• Title, Summary, Keyword: B-glucan

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Determination of Eleutherosides and β-Glucan Content from Different Parts and Cultivating Areas of A. senticosus and A. koreanum (가시오가피와 탐라오가피의 산지별 및 부위별 Eleutheroside B, E 및 β-Glucan 함량 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Hyun;Bae, Da-Bin;Lee, Jong Seok;Park, Sun-Ok;Lee, Sang-Jong;Cho, Ok-Hyun;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.2082-2087
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    • 2013
  • The present study was performed to quantitatively analyze eleutherosides (B and E) and ${\beta}$-glucan in different plant parts of three cultivars (Chungnam, Gangwon, and Jeju) of Acanthopanax senticosus and Acanthopanax koreanum using HPLC and a commercial enzyme kit. Our results showed high linearity in the calibration curves as the coefficients of correlation ($R^2$) were 0.998 (eleutheroside B) and 0.999 (eleutheroside E), respectively. Eleutheroside B and E were found in stem extracts of A. koreanum cultivated in Jeju (1,122 ${\mu}g/g$, eleutheroside B) and A. senticosus cultivated in Chungnam (2,536 ${\mu}g/g$, eleutheroside E), respectively. However, eleutheroside B was not detected in any part of A. senticosus cultivated in Chungnam. For ${\beta}$-glucan contents, stems of A. senticosus and A. koreanum showed higher than other parts. Furthermore, the ${\beta}$-glucan content in stems of A. koreanum cultivated in Gangwon was significantly higher than in those of other cultivars. These results show that the contents of eleutheroside B, E, and ${\beta}$-glucan were higher in stem extracts of A. senticosus and A. koreanum than other parts. Moreover, our results suggest that the contents of eleutheroside B, E, and ${\beta}$-glucan in A. senticosus and A. koreanum are influenced by cultivation area and the selected part.

Effects of β-Glucan on the Release of Nitric Oxide by Macrophages Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide

  • Choi, E.Y.;Lee, S.S.;Hyeon, J.Y.;Choe, S.H.;Keum, B.R.;Lim, J.M.;Park, D.C.;Choi, I.S.;Cho, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1664-1674
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    • 2016
  • This research analyzed the effect of ${\beta}$-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of the inflammatory mediator in macrophagocytes, which are processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia. The incubated layer was used for a nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kit. In the RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS, the ${\beta}$-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO. ${\beta}$-Glucan increased the expression of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cells that were stimulated by E. coli LPS, and the HO-1 activation was inhibited by the tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP). This shows that the NO production induced by LPS is related to the inhibition effect of ${\beta}$-glucan. The phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and the p38 induced by the LPS were not influenced by the ${\beta}$-glucan, and the inhibitory ${\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ ($I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$) decomposition was not influenced either. Instead, ${\beta}$-glucan remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) that was induced by the E. coli LPS. Overall, the ${\beta}$-glucan inhibited the production of NO in macrophagocytes that was vitalized by the E. coli LPS through the HO-1 induction and the STAT1 pathways inhibition in this research. As the host immune response control by ${\beta}$-glucan weakens the progress of the inflammatory disease, ${\beta}$-glucan can be used as an effective immunomodulator.

${\beta}-Glucan$ Enrichment from Pearled Barley and Milled Barley Fractions (보리의 도정 및 제분분획을 이용한 ${\beta}-Glucan$의 강화)

  • Lee, Young-Tack;Seog, Ho-Moon;Cho, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.888-894
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    • 1997
  • Two hulled and two hull-less barley varieties were investigated for ${\beta}-glucan$ enrichment. Hull-less barleys contained higher levels of total ${\beta}-glucan$ than hulled barleys, and were thus suitable as starting materials for preparing ${\beta}-glucan-rich$ fractions. Particularly, a waxy type (Suweon-291) of hull-less barley was found to have high soluble dietary fiber content containing primarily ${\beta}-glucan$, compared to the other non-waxy barley varieties. ${\beta}-Glucan$ content of barley during pearling process was measured, and the highest value was observed at the pearling yield of approximately $70{\sim}75%$. The pearled barley grains were ground and sieved to yield ${\beta}-Glucan$ enriched fractions containing up to 22% ${\beta}-glucan$. In the meanwhile, whole barley samples were directly milled by $B{\ddot{u}}hler$ mill to produce bran, shorts, break flour and reduction flour. ${\beta}-Glucan$ contents in the bran and shorts from the milled stream were relatively high, and further concentration of ${\beta}-glucan$ could be accomplished by successive sieving of the bran and shorts fractions. Pearled barley and milled stream could be used to prepare barley fractions with ${\beta}-glucan$ concentrations $2.4{\sim}3.1$ times those of the original barley grain. Water solubility of barley ${\beta}-glucan$ from pearled barley and the milled stream was in the range of $40{\sim}81%$.

