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Simultaneous Determinaton of Octylphenol, Nonylphenol, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in Biological Samples (생체시료 중 Octylphenol, Nonylphenol, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate의 동시정량)

  • Kim, Jong-Hun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2001
  • A comprehensive analytical method of endocrine disruptors[i.e., nonylphenol(NP), octylphenol(OP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(BEHP)] in meat or pork samples was developed. The method employed closed culture tube extraction with dichloromethane and solvent exchange to iso-hexane and SPE(2g) aminopropyl column, followed by determination on gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry(GC/MS) operated in the single ion monitering(SIM) mode. For the multipoint recovery of nonylphenol, octylphenol and bis(2-ethlhexyl) phthalate OP, NP were showen good recoveries in $0.125-1.25{\mu}g/g$ range of concentration, and BEHP more good recoveries in $0.0125-12.5{\mu}g/g$ wide range of concentration. The present method was applied to beef or pork samples of mart and butcher in Cheonju city and near Cheonju. The range of concentrations was respectively, $0.06-0.24{\mu}g/g$ in nonylphenol(NP) and $0.36-2.35{\mu}g/g$ in bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(BEHP), but octylphenol(OP) was not dected in any samples. This method provides a powerful analytical tool to investigate a wide range of endocrine disruptors in biological samples of limited quantity.

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Inhibitors of AKT Signaling Pathway and their Application

  • WONG, Chin Piow
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2019
  • The AKT signaling pathway is a highly regulated cell signaling system that forms a network with other cell signaling pathways. Hence, the AKT signaling pathway mediates several important cellular functions that include cell survival, proliferation, cell migration, and et cetera. Irregularities that led overactive AKT signaling have been linked to many diseases such as cancer and metabolic-associated diseases. Hence, modulating the overactive AKT signaling pathway via inhibitor is a tantalizing prospect for treatment of cancer and metabolic-associated diseases. Two inhibitors of the AKT signaling pathway will be presented in this symposium: 1) Bisleuconothine A (BisA), a bisindole alkaloid that inhibit autophagy and 2) Ceramicine B (CerB), a limonoid that inhibit adipogenesis. The first topic is on a bisindole alkaloid, BisA and its mechanism in inducing autophagosome formation in lung cancer cell line, A549.(1) Since most autophagy inducing agents generally induce apoptosis, we found that BisA does not induce apoptosis even in high dose. BisA up-regulation of LC3 lipidation is achieved through mTOR inactivation. The phosphorylation of PRAS40, a mTOR repressor was suppressed by BisA. This observation suggested that BisA inactivates mTOR via suppression of PRAS40 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of AKT, an upstream regulator of PRAS40 phosphorylation was also down-regulated by BisA. These findings suggested that Bis-A induces autophagosomes formation by interfering with the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. The second topic is on CerB and its mechanism in inhibiting adipogenesis in preadipocytes cell line, MC3T3-G2/PA6.(2,3) CerB inhibits the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) at the Thr308 position but not the Ser473. Consequently, the phosphorylation of FOXO3 which is located downstream of AKT is also inhibited. Considering that FOXO3 is an important regulator of PPARγ which is a key factor in adipogenesis, CerB may inhibit adipogenesis via the AKT-FOXO3 signaling pathway. Taken together, both BisA and CerB highlighted the potential of AKT signaling pathway modulation as an approach to induce autophagy and inhibit the formation of fat cells, respectively.

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Characterization of Colorless and Transparent Polyimide Films Synthesized with Various Amine Monomers (다양한 아민 단량체로 합성한 무색투명 폴리이미드 필름 특성)

  • Choi, Il-Hwan;Chang, Jin-Hae
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.480-484
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    • 2010
  • A series of poly(amic acid)s(PAAs) was prepared by reacting 4,4'-(4,4'-isopropylidenediphenoxy) bis(phthalic anhydride)(BPADA) as the anhydride monomer and 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzidine (TFB), bis(3-aminophenyl)sulfone (APS), 4,4'-methylenebis-(2-methylcyclohexylamine) (MMCA), or bis[4-(3-aminophenoxy) phenyl] sulfone (BAPS) as the amine monomer with 5 mol% melamine in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Colorless and transparent polyimide (PI) films were obtained by casting the PAAs at various heat treatment temperatures. The thermo-mechanical properties and optical transparency of the PI films were investigated. The thermal properties of the PI films were examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and their optical transparency were measured by spectrophotometry. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and yellow index (YI) values of all samples were in the range of $48.53-64.24ppm/^{\circ}C$ and < 3.0, respectively.

