• Title, Summary, Keyword: BOD EMC

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Comparison of Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics at Stream in Urban and Rural Watershed (도시 및 농촌 유역 하천에서의 강우유출 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Kim, Sang-Yong;Park, Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.650-660
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to compare the rainfall-runoff characteristics in streams of classified urban and rural watershed using land use and population density. EMC (event mean concentration) of BOD, COD, TP and SS increased significantly in urban and rural watershed, but that of TN remained unchanged. Although there were no significant differences in EMC of BOD, COD, TN, TP depending on the watershed characteristics, EMC of BOD and COD significantly increased in the urban watershed, while EMC of TP increased in the rural watershed. In the urban watershed, the first flush time was faster and the first flush effect was stronger in BOD, COD, and TP. However, the difference between cumulative mass and cumulative volume was found to be less than 0.2 in the rural watershed, indicating a weak first flush effect. The discharged masses of BOD (70 %), COD (64 %), and TP (66 %) in the first flush of runoff were higher in urban watershed, while TN (67 %) was higher in rural watershed. The reproducibility of first flush time and the strength of first flush using CV (coefficient of variation) was found to be more reproducible for first flush time in both watersheds. In rural watershed, the CV value of first flush time for TP out of water quality parameters was lower. Whereas the CV values of first flush time for BOD, COD and TP in urban watersheds were similar.

Monitoring and research of NPS pollution priority Management - Jaun district Watershed (자운지구 비점오염원 관리를 위한 모니터링 연구)

  • Park, Byeong Ky;Shin, Jae Young;Lee, Su In;Ju, So Hee;Cho, Joong Dae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.524-524
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    • 2016
  • 본 연구에서는 홍천 자운지구 고랭지 농업지역을 대상으로 장기간의 유역조사와 하천 모니터링을 통해 관측된 축척 데이터를 이용하여 비점오염저감 효과를 정량화하고 추후 모니터링 자료로서 탁수와 비점오염원 저감시설의 저감효과와 비점오염원의 효율적인 관리를 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 모니터링 결과 소양호 유역의 오염부하(1차 강우사상) 중 홍천군 자운지구의 유역단위 비점오염 저감효과의 분석에는 강우량과 단위면적당 오염부하를 이용하였으며, 자운천은 SS 5,396,761 kg, COD 82,261 kg, BOD 57,329 kg, T-N 68,711 kg, T-P 3,091 kg이었으며, 오염부하(2차 강우사상)는 SS 320,293 kg, COD 34,588 kg, BOD 22,350 kg, T-N 48,954 kg, T-P 640 kg으로 나타났다. 또한 소양호 유역의 EMC(1차 강우사상) 중 자운천은 SS 829.9 mg/L, COD 12.7 mg/L, BOD 8.8 mg/L, T-N 10.567 mg/L, T-P 0.475 mg/L 이었으며, EMC(2차 강우사상)는 SS 68.6 mg/L, COD 7.4 mg/L, BOD 4.8 mg/L, T-N 10.487 mg/L, T-P 0.137 mg/L로 나타났다. 소양호 유역의 단위면적당 오염부하(1차 강우사상) 중 자운천은 SS 402.0 kg/ha/event, COD 6.1 kg/ha/event, BOD 4.3 kg/ha/event, T-N 5.118 kg/ha/event, T-P 0.230 kg/ha/event 이었으며, 오염부하(2차 강우사상)는 SS 23.9 kg/ha/event, COD 2.6 kg/ha/event, BOD 1.7 kg/ha/event, T-N 3.646 kg/ha/event, T-P 0.048 kg/ha/event로 나타났다. 오염부하에서는 1차 강우에 비해 2차 강우에서는 SS 5,076,468 mg/L, COD 47,673 mg/L, BOD 34,979 mg/L, T-N 19,757 mg/L, T-P 2451 mg/L로 1차 강우사상에 비해 오염부하가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 EMC에서는 1차 강우에 비해 2차 강우에서는 SS 761.3 mg/L, COD 5.3 mg/L, BOD 4.0 mg/L, T-N 0.080 mg/L, T-P 0.338 mg/L로 1차 강우사상에 비해 EMC가 저감되었다. 단위면적당 오염부하는 1차 강우에 비해 2차 강우에서는 SS 378.1 mg/L, COD 3.5 mg/L, BOD 2.6 mg/L, T-N 1.472 mg/L, T-P 0.182 mg/L로 1차 강우사상에 비해 EMC가 저감되었다. 강우량과 강우강도 그리고 영농활동의 시기에 따른 EMC와 단위면적당 오염부하는 큰 차이를 보였으며, 예년에 비해 적은 강수량으로 인해 탁수와 비점오염부하의 배출이 상대적으로 적었던 것으로 판단된다. 소양호 유역과 같은 넓은 유역에서 시행되는 비점오염원의 저감연구는 오랜 시간 동안 자료를 축적해야 유의미한 평가가 이루어질 수 있으므로 장기적이고 지속적인 모니터링을 통한 유량 데이터 자료구축과 수질분석뿐만 아니라, 발생되는 비점오염 물질의 관리를 위한 체계적인 연구가 지속되어야하며, 아울러 농민의 인식도 변화 등을 포함하는 많은 인자들을 정밀히 조사하고 다각도로 분석하여 저감효과에 대한 지속적인 연구가 필요하다.

