapeutic outcome of PARP-1 inhibitors.

Methylation Status and Expression of BRCA2 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Indonesia

  • Pradjatmo, Heru
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8599-8604
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    • 2016
  • Ovarian cancer is the main cause of mortality in gynecological malignancy and extensive studies have been conducted to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. The BRCA2 gene is known to be an important tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, thereby BRCA2 alterations may lead to cancer progression. However, the BRCA2 gene is rarely mutated, and loss of function is suspected to be mediated by epigenetic regulation. In this study we investigated the methylation status and gene expression of BRCA2 in ovarian cancer patients. Ovarian cancer pateints (n=69) were recruited and monitored for 54 months in this prospective cohort study. Clinical specimens were used to study the in situ expression of aberrant BRCA2 proteins and the methylation status of BRCA2. These parameters were then compared with clinical parameters and overall survival rate. We found that BRCA2 methylation was found in the majority of cases (98.7%). However, the methylation status was not associated with protein level expression of BRCA2 (49.3%). Therefore in addition to DNA methylation, other epigenetic mechanisms may regulate BRCA2 expresison. Our findings may become evidence of BRCA2 inactivation mechanism through DNA methylation in the Indonesian population. More importantly, from multivariate analysis, BRCA2 expression was correlated with better overall survival (HR 0.32; p=0.05). High percentage of BRCA2 methylation and correlation of BRCA2 expression with overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer cases may lead to development of treatment modalities specifically to target methylation of BRCA genes.