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Relationship between the Pre-ECT Bispectral Index and seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy under propofol anesthesia

  • Jang, Hae-Lan
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.142-145
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    • 2017
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorders which are resistant to pharmacologic therapy. Seizure duration is a major determinant of treatment efficacy in ECT. Patients requiring ECT need effective sedation and neuromuscular blockade to prevent discomfort and the possibility of fractures of bones during ECT. The Bispectral Index (BIS) reflects the clinical degrees of consciousness during sedation and hypnosis with intravenous and inhalational anesthesia. This study was performed to investigate if there is any correlation between the BIS and seizure duration in the patients with psychiatric disorders during ECT under propofol and succinylcholine anesthesia. A total of 11 patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorders were monitored for BIS, electroencephalogram (EEG) and seizure duration. Seizure was detected using isolated forearm technique (IFT). The BIS was recorded at four specific time points (baseline before the start of anesthetic induction, before ECT (Pre-ECT BIS), at eye opening to verbal command and at 5 minutes after eye opening). Awake baseline value of the BIS showed significant changes depending on the depth of anesthesia at specific time points after propofol was administered. Pre-ECT BIS was positively correlated with seizure duration.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BISPECTRAL INDEX (BIS), SEDATION SCORE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATION FOR EVALUATION OF MONITORING EFFECT OF BISPECTRAL INDEX IN MIDAZOLAM SEDATION (Midazolam 진정요법 시 Bispectral index (BIS) Monitoring 효과의 평가를 위한 혈장농도, 진정지수(Sedation Score) 사이의 상관 관계 분석)

  • Park, Eun-Jin;Yum, Kwang-Won;Kim, Eun-Seok;Kim, Hyun-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : We examined the relationship between BIS, sedation score and plasma midazolam concentration to verify the usefulness of BIS to assess the patient's consciousness during sedation. Patients and Methods : Twenty-five young, healthy adult volunteers participated in this clinical study. Midazolam was administered intravenously up to 0.08 mg/kg to induce unconsciousness and we monitored the patient's physiological and conscious status until complete recovery from sedation. BIS and sedation score were measured before sedation, 10, 20, 30 minutes after midazolam administration. Plasma midazolam concentration was measured 10 minutes after midazolam administration. BIS was measured using A-2000 BISTM monitor (Aspect Medical Systems, USA) and the degree of sedation was evaluated with the sedation score. Results : The BIS score correlated with the sedation score (r = 0.676; P < 0.05). With the decreased plasma midazolam concentration, the correlation was better with sedation score (r = -0.656). Although BIS values did not correlate with calculated plasma concentration of midazolam (r = 0.467) at 10 minutes after midazolam administration, values after sedation were well distinguished from those before sedation. Conclusions : BIS is known for an effective predictor of patient's hypnotic state, and it is correlated with the sedation score. But, it doesn't always coincide with the clinical parameters of depth of sedation. So more attention is needed using BIS only during sedation, and it is advisable that the patient's consciousness is monitored with variable sedation score systems every several minutes.

Preparation and Ion-Conducting Properties of New Double Comb-like Acrylonitrile Copolymers Containing Itaconate Units (이타코네이트 단위를 포함하는 새로운 이중 측쇄 아크릴로니트릴 공중합체의 제조 및 이온전도 특성 조사)

  • Lee, Chil-Won;Seol, Wan-Ho;Choi, Byung-Ku;Gong, Myoung-Seon
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.602-607
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    • 2001
  • Bis(2-methoxyethyl)itaconate (bis(ME)I) was prepared for a new gel electrolyte containing double comb-like itaconate unit by esterification reaction of 2-methoxyethanol with itaconic acid. The copolymers were composed of AN/bis(ME)I = 9/1 ~ 1/1. The optimum mechanical properties and conductivity were obtained from the composition of AN/bis(ME)I = 5/1 and 6/1(25 ~ 35 wt%), LiClO4$_4$(15 wt%) and plasticizer (EC/PC = 1/1) (40 ~ 50 wt%). They showed a tough film and maintained a mechanical stability as a free standing film. The plasticized polymer gel electrolytes obtained from them showed ion conductivity of 8.12 ${\times}$ 10$_{-4}$ ~ 1.87 ${\times}$ 10$_{-3}$ S/cm. The maximum conductivity value obtained from our study was one order of magnitude higher than that of other PEO-based polymer electrolyte at ambient temperature.

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Syntheses and Characterization of Polyurethane Polymers with Versatile Stilbene Chromophores (Stilbene 발광 유도체를 가지는 Polyurethane을 기본으로 하는 고분자의 합성 및 특성)

  • Jin, Youngeup;Noh, Ji Young;Park, Seong Soo;Ju, Changsik;Suh, Hongsuk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 2011
  • In this research, we have synthesized new pendant-type polyurethane polymers by introducing various chromophores with stilbene derivatives in the side-chain of the polymer backbone. The Stilbene monomers, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-4'-cyanostilbene, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-4'-methoxy stilbene, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-4'-acetylstilbene, and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino stilbene, were synthesized by Wittig reaction. Another stilbene monomer, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-4'-nitrostilbene, was synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. By the measurement of UV-Vis absorption and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we found that introduction of the electron-withdrawing group as a substituent shifts both UV-Vis and PL spectra to longer wavelength, and the introduction of the electron-donating group results in blue-shift of the spectrum. In case of polymer with $NO_2$ group as a substituent, PL is quenched.

