• Title, Summary, Keyword: BMPs

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Impact of BMP Allocation on Discharge and Avoided Costs in an Urbanized Watershed (최적관리기법 위치분배에 의한 유역단위 하천유량과 회피비용 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Sang-Jun
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.83-107
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    • 2010
  • Urbanized environments are constructed to estimate peak flow and cost savings in response to possible BMP allocation at a watershed scale. The main goal is to explore the proper allocation of sub-watershed level BMPs for peak flow attenuation at a watershed scale. Since several individual site scale BMPs work as a form of aggregated BMPs at a sub-watershed scale, it is a question as to how to properly allocate the sub-watershed level BMPs at a watershed scale. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) is set up for a hypothetically urbanized watershed. A peak flow is determined to be the primary variable of interest and targeted to characterize the spatial distribution of aggregated BMPs. Construction cost of a regional pond forms the basis of the economic valuation. The results indicate that when total size of BMPs is constant in the entire watershed, (1) it is most effective to have aggregated BMPs in some upper sub-watersheds while the BMPs in either the mainstem sub-watershed or a single sub-watershed are the least effective choices for peak flow attenuation at a watershed scale; (2) savings exist between allocation differences and reduced peak flow increases cost savings. The largest saving is found in the strategy of aggregated BMPs in some upper sub-watersheds. These findings, however, call for follow-up site specific case studies revisiting the watershed scale impacts of BMP allocation. Then, it will be argued that location and extent of decentralization are considerable policy variables for an alternative stormwater management policy at a watershed scale.

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BMP Expression by Human Cementum-Derived Cells in vitro

  • Ko, Hyun-Jung;Grzesik, Wojciech J
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2005
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of a large group of TGF-beta family, are important molecular regulators of morphogenesis of numerous tissues and organs, including bones and teeth. Most BMPs are capable of inducing bone formation in vivo and therefore are of considerable clinical interest for regenerating mineralized tissues. Recently, we have developed a method to culture cells from human cementum (human cementum-derived cells, HCDCs). HCDCs, when attached to synthetic hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) ceramic and transplanted into immunodeficient mice, formed histologically identifiable cementum-like tissue. Since it is unclear to what extent BMPs are involved in cementogenesis, the aim of this study was to establish which BMPs are expressed by cementogenic HCDCs and whether the expression of BMPs is related to the degree of cellular differentiation in vitro. HCDCs were maintained in growth medium (DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS) until confluent (proliferation stage). Upon reaching confluence, cells were incubated in the differentiation medium (DMEM/F12 medium containing 10% FBS and 50 mg/ml ascorbic acid) for 14 days (differentiation stage). Next, HCDCs were incubated in mineralization medium (DMEM/F12, 50 mg/ml ascorbic acid, 2.5 mg/ml of ITS (insulin-transferrinselenium), 5 mM beta-glycerophosphate and $10^{-8}M$ dexamethasone) for another 14 days (mineralization stage). At the end of each differentiation stage, total RNA was isolated and evaluated for BMPs (2 through 8) expression by employing real time RT-PCR. HCDCs expressed most of BMPs examined except BMP-7 and BMP-8. Furthermore, on average, the highest levels of BMPs were expressed at the earlier differentiation stage, prior to the initiation of mineralization in vitro. These results indicate that several BMPs are expressed during cementoblastic differentiation and suggest that BMPs may be involved in the homeostasis of human cementum.

BMPs and their clinical potentials

  • Kim, Mee-Jung;Choe, Senyon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.619-634
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    • 2011
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in diseases is the subject of an overwhelming array of studies. BMPs are excellent targets for treatment of various clinical disorders. Several BMPs have already been shown to be clinically beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including BMP-2 and BMP-7 that have been approved for clinical application in nonunion bone fractures and spinal fusions. With the use of BMPs increasingly accepted in spinal fusion surgeries, other therapeutic approaches targeting BMP signaling are emerging beyond applications to skeletal disorders. These approaches can further utilize next-generation therapeutic tools such as engineered BMPs and ex vivo-conditioned cell therapies. In this review, we focused to provide insights into such clinical potentials of BMPs in metabolic and vascular diseases, and in cancer.

Effect of combinatorial bone morphogenetic protein 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene delivery on osteoblastic differentiation