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Runoff Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollution in Lower Reaches of Livestock Area (축사 주변지역 비점오염물질의 유출특성)

  • Hwang, Jeong-Suk;Park, Young-Ki;Won, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.557-565
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    • 2012
  • In this research, it was analyzed that the effect of the non-point source pollution that occurs in the lower reaches of the livestock area. The analysis on the hydro- and polluto-graphs showed that the concentration of pollution gradually increased as the flow rate increased and, after reaching the peak flow rate, the flow rate dropped drastically. For Event Mean Concentration (EMC), in the lower reaches of livestock area, TSS EMC was 146.80~424.95 mg/L, COD EMC 11.64~55.66 mg/L, BOD EMC 6.66~49.88 mg/L, T-N EMC 7.650~43.825 mg/L and T-P EMC 0.711~3.855 mg/L. According to the results of the analysis on the correlations between pollutants, TSS and BOD, COD, T-N and T-P had correlations at a 0.53~0.95 confidence level. In addition, according to the result of the analysis on the correlations between EMC (mg/L) and storm runoff ($m^3$), the correlation was well explained by a Cubic regression. In addition, among the determination coefficients, TSS and T-N were relatively high, at 0.767~0.835 and 0.773~0.901 respectively, which indicates that EMC goes up as the storm runoff increases. Therefore, it is expected that EMC can be forecasted according to the amount of runoff ($m^3$). The results of this research will be a practical information for the assessment of the non-point source pollution that occurs in the lower reaches of the livestock area.

Estimation of BOD Loading of Diffuse Pollution from Agricultural-Forestry Watersheds (농지-임야 유역의 비점원 발생 BOD 부하의 추정)

  • Kim, Geonha;Kwon, Sehyug
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.617-623
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    • 2005
  • Forestry and agricultural land uses constitute 85% of Korea and these land uses are typically mixed in many watersheds. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is a primary factor for managing water qualities of the water resources in Korea. BOD loadings from diffuse sources, however, not well monitored yet. This study aims to assess BOD loadings from diffuse sources and their affecting factors to conserve quality of water resources. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of BOD was calculated based on the monitoring data of forty rainfall events at four agricultural-forestry watersheds. Exceedence cumulative probability of BOD EMCs were plotted to show agricultural activities in a watershed impacts on the magnitude of EMCs. Prediction equation for each rainfall event was proposed to estimate BOD EMCs: $EMC_{BOD}(mg/L)=EXP(0.413+0.0000001157{\times}$(discharged runoff volume in $m^3$)+0.018${\times}$(ratio of agricultural land use to total watershed area).

