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Manufacturing and Functional Properties of Soymilk prepared with Korean and Chinese Soybeans (국내산 및 중국산 대두의 두유 제조 및 기능적 특성)

  • Jeon, Ki-Suk;Park, Shin-In
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.68-79
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary information relating to the applicability of Chinese soybean as functional food material. This study compared the manufacturing characteristics, phenolic compounds contents, and antioxidative activities of soymilk prepared with Korean(Jinpumkong) and Chinese Heinong 48) soybean. Antioxidative activities were measured by in vitro models such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-crylhydrazyl DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-ulfonic acid ABTS) radical scavenging activity. The physicochemical properties(solid contents, pH, and color) and suspension stability of soymilk were not significantly different between the types of raw soybean. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of soymilk prepared with Chinese cultivar($20.71{\pm}0.34GAE\;mg/g\;dw$ and $6.31{\pm}0.11QE\;mg/g\;dw$, respectively) were significantly higher than those of soymilk prepared with Korean cultivar $^{***}p<.001$ and $^{**}p<0.01$, respectively). Total tannin content of soymilk prepared with Korean cultivar($2.29{\pm}.22TAE\;mg/g\;dw$) was significantly higher than that of soymilk prepared with Chinese cultivar($^{***}p<0.01$). The electron donating ability(EDA) of soymilk was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner(p<0.05); the soymilk prepared with Chinese cultivar showed significantly higher EDA on the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL(p<0.01) and 10.0 mg/mL(p<0.05) than that of soymilk prepared with Korean cultivar. The antioxidative activities of soymilk were significantly increased in a dose dependent manner on ABTS radical scavenging(p<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the types of raw soybean. These results suggest that Chinese soybean, which contains plenty of phenolic compounds and has superior antioxidant activity, may have great potential as a raw material for functional beverage preparation.

Protective Effects of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Leaves Fermented with Hericium erinaceum Mycelium against Oxidative Modification of Biological Macromolecules and Cell Death (노루궁뎅이 버섯균사체를 이용한 비타민나무 발효물이 생체고분자의 산화적 변형과 세포사멸에 미치는 보호 영향)

  • Kim, Seung-Sub;Kyeong, Inn-Goo;Lee, Mi-La;Kim, Dong-Goo;Shin, Ji-Young;Yang, Jin-Yi;Lee, Gwang-Ho;Eum, Won-Sik;Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2015
  • In this study, hot water extract from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves fermented with Hericium erinaceum mycelium (SBT-HE) was assessed for protection against oxidative modification of biological macromolecules and cell death. Antioxidant activity of SBT-HE was evaluated based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. SBT-HE showed 65.06% DPPH radical scavenging activity at $500{\mu}g/mL$, 98.83% ABTS radical scavenging activity at $50{\mu}g/mL$, and 44.03% peroxyl radical scavenging activity at $100{\mu}g/mL$. SBT-HE significantly inhibited DNA strand breakage induced by peroxyl radical. SBT-HE also prevented peroxyl radical-mediated human serum albumin modification. SBT-HE effectively inhibited $H_2O_2$-induced cell death and significantly increased cell survival by 21.59% at $100{\mu}g/mL$. SBT-HE also reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in $H_2O_2$-treated cells. The results suggest that SBT-HE can contribute to antioxidant activity and protect cells from oxidative stress-induced cell injury.

Antioxidant and Anti-adipogenic Effects of PineXol® (PineXol®의 항산화 및 지방세포 분화 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Young Jun;Han, Ohan Taek;Choi, Hyeon-Son;Lee, Boo Yong;Chung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2013
  • Pine bark extract is made from the bark of Pinus densiflora which naturally contains occurring phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds. PineXol$^{(R)}$ from products of pine bark extract is sold under the brand name. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenol, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ as well as to assess the lipid accumulation during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Our results demonstrate that the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ were $717.40{\pm}6.86$ GAE mg/mL and $54.44{\pm}0.01$ RE mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidative activities of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ were significantly increased in a dose dependent manner on DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) activity, reducing power, nitrite radical scavenging activity and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value. In addition, the PineXol$^{(R)}$ inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exposure to 200 ${\mu}g/mL$, PineXol$^{(R)}$ significantly reduced lipid accumulation (~80%) in 3T3-L1 cells compared to control cells.