A Study on the Synthesis of bis-IBA Derivatives and their Catalytic Effects on the Hydrolysis Reaction of Nerve Agents (Bis-IBA 유도체의 합성 및 신경작용제 가수분해 촉매 효과 연구)

  • 양일우;강덕구
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 1999
  • Four bis-iodosobenzoic acid derivatives have been synthesizd in 5 steps following literature methods from 5-hydroxyantranilic acid; 1) diazotization and iodination, 2) acid protection, 3) tosylate substitution, 4) acid deprotection, 5) oxidation of iodo-substituent to iodoso group. Catalytic effects of new 5,5'-tri-, tetra-, deca-, polyethyleneglycoxy- bis(2-iodosobenzoic acid) on hydrolysis reactions of PNPDPP(p-nitrophenyl diphenyl phosphate), sarin and soman have been measured to determine the role of ethyleneglycoxy substituents as phase transfer catalysts. At $25{\pm}0.2^{\circ}C$, pH 8.0, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride(CTACl) micelle solution condition, bis-IBA derivatives hydrolyzes PNPDPP with maximum pseudo-first order rate constant($K_{obsd}^{max}$) of 0.32035 ~ 0.13659 $sec^{-1}$, which corresponds to 2~18 times rate increase than those of unsubstituted o-IBA[iodosobenzoate($K_{obsd}^{max}=0.0645sec^{-1}$), iodoxybenzoate ($K_{obsd}^{max}$ = $0.0178 sec^{-1}$)]. At the similar condition for PNPDPP hydrolysis, bis-IBA derivatives also act as efficient catalysts for hydrolytic cleavage of nerve agents such as sarin and soman. Hydrolysis rate constant with 5,5'-polyethyleneglycoxy- bis(2-iodosobenzoic acid) shows 7 times increase than that of simple 5-hydroxy-2-iodosobenzoic acid.

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A Study on Eating Behavior, Depression, Anger, Anger Expression and BAS/BIS in Adolescent Women (청소년기 여성의 섭식행동과 우울, 분노.분노표현 및 개인적 특성[BAS/BIS]에 관한 연구)

  • Cheon, Suk-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.310-319
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The descriptive correlational study was designed to examine the relationship of eating behavior to depression, trait anger, anger expression, Behavior Activation System(BAS) and Behavior Inhibition System(BIS) in adolescent women. Method: 437 women aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from two high schools located in Seoul, Korea. The instruments used were SCL's depression scale, Spielberger's state trait anger expression inventory-Korean version for trait anger and anger expression, the Korean-BAS/BIS scale for behavior activation system and behavior inhibition system, and Eating Attitude Test(EAT-26) for eating behavior. Results: The score of EAT significantly correlated with depression, trait anger, anger expression, BAS and BIS. The EAT score also had a significant relationship with anger-in and anger-out. Depression only correlated with the dieting among factors of EAT, Trait anger, anger-in and anger-out showed a significant correlation with EAT factors such as dieting and oral control. BAS significantly correlated with dieting; whereas, BIS revealed a relationship with bulimia/food preoccupation. Conclusion: Based on this results, various variables need to be included for a nursing intervention program leading to healthy diet behaviors of adolescent women.

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Crystal Structures and Luminescence Properties of Pd(II) and Pt(II) Complexes with 2,5-Bis(thiophene)-1-nonyl-3,4-bis(methylthio)pyrrole

  • Kang, Jun-Gill;Oh, Sung-Il;Cho, Dong-Hee;Nah, Min-Kook;Park, Chang-Moon;Bae, Young-Ju;Woo, Tack-Han;Park, Young-Jin;Lee, Sang-Woo;Kim, In-Tae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1157-1163
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    • 2009
  • Complexes of Pd(btnbmtp)$Cl_2$ and Pt(btnbmptp)$Cl_2$ (btnbmtp = 2,5-bis(thiophen)-1-nonyl-3,4-bis(methylthio)- pyrrole) were prepared and their crystal structures were determined at room temperature. In the structures, the two thiophene moieties lie in cis form with an average dihedral angle of $55.26^{\circ}$ to the pyrrole frame. The luminescence properties of the free ligand and the complexes were investigated in solution and solid states. The luminescence of the compounds were not favored by substituting thiophene moieties to the pyrrole frame, compared to the unsubstituted nbmptp (nbmptp = 1-nonyl-3,4-bis(methylthio)pyrrole). In particular, thiophene substitution quenched the emission from the complexes dissolved in ,$CH_2Cl_2$ and reduced the charge transfer transitions from S atoms of the thio moieties to Pt in crystalline state, which was very characteristic of Pt(nbmptp)$Cl_2$.