  • Bae, Young;Kim, Kyoung-Hwa;Kim, Su-Hwan;Lee, Chul-Woo;Koo, Ki-Tae;Kim, Tae-Il;Seol, Yang-Jo;Ku, Young;Rhyu, In-Chul;Chung, Chong-Pyoung;Lee, Yong-Moo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.39 no.sup2
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Gene therapy (ex vivo) has recently been used as a means of delivering bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to sites of tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-transduction of adenoviruses expressing BMP-2 and BMP-7 on osteogenesisof C2C12 cells in vitro. Methods: A replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) containing a cDNA for BMPs in the E1 region of the virus (Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7) was constructed by in vivo homologous recombination. Functional activity of Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 were evaluated in mouse stromal cells (W20-17cells). C2C12 cells are transduced with various MOI (multiplicity of infection) of Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 to assess most effective and stable titer. Based on this result, C2C12 cells were transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 alone or by combination. BMPs expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, cell proliferation, and mineralization were assessed. Results: Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 are successfully transduced to W20-17 cells, and secreted BMPs stimulated cell differentiation. Also, C2C12 cells transduced with Ad5BMPs showed expression of BMPs and increased ALPaseactivity. In all groups, cell proliferation was observed over times. At 7days, cells co-transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 showed lower proliferation than the others. C2C12 cells co-transduced with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 had greater ALPaseactivity than that would be predicted if effect of individual Ad5BMPs were additive. Little mineralized nodule formation was detected in cells transduced with individual Ad5BMPs. In contrast, Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7 combination stimulated mineralization after culturing for 10 days in mineralizing medium. Conclusions: Present study demonstrated that adenoviruses expressing BMPs gene successfully produced BMPs protein and these BMPs stimulated cells to be differentiated into osteoblastic cells. In addition, the osteogenic activity of Ad5BMPs can be synergistically increased by co-transduction of cells with Ad5BMP-2 and Ad5BMP-7.

Assessment of Cell Based Pollutant Loadings in an Intensive Agricultural Watershed (농업 소유역 격자단위 오염부하량 평가)

  • Kang, Moon-Seong;Cho, Jae-Pil;Chun, Jong-An;Park, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this paper were to estimate cell based pollutant loadings for total maximum daily load (TMDL) programs and to evaluate the applicability of the agricultural nonpoint source (AGNPS) model for an intensive agricultural watershed in Korea. The model was calibrated and validated at a watershed of 384.8 ha of drainage area using the observed data from 1996 through 2000 in terms of runoff, suspended solid, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus on a hourly basis. Analysis of spatial variations of pollutant loadings for rainfall frequencies of various intensities and durations were conducted. In addition, the validated model was applied to estimated the TMDL removal efficiency for best management practices (BMPs) scenarios which were selected by taking into account the pollutant characteristics of the study watershed. The model can help to understand the problems and to find solutions through landuse changes and BMPs. Thus, the method used for this study was able to identify TMDL quantitatively as well as qualitatively for various sources pollution that are spatially dispersed. Also it provides an assessment of the impact of BMPs on the water bodies studied, allowing the TMDL programs to be complemented more effectively.

Functional analysis of Bombyx mori Decapentaplegic gene for bone differentiation in a mammalian cell

  • Park, Seung-Won;Goo, Tae-Won;Choi, Gwang-Ho;Kang, Seok-Woo;Kim, Sung-Wan;Kim, Seong-Ryul
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2013
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF-${\beta}$) superfamily and are involved in osteoblastic differentiation. The largest TGF-${\beta}$ superfamily subgroup shares genetic homology with human BMPs (hBMPs) and silkworm decapentaplegic (dpp). In addition, hBMPs are functionally interchangeable with Drosophila dpp. Bombyx mori dpp may induce bone formation in mammalian cells. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized the 1,285-base pairs cDNA of full-length B. mori dpp using total RNAs obtained from the fat body of 3-day-old of the $5^{th}$ instar larvae and cloned the cDNA into the pCEP4 mammalian expression vector. Next, B. mori dpp was expressed in C3H10T1/2 cells. The target cells transfected with the pCEP4-Bm dpp plasmid showed biological functions similar to those of osteogenic differentiation induction growth factors such as hBMPs. We determined the relative mRNA expression rates of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to validate the osteoblast-specific differentiation effects of B. mori dpp by performing quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Interestingly, mRNA expression levels of the 3 marker genes except RUNX2, in cells expressing B. mori dpp were much higher than those in control cells and C3H10T1/2 cells transfected with pCEP4. These results suggested that B. mori dpp signaling regulates osterix expression during osteogenic differentiation via RUNX2-independent mechanisms.

Effect of Paddy BMPs on Water Quality and Policy Consideration in Saemangeum Watershed (새만금 유역에서 논 최적관리기법의 수질개선 효과와 정책고려사항)

  • Kim, Jonggun;Lee, Suin;Shin, Jae-young;Lim, Jung-ha;Na, Young-kwang;Joo, Sohee;Shin, Minhwan;Choi, Joongdae
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 2018
  • Agricultural land reclamation in Saemangeum tidal land project is mostly planned to be completed by 2020. Irrigation water for the land is required to be prepared by that time. However, water quality for the irrigation sources is barely meet the target concentration. This paper described the reduction effect of and policy consideration for best management practices (BMPs) which were fertilizer prescription by soil test (SO#1), mixed application of SO#1 and 3 (SO#2), drainage gate control (SO#3), time-release fertilizer application (SO#4), and control (CT). Reduction of paddy runoff was relatively higher in SO#3 (25%) and SO#1 (27%) while lower in SO#4 (9%) and SO#2 (7%) than that in CT. In addition, farmers promised to follow the BMP guidelines but they didn't because of the several problems caused for the BMPs implementation. Thus, it recommended developing an automated control of irrigation gate and paddy water depth and supporing farmers for NPS pollution control and irrigation water reduction.