Comparison of Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of the Domestic Regional Wolfiporia extensa (국내 지역별 매립 복령의 성분 및 항산화 활성 비교)

  • Choi, Su-Hee;Lee, Seung-Jin;Jo, Woo-Sik;Choi, Jong-Woon;Park, Seung-Chun
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted for comparison of ingredients, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Wofiporia extensa cultured in Gangwon-do, Gyeongsang-do, and Jeolla-do. Three contents of Wofiporia extensa were analyzed as oxygen (46~48%), carbon (38~39%), hydrogen (6.05~6.1%) and nitrogen (0.17~0.21%). The mineral contents of 50% ethanol Wofiporia extensa extracts were measured as sulfur (S) 145~149 ppm, Magnesium (Mg) 69~72 ppm, phosphorus (P) 122~154 ppm and calcium (Ca) 210.61~509.98 ppm. Wofiporia extensa from Gyeongsang-do (509.98 ppm) contained a significantly higher quantity of Ca than that from Gangwon-do (210.62 ppm) and Jeolla-do (223.88 ppm). In the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, oleic acid was identified in three 50% ethanol Wofiporia extensa extracts. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay for antioxidant activity, the $IC_{50}$ values of Wofiporia extensa cultured in Gangwon-do, Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do were calculated as 2.966 mg/mL, 23.03 mg/mL, and 4.16 mg/mL and 3.521 mg/mL, 12.17 mg/mL, and 7.40 mg/mL. In the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, the $IC_{50}$ values of Wofiporia extensa cultured in Gangwon-do, Gyeongsang-do, Jeolla-do were 6.585 mg/mL, 19.06 mg/mL, and 18.97 mg/mL, respectively. In summary, Wofiporia extensa cultured in Gangwon-do had stronger antioxidant activity and higher concentration of oleic acid than that of Geyongsang-do and Jeolla-do. However, Wofiporia extensa cultured in Geyongsang-do contained a much higher concentration of Ca than that of Gangwon-do and Jeolla-do.

Nutrition Components and Physicochemical Properties of Acer termentosum Maxim. Leaf (벌나무 잎의 영양성분 및 이화학 특성)

  • Park, Sung Jin;Shin, Eon Hwan;Kim, Dong Ho;Rha, Young-Ah
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the nutrient components and physicochemical properties of Acer termentosum Maxim. leaf as a natural health food source. To accomplish this purpose, the general and antioxidative contents of Acer termentosum Maxim leaf were measured. Total contents of carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash were 53.6%, 24.3%, 3.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. Caloric content of Acer termentosum Maxim was 246.5 kcal, while total dietary fiber was 46.7%. Regarding mineral contents, K was the most abundant mineral, followed by Ca, Mg, and P. Therefore, Acer termentosum Maxim is an alkali material. Total phenol contents of the 70% ethanolic extracts of Acer termentosum Maxim was $116.35{\pm}1.4mg\;GAE/g$. Total flavonoid contents of the 70% ethanolic extracts were $20.3{\pm}1.23mg\;RE/g$. The antioxidative activities of Acer termentosum Maxim. were significantly increased in a dose dependent manner on DPPH(1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) activity, reducing power. It is expected that follow up study of Acer termentosum Maxim through developing processed food and evaluation of their functional properties would provide useful information as a source of functional foods.

Quality and Antioxidant Properties of Tofu Coagulated with 'Tsugaru' Apple (Malus domestica Borkh) Juice (쓰가루 사과즙을 이용한 두부의 품질 및 항산화 특성)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Hong, Kyeong-Nam;Lim, Yeo-Kyeong;Cha, Seung-Hyeon;Ryu, Ji-Eun;Cho, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dae-Il;Yoo, Do-Il;Jang, Keum-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1130-1137
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the quality, antioxidant properties, and sensory characteristics of tofu coagulated with 'Tsugaru' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) juice. Yield, $^{\circ}Brix$, pH, total acidity, total polyphenol content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of 'Tsugaru' apple juice were 60%, 10.3, 3.89, 0.51%, 2.26 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, $20{\mu}g$ L-ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, and $75{\mu}g$ AE/g, respectively. In case of Tofu coagulated with 20% (w/v) 'Tsugaru' apple juice, yield, $^{\circ}Brix$, pH, total acidity, hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, total polyphenol content, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 165%, 6.23, 0.27%, 513 g, 315, 0.61, 12.04 mg GAE/g, $80.67{\mu}g$ AE/g, and $92.32{\mu}g$ AE/g, respectively. Both the manufacture yield and pH of tofu decreased with increasing amount of 'Tsugaru' apple juice, whereas total acidity increased. Regarding the texture and chromaticity of tofu coagulated with increasing amounts of 'Tsugaru' apple juice, hardness, chewiness, and a- and b-values increased, whereas cohesiveness and L-value both decreased. In terms of antioxidant activities, total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased, whereas ABTS radical scavenging activity was maintained within a certain range. Finally, concerning the sensory evaluation (taste, color, flavor, and overall preference) of tofu coagulated with 30% (w/w) 'Tsugaru' apple juice showed the highest scores. Taken together, these results support the possible use of 'Tsugaru' apple juice in producing various foods, as addition of juice enhanced quality, antioxidant properties, and sensory characteristics of tofu.

