• Title, Summary, Keyword: BCG treatment

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Management of BCG Lymphadenitis (BCG림프선염의 치료)

  • Oh, Jung-Tak;Kim, In-Gyu;Han, Seok-Joo;Hwang, Eui-Ho
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 1997
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) lymphadenitis is a complication of post-BCG vaccination and its treatment is still controversial. Eighty patients who had been operated for BCG lymphadenitis from 1987 to 1996 were reviewed. Thirty-one of them were treated with antituberculous drugs(mean duration: 3 months) preoperatively and 49 patients were not given preoperative antituberculous medication. No one was treated with antituberculous drugs postoperatively. Operation methods were excision(72) and partial excision with curettage(8). There was no statistical difference in recurrence rate between groups In two patients(2.5 %) treated with preoperative antituberculous drugs, the lesions recurred after operation. The results suggest that preoperative antituberculous medication does not play any role in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis and in preventing recurrence in surgically excised cases.

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The Clinical Aspects of Regional Lymphadenitis following BCG Vaccination (BCG 접종 후 국소 림프절염의 임상양상)

  • Bae, Sun Young;Park, Yang Joon;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Oh, Jin Hee;Koh, Dae Kyun;Kang, Jin Han
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : A regional lymphadenitis is the most frequent adverse reaction of BCG. In order to find out developmental factors and establish a strategy of management, we investigated the clinical courses of children with lymphadenitis following BCG on the aspect of BCG strains, suppurative rates according to the sizes of lymph node and the clinical difference with or without treatment. Methods : From January 1997 to June 2004, 52 children less than 24 month-age-old diagnosed as BCG lymphadenitis in Department of Pediatrics, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea were enrolled. The type of BCG strain, place of vaccination, location and size of lymphadenitis were assessed with medical records, retrospectively. Finally, we analysed the correlations between BCG strains or the sizes of lymph node and natural remission or suppuration. Results : The first detected mean age of BCG lymphadenitis was 5.5 month-age. The larger of the measurement was at the first visiting, the younger of age that was first presented. The most frequent location was the same sided axillary region of BCG injection. Among 52 subjects, 46 cases(88.5%) were vaccinated with intradermal Pastuer strain, and only 5 cases(9.6%) were done with percutaneous multipunctured Tokyo strain. Twenty eight cases(53.8%) were regressed naturally, otherwise 24 cases(46.2%) were suppurated. The larger those were sized, the higher freqeuncies those were suppurated on, significantly. Treatment with medications could not prevent the suppuration and could not shorten the healing periods. Conclusion : We predict that there are differences between the occurrent rate of BCG lymphadenitis and BCG strains or methods. Treatment with medication is not recommended owing to its ineffectiveness. Especially, in case of non-suppurative lymphadenitis should be onlyless influence on the tuberculin skin test, cause less adverse reactions, and is inexpensive. observed without treatment, because it could be regressed naturally. An ideal BCG makes a scar, We should make an effort to choose the best BCG strain that can fulfill such requirements.

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Factors Affecting Clinical Course of BCG Lymphadenitis (BCG 림파선염의 경과에 영향을 미치는 인자들에 대한 연구)

  • Na, Kyong Hee;Rim, Sung Soo;Kim, Eun Yong;Kim, Kyoung Sim;Kim, Yong Wook
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Lymphadenitis is the most common complication of BCG vaccination and has various clinical course and prognosis, but there are no accurate guidelines for management of BCG lymphadenitis. We performed this study to reveal the clinical course of BCG lymphadenitis and provide guidelines for its management. Methods : From January, 1997, to May, 2000, 73 patients in the 3~24 months were enrolled. We investigated retrospectively the size, site, and number of lymphadenitis, tuberculin skin test induration, used BCG strains, vaccination age, injection site, treatment and clinical course. The effects of various variables on clinical course were evaluated. Results : 1) There were no statistically significant difference between lymphadenitis size and tuberculin test induration diameter, spontaneous resolution rate, and suppuration rate. 2) Later vaccination(${\geq}1$ mo) and supraclavicular lymphadenitis increased suppuration rate. Using domestic BCG product increased surgical treatment rate. 3) According to treatment(observation vs antituberculous medication), medication did not affect the prevention of suppuration and ironically increased the rate of suppuration and surgical treatment. 4) Suppurative lymphadenitis required more surgical treatment than non-supurative one. Conclusions : Clinical course of BCG lymphadenitis is affected by vaccination age, used BCG strains, site of lymphadenitis, antituberculous medication and suppuration, but not affected by size and number of lymphadenitis. For management of BCG lymphadenitis, systemic antituberculous medicaion is not recommended and regular follow up with observation should be the mainstay. But for suppuration, active surgical en bloc resection should be the treatment of choice.