Analysis of Effects on Soil Erosion Reduction of Various Best Management Practices at Watershed Scale (최적관리기법에 따른 토양유실 저감 효과 유역단위 분석)

  • Lee, Dong Jun;Lee, Ji Min;Kum, Donghyuk;Park, Youn Shik;Jung, Younghun;Shin, Yongchul;Jeong, Gyo-Cheol;Lee, Byeong Cheol;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.638-646
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    • 2014
  • Soil erosion from agricultural fields leads to various environmental problems weakening the capabilities of flood control and ecosystem in water bodies. Regarding these problems, Ministry of Environment of South-Korea prepared various structural and non-structural best management practices (BMPs) to control soil erosion. However, a lot of efforts are required to monitor and develop BMPs. Thus, modeling techniques have been developed and utilized for these issues. This study estimated the effectiveness of BMPs which are a vegetation mat with infiltration roll and Roll type vegetation channel using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model through the adjustment of the conservation practice factors, P factors, for Universal Soil Loss Equation which were calculated by monitoring data collected at the segment plots. Each BMP was applied to the areas with slopes ranged from 7% to 13% in the Haeanmyeon watershed. As a result of simulation, the vegetation mat with infiltration roll and Roll type vegetation channel showed 55% and 59% efficiency of soil erosion reduction, respectively. Also, Vegetation mat with infiltration roll and Roll type vegetation channel showed each 11.2% and 11.8% efficiency in reduction of sediment discharge. These roll type vegetation channel showed greater efficiency of soil erosion reduction and sediment discharge. Based on these results, if roll type vegetation channel is widely used in agricultural fields, reduction of soil erosion and sediment discharge of greater efficiency would be expected.

Design of Structural BMPs for Low Impact Development (LID) Application and Modelling Its Effect on Reduction of Runoff and Nonpoint Source Pollution: Application of LIDMOD2 (저영향개발(LID)적용을 위한 구조적 BMPs의 유출량 및 비점오염저감 효과모의: LIDMOD2 적용)

  • Kim, Jung Jin;Kim, Tae-Dong;Choi, Donghyuk;Jeon, Ji-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.580-586
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    • 2011
  • Low impact development (LID) technique is recently proposed as new concept to reduce surface runoff and pollutant loading with various best management practices (BMPs). In this study, LIDMOD2, which is one of the model to evaluate LID, was applied at Mohyeon developing area to evaluate the redcution of annual runoff and pollution loading, cost-reduction efficient by LID with design of structural BMPs including bioretention, wet pond, and wetland. As a simulation results, the bioretention had the highest reduction efficiency for runoff (41.43%), and 22% for T-N and 22% for BOD. Wet pont had the highest reduction efficiency for T-P as showing 25% of reduction rate. As a results of cost-reduction efficient, wet pont represented the highest cost-effective for T-N and BOD with showing 0.43 T-P kg/million won and 17.37 BOD kg/million won, respectively, and bioretention represented the highest cost-effective for T-P with showing 2.52 T-P kg/million won. LID technology could reduce effectively surface runoff and nonpoint source pollution and construct sustainable development. LIDMOD2 could be suggested as useful tool to evaluate and design LID.

Evaluation of the Impacts of Water Quality Management in Kyongan Stream Watershed using SWAT Model (SWAT 모델을 이용한 경안천 유역의 수질관리 영향 평가)

  • Jang, Jae-Ho;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Hyung-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.387-398
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    • 2010
  • SWAT model would be applied to evaluate the pollutant removal capacity with various best management practices (BMPs) in Kyongan stream watershed which plays an important role in water quality conservation and improvement of Paldang reservoir. The methods for the representation of various BMPs scenarios with SWAT is developed and evaluated. Riparian buffer strip, agricultural conservation practices to reduce fertilizer, sediment, and nutrients occurring from farm field (Grassed swale, Contour farming/Parallel terrace, Field border, Farm retention pond, Grade stabilization structure), and washland such as wetland and pond to extend detention and improve water quality are represented in SWAT. And to represent the expansion of existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), reduction effect for point source pollutants was simulated. As the result of simulation, the removal rates of SS, TN, TP from scenarios of Kyongan stream watershed are the average annual SS yield by 5.2% to 69.2%, the average annual TN yield by 0.5% to 26.3%, and the average annual TP yield by 1.3% to 32.5%, respectively. This study has demonstrated that the SWAT is a very reliable and useful water quality and quantity assessment tool, and the BMPs representation in SWAT for watershed management is able to effectively simulate in Kyongan Stream watershed.