Probability Distribution of BOD EMC from Paddy Fields (논 유출수 BOD의 유량가중평균농도(EMC) 확률분포)

  • Jin, So-Hyun;Jung, Jae-Woon;Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Choi, Woo-Jung;Choi, Dong-Ho;Kim, Sang-Don;Kang, Jae-Hong;Choi, Yu-Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1153-1159
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    • 2010
  • Identification of probability distribution for water quality constituents from specific land use is important to achieve successful implementation of TMDL program. In this 3-year study, distribution of discharge and BOD(Biological Oxygen Demand) concentration from paddy rice fields were monitored. Four probability distributions, normal, log-normal, Gamma and Weibull were fitted and the goodness-of-fit was assessed using probability plots and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. $EMC_s$ of BOD in runoff from paddy field ranged 0.37 to $7.99\;mgL^{-1}$, and all four probability distributions were acceptable. But the normal distribution would be preferred for BOD from paddy fields considering nature of straight forward application.

Characteristics of Non-Point Pollution Discharge of Urban Area According to Land Use (토지이용도에 따른 도시하천의 비점오염원 유출특성)

  • Park, Sung-Chun;Oh, Chang-Ryol;Kim, Jung-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1229-1233
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    • 2005
  • 본 연구는 도시지역의 강우-유출로 인한 비점오염물질의 유출특성 및 배출부하량을 조사하기 위하여 영산강권역의 풍영정천을 대상으로 조사하였다. 대상 유역의 토지이용별 구분은 논지역, 하류공단 및 논$\cdot$산지 복합 토지 이용특성, 공단 지역, 도시 분류식 지역, 소유역 출구지역으로 구분하였다. 시료의 채취는 강우시 4회에 걸쳐 조사하였으며, 매회 시료 채취 주기는 강우유출이 발생하기 전부터 시작하여 첨두유출량이 발생때까지 $1\~2$시간 간격으로 채취한 후 강우 종료 후 유출량 변화가 없을 때까지 $9\~12$단계로 세분하여 유출량과 pH, DO, BOD, COD, SS, T-N, T-P의 농도를 측정 하였다. 토지이용별 비점오염물질의 유량가중평균농도(EMC : Event Mean Concentration)를 살펴보면, BOD의 EMC는 $4.43\~14.22mg/{\ell}$의 분포를 보였으며, 도시 합류식 토지이용 특성을 지닌 P-4지점에서 가장 큰 농도를 보였을 뿐만 아니라 타 토지이용 특성에 비하여 두드러지게 초기 오염물질 유출 현상을 나타내었다. COD의 EMC는 $8.27\~18.81mg/{\ell}$의 분포를 보였으며, BOD 수질농도와 같이 P-4 지점에서 가장 큰 농도를 갖는 것으로 나타났다. SS의 EMC는 $35.76\~358.86mg/{\ell}$의 분포를 보였으며, 소유역의 중간지점이면서 논$\cdot$산지$\cdot$공단지역의 토지이용 특성을 지닌 P-2 지점에서 가장 큰 농도를 나타내었다. 이는 조사기간(Event 1, Event2) 동안 상류의 자연형하천 제방공사로 인한 토사유출로 인하여 다소 높게 나타난 것으로 판단된다. 또한, 대상유역 전반적으로 초기 오염물질 유출 현상을 보였으며, BOD와 COD 수질농도의 분포양상과는 다르게 강우량 및 강우강도에 많은 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다. T-N의 EMC는 $1.61\~7.13mg/{\ell}$의 분포를 보였으며, T-P는 $0.03\~0.46mg/{\ell}$의 분포를 갖는 것으로 나타났다.

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Determination of Pollutant EMCs and Loadings of Runoff in Paved Areas (포장지역내 강우유출수의 EMCs 및 부하량 산정)

  • Gil, Kyung-Ik;Wee, Seung-Kyung;Park, Moo-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2008
  • The paved area like a road or bridge where having high impermeable rates were accumulated various non-point sources(NPS) by passing vehicles during dry season periods. They are flowed in the river continuous when it rains and could negative impact on environment. Therefore, this study monitoring NPS for two years and determinating for each pollutant EMCs and mass loading. The result shows that the EMC ranges are 11.60$\sim$230.90 mg/L for TSS, 4.58$\sim$31.90 mg/L for BOD, 1.86$\sim$9.20 mg/L for TN and 0.14$\sim$1.55 mg/L for TP. Also, the ranges of washed-off mass loading are determined to 0.78$\sim$18.01 kg/day for TSS, 0.47$\sim$1.17 kg/day for BOD, 0.00$\sim$0.01 kg/day for Pb and 0.01$\sim$0.06 kg/day for Zn.

