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Characteristics of Omegisul with Seeweeds (Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiformis) and Their Qualities (해조류 첨가 오메기술의 품질 특성)

  • Shin, Seung-Shick;Lim, He-Ran;Shin, Dong-Bum;Park, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.723-730
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we developed traditional liquor, Omegisul, with seaweeds to support the regional culture of Jeju Island in manufacturing traditional liquors. Seaweed extracts from Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiformis were added for manufacturing Omegisul at a final concentration of either 5 or 10% and fermented for 10 days. During fermentation, samples were collected to measure changes in quality of Omegisul including pH, acidity, alcohol content, chromaticity, total microbes, organic acid content, and antioxidant activity. Both pH and acidity of Omegisul were significantly altered in the early stages of fermentation. Alcohol contents increased over the fermentation period up to 9%. Regarding chromaticity of the product, L, a, and b values were highest in Omegisul with 10% Hizikia fusiformis. Both total plate count and lactic acid bacterial count tended to increase in the early stage of fermentation and decrease later, reaching their highest points in Omegisul with 10% Hizikia fusiformis at 10 days: $1.45{\times}10^8CFU/mL$ and $2.21{\times}10^8CFU/mL$, respectively (P<0.05). Among organic acids, lactic acid contents were significantly higher during fermentation with the highest concentration of 7.474 mg/mL in Omegisul containing 10% Sargassum fulvellum. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays showed that antioxidant activity of Omegisul was increased during fermentation period. Among the samples, Omegisul with 10% Sargassum fulvellum showed the highest antioxidant activities of 69.81% and 81.61% in DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Taken together, Omegisul with 10% Sargassum fulvellum showed better characteristics in terms of quality than the other groups and has potential as functional Omegisul.

Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin-rich fruits and vegetables and changes of quality characteristics of black carrot added pudding according to storage (안토시아닌 함유 과채소류의 생리활성성분 함량과 항산화능 및 저장에 따른 자색당근 추출물 첨가 푸딩의 품질특성 비교)

  • Kang, Suna;Lee, Soo Hyun;Shim, Young Nam;Oh, Min Ji;Lee, Na Ra;Park, Sunmin
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the contents of total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and the antioxidant capacity of black carrot, black currant, acaiberry, black raspberry, and blueberry. We also examined the physical and organoleptic characteristics of pudding with added black carrot extract following 7 days of storage. Black carrot and black raspberry had the highest total phenols. Blueberry contained the highest anthocyanins and black currant equaled black carrot in carotenoids. Anti-oxidant capacity measured by 1,1-diphenyl-1,2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benthiazolin-6-sulfonic acid was highest in black raspberry and black currant followed closely by black carrot. In pudding, redness was increased and blueness decreased by adding black carrot extract, but the trend was partially reversed during 7-day storage due to oxidation of the anthocyanins, which are stable in acid situation. As black carrot extract contents were increased, pH value decreased. The pudding's hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were optimal with 7.5 % black carrot extract. In conclusion, black carrot is moderately rich in anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. In pudding adding 7.5 % black carrot extract was optimal for organoleptic qualities. However, additional studies are needed to develop methods for protecting anthocyanins from breaking-down during storage of back carrot pudding.

Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of makgeolli prepared using rice nuruk containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) (여주 분말 함유 쌀누룩을 이용하여 제조된 막걸리의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Cho, Kye Man;Hwang, Chung Eun;Ahn, Min Ju;Lee, Hee Yul;Joo, Ok Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2016
  • Bitter melon powder (BMP) was used in the preparation of rice nuruk (RN) and makgeolli as one of raw materials. RN containing BMP (BMP-RN) was prepared by adding 0~2.0% (w/w) BMP into rice. Fermentative microbial, and antioxidant characteristics of makgeolli were determined during the fermentation process. pH during fermentation decreased from 4.52 (0% BMP-RN), 4.93 (0.5%), 4.80 (1.0%), and 4.88 (2.0%) on the initial fermentation day (day 0) to 4.15, 4.30, 4.57, and 4.59, respectively, corresponding to increases in acidity from 0.64~0.70% to 1.17~1.28%, respectively. Soluble solid contents increased from an initial 2.2~4.4 g/L (day 0) to 9.0~9.3 g/L, and alcohol level increased up to 13.0% by the end of fermentation (day 7). Soluble phenolic contents increased from 0.92, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.41 mg/mL on day 0, to 1.85, 2.03, 2.24, and 2.48 mg/mL on day 7, respectively, while the levels of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay increased from 46.95~70.04%, 55.33~74.13%, and 0.629~1.243 on day 0, respectively, to 54.98~83.4%, 70.34~92.39%, and 0.964~1.455 on day 7, respectively. Makgeolli made with BMP-RN had higher soluble phenolic contents and antioxidant activity than those of makgeolli made without BMP-RN. These results suggested that BNP-RN made a functional makgeolli.

Inhibitory effects of advanced glycation end products formation and free radical scavenging activity of Cirsium setidens (곤드레 추출물의 최종당화산물의 생성저해 및 라디칼소거 활성)

  • Kim, Taewan;Lee, Jaemin;Jeong, Gyeong Han;Kim, Tae Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2016
  • Naturally occurring antioxidants, such as polyphenols are widely found in fruits, vegetables, wines, juices, and other plant-based dietary sources and are divided into several sub classes, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, and lignans. As part of the our ongoing search for bioactive food ingredients, the antioxidant and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Cirsium setidens were investigated in vitro bioassay system. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ($ABTS^+$) radicals. In addition, the activity of C. setidens against diabetes complications was also tested via AGEs formation inhibition assay. The total phenolic contents were determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. All tested samples showed a dose-dependent radical scavenging and AGEs inhibitory activities. In particular, the n-butanol (BuOH)-soluble portion showed the most potent radical scavenging activities against DPPH and $ABTS^+$ radicals with $IC_{50}$ values of $24.3{\pm}1.7$ and $25.0{\pm}3.3{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Futhermore, the inhibition of AGEs formation by the n-BuOH-soluble portion ($IC_{50}$ value; $46.0{\pm}1.5{\mu}g/mL$) was higher than that those of the soluble portions for the other solvent. The results showed that C. setidens could be considered as an effective source of natural antioxidants and other ingredients.

Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Extract against High Glucose-induced Oxidative Stress (고포도당으로 유도된 산화 스트레스에 대한 로젤 아세트산에틸 분획물의 신경세포 보호효과)

  • Seung, Tae Wan;Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Seon Kyeong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 2016
  • To investigate the physiological effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa, in vitro antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress were examined. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc-Fr) from H. sabdariffa contained high total phenolic contents compared with other fractions but total anthocyanin contents were lower than 80% Ethanol extract showed the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging activity and malondialdehyde inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the EtOAc-Fr decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and protected the neuron-like PC12 cells from high glucose-induced cytotoxicity. The EtOAc-Fr also presented inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase as an acetylcholine hydrolase enzyme. Finally, chlorogenic acids as main phenolics by high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

Optimization of the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) by the Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 차가버섯(Inonotus obliquus)의 생리활성물질 최적 추출조건 탐색)

  • Kim, Jaecheol;Yi, Haechang;Lee, Kiuk;Hwang, Keum Taek;Yoo, Gichun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2015
  • This study determined the optimum extraction conditions based on five response variables (yield, total phenolics, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavanging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and ${\beta}$-1,3-glucan content) in chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) using the response surface methodology, where three independent variables (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time) were optimized using a central composite design. The optimum ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time were 50% (w/w), $88.7^{\circ}C$, and 14.5 h; 9.2%, $92.7^{\circ}C$, and 14.5 h; 50.8%, $92.7^{\circ}C$, and 14.5 h; 9.2%, $92.7^{\circ}C$, and 1.5 h; and 90.8%, $92.7^{\circ}C$, and 1.5 h for yield, total phenolics, ABTS, ORAC, and ${\beta}$-1,3-glucan content, respectively. The predicted values of the response variables were compared with those of the extracts under the optimal extraction conditions to verify the models. The optimum extraction condition for the five response variables was predicted to be 81.4% ethanol at $92.7^{\circ}C$ for 14.5 h.