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The effect of local rifampicin instillation on the treatment of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis (BCG 접종에 따른 화농성 림프절염의 rifampicin 국소투여 효과)

  • Kim, Min Son;Jo, Dae Sun;Kang, Mi Kyung;Kim, Sang Jae;Kim, Jung Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the types of lymphadenitis after BCG vaccination and the effect of local rifampicin instillation on the treatment of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. Methods : A total of 32 otherwise healthy infants with suppurative BCG lymphadenitis, who visited the Department of Pediatrics of Chonbuk National University Hospital, from March 2002 through June 2004, were enrolled in this study. They were treated with needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation. We investigated the time the lymphadenitis took to be suppurative, accompanying clinical manifestations, and the treatment effects. Results : Of the 32 infants, 19 were male and 13 were female. They were full term babies and one preterm baby with a gestational age of 30 weeks. They received intradermal administration, with the BCG vaccine of $Pasteur^{(R)}$(French) strain mostly on the left deltoid area(96.9 percent). Regional lymphadenitis occurred in 1 to 11 months after BCG vaccination, mostly 1-5 months after vaccination (78.1 percent). Among the infants, 87.5 percent had unilocular lesion but 12.5 percent had more than one enlarged lymph node cares. Most of the lymphadenitis presented in the left axillary area(77.8 percent), and the left supuraclavicular area(11.1 percent). After one to three times of needle aspiration with rifampin instillation, all infants recovered completely without surgical excision or severe complication. Conclusion : The regional lymphadenitis is the most common complication in infants who receive intradermal BCG vaccination. This study supports that in suppurative BCG lymphadenitis the needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation is very effective and can be a more economical treatment modality.

Two Cases of Pulmonary Complications Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Immunotherapy in Patients with Superficial Bladder Cancer (표재성 방광암 환자에서 방광내 BCG 주업치료 후 발생한 폐합병증 2예)

  • Lee, Gyeoi-Seong;Lee, Gi-Yong;Yoon, Jae-Cheol;Na, Dong-Jib;Jeong, Seong-Su;Sul, Chong-Koo;Kim, Sun-Young;Kim, Ju-Ock
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.869-878
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    • 1999
  • Intravesical instillation of the bacillus Calmentte-Gu$\acute{e}$rin(BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is an approved method for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Because BCG is a living organism, the potential for infection exists. BCG is generally well tolerated, with complications in less than 5% of those treated with use of current practices. The most frequent symptoms of toxicity associated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy include bladder irritation, frequency, and dysuria. Systemic reactions are less common but more serious than local side effects, and include fever, chills, malaise, rash, hepatitis, pneumonitis, arthritis and sepsis. In rare cases, BCG treatment can result in a systemic infection that requires antituberculous therapy. The pulmonary toxicity that results from intravesical BCG treatment is generally characterized by one of two types : systemic allergic reaction with pulmonary reticulonodular opacities depicted on chest radiographs with cellular findings consisting of activated lymphocytes, and actual BCG mycobacteremia with a miliary pattern depicted on chest radiographs and granuloma formation which rarely results in positive acid-fast stain or culture results. Recently we experienced two types of pulmonary complications following intravesical BCG immunotherapy in patients with superficial bladder cancer. We report two cases with a review of literatures.

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Local Rifampicin Instillation Therapy for Suppurative Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Lymphadenitis (BCG 접종에 의한 화농성 림프절염의 Rifampicin 국소 주입 요법)

  • Kim, Mee Jeong;Jang, Seong Hee;Ahn, Young Min;Kang, Mi Kyoung;Kim, Sang Jae
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.454-458
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Bacillus Calmette-$Gu\acute{e}rin$(BCG) lymphadenitis is one of the most common complications of BCG vaccination. The involved lymph nodes usually subside spontaneously, but they may become enlarged and form an abscess. Treatment of these infants is controversial. The Pan American Health Organization recommends local isoniazid or rifampicin instillation for patients with suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. Methods : The study group comprised 37 patients who presented with BCG lymphadenitis over the last three years. BCG lymphadenitis was diagnosed if the affected patient developed an ipsilateral axillary or supraclavicular lymphadenitis, with no other identifiable cause for the lymphadenitis. We used rifampicin instillation therapy for patients with suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. Results : Lymphadenitis regressed spontaneously in three patients. Thirty four patients showed a progression to abscess formation. Among 34 patients with suppurative lymphadenitis, drainage developed spontaneously during the follow-up period in nine patients before therapy. Twenty five patients received needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation therapy. Reaspiration was performed in seven patients. One of these patients still has large lymph nodes after the second attempt. Conclusion : Needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation therapy into the node is a safe and effective form of treatment for suppurative BCG lymphadenitis.

A Case of BCG Osteomyelitis (BCG 접종후 발생한 결핵성 농양 및 골수염 1례)

  • Choi, Young Mi;Kang, Hyeon Ho;Cho, Byung Soo;Cha, Sung Ho;Lim, Sung Jic;Lee, Ju-Hee
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.139-142
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    • 1998
  • BCG osteomyelitis is rare comlication and the incidence rate has been estimated to be 1/milion vaccinated neonate and infants. BCG osteomyelitis is also reported as a complication of intravesical BCG treatment for bladder carcinoma. We had experienced a 14 months old infant who presented swelling, tenderness and redness on left upper arm suspicious due to BCG vaccination. The MRI finding showed $2{\times}4{\times}4cm$ subcutaneous abscess with cortical defect on proximal humerus and axillary lymph adenopathy. The histologic finding showed diffuse caseous necrosis and Langhans type giant cell. We report A case of BCG osteomyelitis.