Comparison of Antioxidant Components and Antioxidant Activities of Colored Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivated in Southern Plain (남부 평야지에서 생산된 유색미 품종별 항산화 성분 및 활성 비교)

  • Park, Ji-Young;Ham, Hyeonmi;Han, Sang-Ik;Oh, Sung-Hwan;Song, You Chun;Cho, Jun Hyeon;Hur, Yeon-jae;Lee, Yu-Young;Lee, Byung-Won;Choi, Yong Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1214-1220
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    • 2016
  • This study compared antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities according to various varieties of 18 colored rice. Selected rice cultivars for this study were as follows: black rice (12 cultivars)-Heugjinjubyeo, Nunkeunheugchal, Joeunheugmi, Josaengheugchal, Heuggwang, Heugseol, Shinmyeongheugchal, Shinongheugchal, Shintoheugmi, Cheongpungheukchal, Heughyang, Boseogheugchal, red rice (four cultivars)-Jeogjinju, Jeogjinjuchal, Hongjinju, Geonganghongmi, and green rice (two cultivars)-Nogwonchal and Jungmo1020. These were transplanted on June 30th and cultivated from the Department of Southern Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science in Miryang, Korea. Total polyphenol (TP) content of black rice cultivars was higher than that of red rice varieties. Heugjinjubyeo exhibited the highest TP, which was $9.55{\pm}0.05mg$ gallic acid equivalent/g sample. There were no significant differences between black rice cultivars and red rice cultivars in terms of total flavonoid (TF) level. Heugjinjubyeo and Hongjinju showed the higher TF content than any other variety. Shintoheugmi revealed the highest anthocyanin content ($194.26{\pm}0.65mg/100g$). Methanol extract of Heugjinjubyeo had the highest antioxidant activities. 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities of Heugjinjubyeo extract were $14.70{\pm}0.62$ and $30.68{\pm}2.22{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. There were significant correlations between antioxidant compound content and antioxidant activities.

Neuronal Cell Protective Effect of Dendropanax morbifera Extract against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress (High Glucose로 유도된 산화 스트레스에 대한 황칠나무 잎 추출물의 뇌신경세포 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Guo, Tian Jiao;Kang, Jin Yong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kwon, O-Jun;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.938-947
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    • 2016
  • Antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate fraction from Dendropanax morbifera (EFDM) against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity were investigated to confirm their physiological activities. An 80% ethanolic extract of D. morbifera showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds as well as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities. The extract was fractionated using several solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activities in ferric reducing/antioxidant power and malondialdehyde inhibitory assays. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect based on antioxidant activities, cell viability was assessed using PC12 and MC-IXC cells in $H_2O_2$- and high glucose-induced cytotoxic assays, respectively. EFDM evidently showed neuroprotective effects in all cells (neuron-like PC12 cells and human brain-originated neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells). Inhibitory effect of the extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as an acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme was performed to examine the effect on cognitive function. EFDM presented an AChE inhibitory effect. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the major phenolic compound of EFDM is probably a rutin.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Aronia Powder (아로니아 분말을 첨가한 쿠키의 품질 특성과 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Jun Ho;Choi, Ji Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1071-1076
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    • 2016
  • The feasibility of incorporating aronia powder (AP) as a value-added food ingredient into convenient food products was investigated using cookie as a model system. AP was incorporated into cookies at amounts of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (w/w) based on total weight of wheat flour. The pH level of cookie dough decreased significantly with increasing levels of AP (P<0.05), whereas moisture content and density were not directly affected by levels of AP incorporation. The spread ratio increased significantly upon addition of AP; however, it was not significantly affected by level of AP incorporation. The loss rate of cookies decreased significantly with increasing levels of AP (P<0.05). In terms of color, lightness and yellowness decreased while redness increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of AP. Use of AP significantly decreased hardness of cookies (P<0.05), but no significant differences were found between control and 1% sample, 1% and 2% sample, 2% and 3% sample, and 3% and 4% sample (P>0.05). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were significantly elevated by AP addition, and they increased significantly as AP concentration increased in the formulation (P<0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that acceptances of color and chewiness were negatively correlated well with the level of AP incorporation, density and moisture content of cookie dough, and cookie redness, whereas they were positively correlated with pH of cookie dough, loss rate, and hardness (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Finally, consumer acceptance test indicated that the highest levels of AP incorporation (4%) had an adverse effect on general consumer preferences. In contrast, cookies with moderate levels of AP (2%) are recommended based on overall scores to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of AP without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

Effect of gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high glucose- and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells (PC12 신경세포에서 고당 및 과산화수소로 유도된 산화적 스트레스에 대한 곰취 추출물의 효과)

  • Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Seon Kyeong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 2016
  • Effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high $glucose/H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress and in vitro neurodegeneration were investigated to confirm the physiological property of the extract. The ethyl acetate fraction of gomchwi extract showed the highest total phenolic contents than the other solvent fractions. An anti-hyperglycemic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) value for ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ was found to be $727.64{\mu}g/mL$. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction showed excellent 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of malondialdehyde production. The ethyl acetate fraction also decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, whereas neuronal cell viability against high glucose/$H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity was found to be increased. Finally, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as a main phenolic compound in the ethyl acetate fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that gomchwi might be a good natural source of functional materials to prevent diabetic neurodegeneration.