Bis Is Involved in Glial Differentiation of PI9 Cells Induced by Retinoic Acid

  • Yoon, Jung-Sook;Lee, Mun-Yong;Lee, Jae-Seon;Park, Chan-Sun;Youn, Ho-Joong;Lee, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2009
  • Previous observations suggest that Bis, a Bcl-2-binding protein, may playa role the neuronal and glial differentiation in vivo. To examine this further, we investigated Bis expression during the in vitro differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells induced by retinoic acid (RA). Western blotting and RT-PCR assays showed that Bis expression was temporarily decreased during the free floating stage and then began to increase on day 6 after the induction of differentiation. Double immunostaining indicated that Bis-expressing cells do not express several markers of differentiation, including NeuN, MAP-2 and Tuj-1. However, some of the Bis-expressing cells also were stained with GFAP-antibodies, indicating that Bis is involved glial differentiation. Using an shRNA strategy, we developed bis-knock down P19 cells and compared them with control P19 cells for the expression of NeuroD, Mash-1 and GFAP during RA-induced differentiation. Among these, only GFAP induction was significantly attenuated in Pl9-dnbis cells and the population showing GFAP immunoreactivity was also decreased. It is noteworthy that distribution of mature neurons and migrating neurons was disorganized, and the close association of migrating neuroblasts with astrocytes was not observed in P19-dnbis cells. These results suggest that Bis is involved in the migration-inducing activity of glial cells.

Growth Inhibitory Effect of (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-Butenal Diacetate through Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death by Increasing DR3 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Ung-Soo;Ban, Jung Ok;Yeon, Eung Tae;Lee, Hee Pom;Udumula, Venkatareddy;Ham, Young Wan;Hong, Jin Tae
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.538-543
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    • 2012
  • The Maillard Reaction Products (MRPs) are chemical compounds which have been known to be effective in chemoprevention. Death receptors (DR) play a central role in directing apoptosis in several cancer cells. In our previous study, we demonstrated that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal, a MRP product, inhibited human colon cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis via nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) inactivation and $G_2$/M phase cell cycle arrest. In this study, (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate, a new (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal derivative, was synthesized to improve their solubility and stability in water and then evaluated against NCI-H460 and A549 human lung cancer cells. (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate reduced the viability in both cell lines in a time and dose-dependent manner. We also found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate increased apoptotic cell death through the upregulation of the expression of death receptor (DR)-3 and DR6 in both lung cancer cell lines. In addition to this, the transfection of DR3 siRNA diminished the growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effect of (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate on lung cancer cells, however these effects of (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate was not changed by DR6 siRNA. These results indicated that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal diacetate inhibits human lung cancer cell growth via increasing apoptotic cell death by upregulation of the expression of DR3.

Synthesis of Copolyimide Containing 5,15-Bis(mesityl)-10,20-bis(4-amino)porphyrin (5,15-Bis(mesityl)-10,20-bis(4-amino)porphyrin을 포함하는 Copolyimide의 합성)

  • Kim, Hooi-Sung;Lee, Min-Ho;Kim, Chun-Ho;Kim, Mi-Ra;Lee, Jin-Kook
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.828-831
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    • 1999
  • 5,15-Bis(mesityl)-10,20-bis(4-amino)porphyrin was synthesized with meso-(mesityl)dipyrromethane and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. It was characterized with $^1H$-NMR spectroscopy, UV spectrophotometer, and GC-MASS. In UV spectrum, Soret-band(438 nm) and Q-bands(526, 572, 611 nm) were confirmed. In NMR spectrum, the characteristic peak of porphyrin was detected at -2.65 ppm. Copolyimide containing porphyrin structure was synthesized with mesityl-$TPP(NH_2)$, 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride(BTDA) and 2,2-bis(4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane(BAPHF) and characterized with UV and FT-IR spectrophotometer. The $T_g$ and $T_m$ of the synthesized copolyimide were 220.7 and $369.2^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Synthesis of Bis(dithiobenzil) Metal Complex and Its Photostability (Bis(dithiobenzil) 금속 화합물의 합성 및 광안정성)

  • Lee, Gun-Dae;Park, Na Yi;Jeon, Seung Yup;Heo, Jin;Son, Dae Hee;Hwang, Tae Kyung;Park, Seong Soo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.433-437
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    • 2007
  • Bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex, used as functional NIR absorbing dye and photostabilizer, was synthesized using bezoin and anisoin as intermediate compounds. And squarylium, a charge generation material, was synthesized to find its photostability effect. The structure of the product was determined by $^1H-NMR$ and FT-IR and the thermal property was analyzed by DSC and TGA. Optical property and photostability were determined by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. High absorbance was obtained in the NIR range and maximum absorbing wavelength was shifted depending on the nature and position of substituent in the bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex. The photofading effect of squarylium decreased by the addition of bis(dithiobenzil) metal complex.