A Study on the Discharge Characteristics of Non-point Pollutant Source in the Agricultural Area of the Kyongan Watershed (경안천 유역 농촌지역의 비점오염원 배출 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Soo;Jung, Yong-jun;Park, Moo Jong;Gil, Kyung-Ik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.169-173
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    • 2008
  • A field monitoring was conducted in order to find out the discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the agricultural area. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of TSS, $BOD_5$, $COD_{Mn}$, TP, TN was calculated based on the monitoring data of 10 rainfall events at agricultural watersheds. A significant relationship was observed from the correlation between EMCs and rainfall characteristics. The result shows that EMC ranges of 95% confidence intervals were 50.5~203 mg/L for TSS, 0.8~14.2 mg/L for $BOD_5$, 4.2~20.7 mg/L for $COD_{Mn}$, 2.4~4.5 mg/L for TN and 0.2~0.5 mg/L for TP, respectively. The correlation coefficients between TSS and TP and between $BOD_5$ and $COD_{Mn}$ were found to be 0.912 and 0.961. But TN was lower correlated with other EMC factors. It was also found that rainfall characteristics was not correlated with EMCs.

Runoff Characteristics of Non-point Pollutants Source in Suwon City (수원시 비점오염물질의 유출 특성)

  • Chi, Hong-Jin;Lee, Sang-Eun;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.493-505
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    • 2013
  • This study was to investigate the runoff characteristics of non-point pollutants source at the urban area in Suwon city. The highest T-N and T-P concentration of rainfall runoff observed in agricultural area. In residential area, the highest $BOD_5$ and SS concentration of rainfall runoff was investigated. During rainfall events, the peak concentrations of SS and $BOD_5$ were observed after 1~2 hours of rainfall in urban area. Whereas, the peak concentrations occurred within 1~2 hours after rainfall and then the highest concentrations of SS and $BOD_5$ sharply decreased, showing strong first flush effect in urban area. The EMC results indicated that the highest value of T-N and T-P in agricultural area was observed. While residential area was shown the lowest EMC value as T-N and T-P. Non-point pollutant loads on the land use types in urban area were investigated in the order of residential>industrial>agricultural>highway. $BOD_5$ and SS loads on urban watershed were investigated in the order of Suwon>Hwangguji>Seoho>Wonchunri. Whereas, T-N and T-P loads on urban watershed were investigated in the order of Hwangguji>Suwon>Wonchunri>Seho.

A Study of Non-point Source Reduction Efficiency by Constructed Wetland installed in Flood Pumping Station (빗물펌프장에 설치된 인공습지의 비점오염원 저감효율 연구)

  • Chun, Suk-Young;Kim, Ji-Tae;Lee, Il-Kook;Chang, Soon-Woong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was evaluated the effects of total rainfall, rainfall intensity and antecedent dry days and identify the correlation analysis with the EMC removal efficiency, in order to provide an understanding of the operation and maintenance factors of constructed wetland in flood pumping station. This study was conducted total of 20 monitoring in a catchment(326.2 ha) of constructed wetland in Ga-un flood pumping station located at the downstream of the Wang-suk stream. The determined EMC removal efficiencies were $36.04{\pm}9.45%$ for BOD, $38.50{\pm}13.50%$ for $COD_{Mn}$, $34.34{\pm}13.05%$ for TN and $34.22{\pm}14.27%$ for TP, respectively. These results showed that the pollutants concentration and EMC were reduced while passing through the constructed wetland. In the correlation analysis, the highly correlations with EMC removal efficiency of BOD and $COD_{Mn}$ were observed for total rainfall and rainfall intensity (P<0.05). However, the correlations were not found with TN and TP for rainfall variables.