Validation of a Method and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity for the Simultaneous Determination of Riboflavin and Coixol in Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Stapf Sprouts (율무 새싹 추출물의 Riboflavin과 Coixol의 동시 분석법 검증 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Ji Yeon;Park, Jung Yong;Park, Chun-Geon;Kim, Dong Hwi;Ji, Yun-Jeong;Choi, Su Ji;Oh, MyeongWon;Hwang, Hosop;Lee, Yunji;Jeong, Jintae;Lee, Jeong Hoon;Seo, Kyung Hye
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2019
  • Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf (CL), which contains riboflavin and coixol, has traditionally been used to treat cancer and arthritis. However, no method for the simultaneous determination of riboflavin and coixol in CL sprouts has been established. In this study, we established and validated a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the identification and quantification of two reference markers, riboflavin and coixol, in CL sprout extracts. CL sprouts (whole sprouts and leaves) were subjected to extraction with 70% ethanol at room temperature and at 80 ℃ under reflux conditions. The two extractions were validated with respect to specificity, accuracy, precision, and linearity. The content of the two reference markers was highest in leaves extracted under reflux conditions (riboflavin, 8.23 ± 0.32 mg/g; coixol, 5.95 ± 0.04 mg/g). We also investigated the antioxidant activity of the extracts via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) scavenging assays. The results indicated that extracts obtained from sprouts under reflux conditions had the strongest antioxidative effects (DPPH half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68.9 ± 4.1 g/mL; and ABTS, IC50, 34.9 ± 0.1 g/mL). These results can serve as baseline data for the simultaneous determination of the two reference marker compounds, riboflavin and coixol, and development of functional food materials using CL sprouts.

Effect of High Temperature and High Pressure on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Korean Red Ginseng (고온고압 처리가 홍삼의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Jin, Yan;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lim, Tae-Gyu;Jang, Mi;Cho, Chang-Won;Rhee, Young Kyoung;Hong, Hee-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.438-447
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the physiochemical properties and antioxidative activity of red ginseng manufactured using the high temperature high pressure (HTHP) process, which is faster and simpler than the conventional process. According to increasing the steaming temperature, pressure and time, the content of minor non-polar ginsenosides, such as Rg3, Rk3, Rh4, Rk1 and Rg5 gradually increased. Also, the contents of acidic polysaccharide, total phenolic compounds and maltol gradually increased. Based on the results of the physiochemical properties and appearance quality, the optimum conditions of HTHP process were estimated as $140^{\circ}C$, $3kg/cm^2$ in 20 min. The total phenolic compounds and maltol contents of the HTHP process red ginseng (1.0% and 2.49 mg%, respectively) were higher than those of conventional red ginseng (0.23% and 0.60 mg%, respectively). In addition, the antioxidative activity was investigated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-aziono-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of HTHP process red ginseng increased by 3.4 and 3.6 folds, respectively, compared with conventional red ginseng. In addition, total phenolic compounds and maltol contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of the HTHP process red ginseng were similar to black ginseng. The present results suggest that the HTHP process is available for the development of value-added red ginseng products.