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Studies on the prevention of tuberculosis in pet dogs 1. The effects of BCG pretreatment in pet dogs inoculated experimentally with Mycobacterium bovis (애완견의 결핵예방에 관한 연구 1. Mycobacterium bovis를 실험적으로 접종한 애완견에 있어서 BCG의 전처치 효과)

  • Kang, Jong-koo;Kim, Chang-ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 1992
  • Dogs were divided into 3 groups of two each; Bacillie Calmette-Guerin(BCG) pretreatment, M bovis only treatment and uninfected control group. BCG were vaccinated intradermally with 0.2ml before 3weeks of M bovis intraperitoneal infection. Infection at necropsy 4months later was readily in the both treated dogs. Histopathologically, the BCG pretreated dogs produce the moderate accumulation of macrophages and focal granuloma formation in the lung, whereas the M bovis only treared dogs produce the accumulation of predominantly macrophages, occasionaly polymorphonuclear cells and the more larger granuloma Bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) was obtained and total and differential cell counts were examined. Total number of BAL cells harvested from uninfected dogs is lower compared with those of the both treated groups. The total cell number of M bovis only treated dogs were singificantly higher 1.8 times than that of the BCG pretreated dogs. The Fe receptor activity and the growth of organism in alveolar macrophages obtained from BCG pretreated dogs were compared with that in macrophages from M bovis only treated dogs. BCG vaccination resulted in substantial macrophage activation, measured as increased Fc receptor mediated phagocytosis and rosette formation, as wells as the inhibition of intracellular mycobacteria multiplication. However, actibated macrophages taken from BCG pretreated dogs are incapable of killing the M bovis. Thus, these results suggest that BCG pretrearment in the dog may produce a protective effect against tuberculosis because active alveolar macrophages have acquired antituberculous immunity, although few mycobacteria within the lung remain in a metabolically active state.

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A Case of Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis Infection after BCG Vaccination (Tokyo strain) in an Apparently Immunocompetent Infant (면역기능이 정상인 영아에서 동경주 BCG 백신 접종 후 발생한 파종성 Mycobacterium bovis 감염 1예)

  • Paik, Ji Yeun;Choi, Jae Hong;Kim, Min Kyung;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong;Park, Kyoung Un
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2011
  • Bacille Calmette-Gu$\acute{e}$rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis. Frequent complications after BCG vaccination are localized ulcer formation and regional lymphadenitis, but there could be rarely severe systemic reactions to BCG vaccine such as osteomyelitis and disseminated BCG infection. Although disseminated BCG infection can be complicated in infants with underlying immunodeficiency after BCG vaccination, it is very unlikely to develop in immunocompetent infants or children. We report a 13-month-old infant who presented with fever, skin nodules, and multiple enlarged lymph nodes 5 months following BCG vaccination. She was diagnosed with disseminated BCG infection by PCRconfirmed M. bovis BCG infection at ${\geq}$2 anatomical sites beyond the region of vaccination. The patient showed no obvious evidence of immunodeficiency as judged on the basis of previous disease history, plasma immunoglobulin levels, B and T lymphocytes counts in peripheral blood, DHR (dihydrorhodamine 123 fluorescence) test and HIV test. She started antituberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampin, and now, apparently her symptoms have been improved.

A Case of Interstitial Pneumonitis Following BCG Bladder Instillation in A Patient with Superficial Bladder Tumor (표재성 방광암환자에서 방광내 BCG 주입 후 발생한 간질성 폐렴 1례)

  • Lee, Soo-Sung;Jung, Ill-Hyung;Kim, Ki-Wook;Hong, Hyun-Pyo;Lee, Seong-Ho;Yang, Dae-Yul;Kim, Sung-Yong;Kim, Ha-Young;Mo, Eun-Kyung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.367-372
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    • 2001
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) has been widely used for the prophylaxis of superficial bladder tumor recurrence and for the treatment of bladder carcinoma in situ. More than 95% of patients who receive BCG instillation tolerate the treatment well and side reactions have been reported in less than 5% of patients. Most side effects are minor and self-limiting. However, a rare occurrence of severe systemic reactions have been reported. Among the severe systemic reactions, hypersensitivity pneumonitis should be considered in patients with pneumonic complications after BCG instillation in cases where the culture for mycobacteria is negative in the sputwn, brochoalveolar lavage and blood specimen. In addition, a fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsy demonstrates a fibrosis of the alveolar septums, where there is and an increased lymphocyte count with out tuberculous inflammatory changes, the and CD4 : CD8 ratio is increased and no symptomatic response to antituberculosis chemotherapy is observed. Here we report a 68 years old man with interstitial pneumonitis following intravesical BCG instillation.

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