Simultaneous Determination of Octylphenol, Nonylphenol and Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Fish Samples Using Two Internal Standards (2가지 내부표준물질을 이용하여 어류시료 중 Octylphenol, Nonylphenol, Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phehalate의 동시정량)

  • Kim, Jong-Hun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.244-252
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    • 2001
  • A comprehensive analytical method of endocrine distruptors[i.e., nonylphenol(NP), octylphenol(OP), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(BEHP)] is fish samples was developed using two internal standards. This method employed closed culture tube extraction with dichloromethane and solvent exchange to iso-hexane and SPE(2g) aminopropyl column, followed by determination on gas chromatograph linked to mass spectrometer(GC/MS) operated in the single ion monitoring(SIM) mode. The recoveries of nonylphenol and octyphenol in the range of $0.2{\sim}20{\mu}g/g$ using 1-phenyl decanol as one internal standard were over 75%, and recovery of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in the range of $0.4{\sim}40{\mu}g/g$ using bis(2-ethylbutyl)phthalate(BEBP) as the other internal standards was showed over 102%. The present method was applied to fish samples from Korea and UK. The range of concentrations for nonylphnol(NP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Korean fish were $0.02{\sim}0.06{\mu}g/g$ in 2 samples and $0.18{\sim}2.03{\mu}g/g$ in 9 samples respectively, but bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(BEHP) in UK samples was found $2.99{\mu}g/g$ in just 1 sample. But octylphenol(OP) was not dected in any samples by this method. This two internal standard method provides a more precise analytical tool to investigate endocrine disruptors in a biological matrices of limited quantity.

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Changes of RuBisCO Content and Protease Activity during the Life Span of Tobacco Leaf (담배잎의 일생에 있어서 RuBisCO 함량과 Protease활성의 변동)

  • 이학수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.63-74
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    • 1993
  • Changes in the amount of ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oygenase(=RuBisCO) protein, namely fraction I protein, and the protease activity were determined in the 10th leaf of tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum, var. Ky-57) from 10 days after emergence through senescence at 5 days interval. The amount of RuBisCO per deveined leaf rapidly increased during the early growing season, reached a maximal quantity at the around 20 days after leaf emergence, when the leaf has gone through its most rapid expansion, and began gradually to decrease till 30 days after leaf emergence, thereafter significantly declined to 45 days that the leaf has been dried up partly. The pattern of the ratio of RuBisCO protein to soluble protein in quantity changed similar to that of RuBisCO contents in a leaf, that was 43%, 60%, and 21% at the around 10 days, 20 days, and 45 days, respectively. And RuBisCO contents was linearly correlated with the concentration of chlorophyll(r=0.98) throughout the life span of the leaf. So, it was assumed that the leaf color can be a useful indicator for judging whether RuBisCO contents higher or not in tobacco leaves without homogenization. On the other hand, the protease activities for degradation of casein were assayed at pH 5.5. 7.0. and 8.5 with crude extracts desalted on Sephadex G-25. The highest caseolytic activity was found at pH 5.5 throughout the life sawn of the leaf. Also, the activity at 5.5 became gradually to increase from 30 days after leaf emergence, when RuBisCO protein had became to disappear and remarkably increased in the last stage of senescence, although nitrogen contents of the leaf had reached low levels. The caseolytic activity at pH 5.5 was in negative correlation with RuBisCO contents throughout the life span of the leaf, but not in lineality between them. In other words, the caseolytic activity increased in a rapid exponential manner when RuBisCO contents had reached some low levels. These results showed that the leaf age, namely harvesting time, is a very important factor for the production of the tobacco leaf containing higher RuBisCO protein. It was concluded that the practical harvesting time is between 20 days and 30 days after the leaf emergence from the present results.

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Assessing Heavy Metals for Estrogenicity Using a Combination of In vitro and In vivo Assays (In vitro 및 In vivo Assay를 통한 중금속의 에스트로겐성 평가)

  • Park, Chul;Kim, So-Jung;Shin, Wan-Chul;Kim, Hae-Gyoung;Choe, Suck-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1486-1491
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    • 2004
  • The estrogenicities of six heavy metal compounds, which contaminate frequently in foods, were assayed using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The assays were 1) estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, 2) E-screen assay and, 3) the uterotropic assay in mice. The chemicals studied were 17$\beta$ -estradiol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), arsenic oxide, bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. Using the estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride >lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Using E-screen test, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride > lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Results from the uterotropic assay showed that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride caused an increase in uterine wet weight, while lead acetate, mercuric chloride, and arsenic oxide failed to do so. Bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride and chromium chloride showed the highest estrogenicity in three assay systems. Recent studies suggesting that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride have estrogenicities are compatible with the present finding. Furthermore, our study is suggesting that chromium chloride may be estrogenic. The results demonstrate that this three level-assay combination (transcriptional activation, cell proliferation, and an in vivo effect in an estrogen-responsive tissue) could serve as a useful method to assess the estrogenicity of heavy metals.