Über die Struktur und die Problematik des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs - Im Vergleich vom Schwangerschaftsabbruch des deutschem Rechts - (낙태죄의 구조와 문제점 - 독일형법에서의 낙태죄 규제와의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jeong-Weon
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.54
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    • pp.193-216
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    • 2018
  • Das Leben des Embryos ist als solche ein Rechtsgut, das einen durch das Strafrecht hinreichend $gesch{\ddot{u}}tzt$ werden sollen. Daher versteht es sich von selbst, $da{\ss}$ auch bei der Schwangere die ihren eigenen $empf{\ddot{a}}ngenen$ Embryo beseitigenden Handlungen nicht $unbeschr{\ddot{a}}nkt$ gebilligt werden $k{\ddot{o}}nnten$. Es $k{\ddot{o}}nnte$ bei der Schwangere wegen ihrer $Interessenverh{\ddot{a}}ltnisse$ mit ihrem Embryo z. B. endlosen deren Verantwortlichkeiten nur die $Erlaubnism{\ddot{o}}glichkeiten$ ${\ddot{u}}bergelegt$ werden. Wie der Bundesverfassungsgericht schon ${\ddot{u}}berzeugt$ hat, $k{\ddot{o}}nnte$ das Leben des Embryos keinen vom Strafrechtschutz $ausschlie{\ss}enden$ Teil anerkannt werden, sondern nur in besonderen $F{\ddot{a}}llen$ ausnahmsweise dessen Verletzung erlaubt werden. ${\ddot{U}}ber$ die Reichweite der ausnahmsweisen anerkannten Erlaubnisse gegen einer Rechtsgutsverletzung sollte es im Allgemeinen $abh{\ddot{a}}ngig$ unter Zeitraum und Umwelt konkret ausgefargt werden. Daher kann eine konkrete Diskussion ${\ddot{u}}ber$ Rechtsfertigungsgrund des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs nur erstenmal anfangen, nachdem ein strafrechtlicher Schutz des Embryolebens $pr{\ddot{a}}zis$ ausgeforscht wird. Bis jetzt hat das Strafrecht das Rechtsgut als Leben des Embryos zu leicht bewertet und damit hat die Strafe des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs zu niedrig bestimmt. Die niedrige Strafe des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs $enth{\ddot{a}}lt$ die Gefahr, die die Erlaubnisreichweite des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs ungerecht ausdehnt. Die Handlung der Schwangere sollte minder bestraft werden, um das Sebstbestimmungsrecht der Schwangere hoch $w{\ddot{u}}rdigen$ zu $k{\ddot{o}}nnen$. Letztlich braucht der Versuch des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs zu bestrafen. Der Versuch und die Vollendung ${\ddot{u}}ber$ die Verletzung des Embryolebens sollten deren Unterschiede im ihren Unrechtsgehalt anerkannt werden, weil der Normzweck des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs im Schutz des Lebens des Embryos besteht. Und damit in den $F{\ddot{a}}lle$, die in Folge des versuchten Schwangerschaftsabbruchs die Schwangere verletzt oder gestorben wird, $k{\ddot{o}}nnten$ die Meinungsstreiten $aufgeh{\ddot{o}}rt$ werden.

Antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of mixtures with Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai and Ficus erecta var. sieboldii (좁은잎천선과 및 조릿대 혼합 추출물의 항산화 성분과 항산화 활성)

  • Kwon, Hee-Yeon;Choi, Sun-Il;Han, Xionggao;Men, Xiao;Jang, Gill-Woong;Choi, Ye-Eun;Kang, Jun-Chul;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant components and activities of HR02/04(8:2)-W, a mixture of S. quelpaertensis Nakai and F. erecta var. sieboldii. We investigated the p-coumaric acid, total flavonoid, and total phenol contents. To evaluate the antioxidant efficacy, we measured the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, FRAP activity, reducing power, and ORAC value. We observed the protective effect of hydrogen peroxide against cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. As a result of the experiment, the p-coumaric acid, total flavonoid, and total phenol contents were 75.62±1.56 mg/100 g, 21.57±0.84 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g, and 21.25±1.31 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, respectively. In the experiments on antioxidant activity, HR02/04(8:2)-W was found to have significantly increased antioxidant activity. In the human dermal fibroblasts, the HR02/04(8:2)-W treated groups could effectively protect cells against oxidative damage. In this study, we confirmed that HR02/04(8:2)-W is a material with effective physiological antioxidant activity.