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$\beta$-glucan Contents and Their Characteristics of Winter Cereals According to Particle Sizes and Milling Recoveries

  • Kim, Sun-Lim;Park, Chul-Ho;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Hwang, Jong-Jin
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the $\beta$-glucan contents and their characteristics of winter cereals according to particle sizes and milling recoveries. Sieved fractions differed in their average contents of $\beta$-glucans, and the coarse fraction had higher contents of $\beta$-glucan than finely milled fractions. In all winter cereals, the $\beta$-glucan contents of raw flours were higher than those of their brans, and the highest $\beta$-glucan contents of every cereals were observed at 100 mesh > or 100-140 mesh fractions except the Chalssalbori fractions which showed the higest $\beta$-glucan contents (12.9%) at 140-200 mesh fraction. As compared with the $\beta$-glucan content of Chalbori among the various milling recoveries, the $\beta$-glucan was distributed more evenly throughout the endosperm but $\beta$-glucan content in bran of Chalbori was only 1.5%. However, $\beta$-glucan content of Chalssalbori (hull-less waxy barley) was the highest in the subaleurone region (8.2%) and declined slightly toward inner layers of grain. This results suggest that $\beta$-glucan distribution between high (Chalbori) and low $\beta$-glucan barley (Chalssalbori) may explain the difference in milling performance of barley. On the other hand, $\beta$-glucan contents of two rye varieties (Chilbohomil, Chunchoohomil) were lower than those of two waxy barley varieties, and the higest $\beta$-glucan contents were observed at the 60% milling recoveries. In all winter cereals, the L-values (lightness) of raw flours were higher than those of brans. And the L-values of barley varieties were higher than those of oat and rye varieties. As the particle sizes and milling recovery ratios were decreased, the L-value were increased. The a-values (redness) in brans of every winter cereals were higher than those of every particle size flours and every milling ratio fractions, and this tendency was observed in the b-values (yellowness) of every particle size of cereal flours. The L and b-value of barley, the b-value of oat, and L, a, b-value of rye have the significant relationship with the $\beta$-glucan contents, respectively. This results represent the fact that $\beta$-glucans affected the color of the flours and pounded grains of winter cereals.

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Generation and Evaluation of High ${\beta}$-Glucan Producing Mutant Strains of Sparassis crispa

  • Kim, Seung-Rak;Kang, Hyeon-Woo;Ro, Hyeon-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.159-163
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    • 2013
  • A chemical mutagenesis technique was employed for development of mutant strains of Sparassis crispa targeting the shortened cultivation time and the high ${\beta}$-glucan content. The homogenized mycelial fragments of S. crispa IUM4010 strain were treated with 0.2 vol% methyl methanesulfonate, an alkylating agent, yielding 199 mutant strains. Subsequent screening in terms of growth and ${\beta}$-glucan content yielded two mutant strains, B4 and S7. Both mutants exhibited a significant increase in ${\beta}$-glucan productivity by producing 0.254 and 0.236 mg soluble ${\beta}$-glucan/mg dry cell weight for the B4 and S7 strains, respectively, whereas the wild type strain produced 0.102 mg soluble ${\beta}$-glucan/mg dry cell weight. The results demonstrate the usefulness of chemical mutagenesis for generation of mutant mushroom strains.

$\beta$-Glucan Suppresses LPS-stimulated NO Production Through the Down-regulation of iNOS Expression and $NF{\kappa}B$ Transactivation in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

  • Yang, Jeong-Lye;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Radhakrishnan, Vinodhkumar;Kim, Yang-Ha;Song, Young-Sun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.106-113
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    • 2008
  • The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protective effects of $\beta$-glucan from barley on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined. The RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were preincubated with various concentrations ($0-200\;{\mu}g/mL$) of $\beta$-glucan and stimulated with LPS to induce oxidative stress and inflammation. The $\beta$-glucan treatments were found to reduce thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) accumulation, and enhance glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidative enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the LPS-stimulated macrophages as compared to the LPS-only treated cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) with an $IC_{50}$ of $104\;{\mu}g/mL$. Further treatment with $\beta$-glucan at $200\;{\mu}g/mL$ suppressed NO production to 2% of the LPS-control, and suppressed the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The specific DNA binding activity of nuclear factor ${\kappa}B\;(NF{\kappa}B)$ was significantly suppressed by $\beta$-glucan treatment with an $IC_{50}$ of $220\;{\mu}g/mL$ in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, barley $\beta$-glucan ameliorates NO production and iNOS expression through the down-regulation of $NF{\kappa}B$ activity, which may be mediated by attenuated oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

β-glucan Stimulates Release of TNF-α in Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells (인간 단핵구 THP-1 세포에서 β-glucan으로 인한 TNF-α 분비 증가 효과)

  • Keum, Bo Ram;Hyeon, Jin Yi;Choe, So Hui;Jin, Ji Young;Jeong, Ji Woo;Lim, Jong Min;Park, Dong Chan;Cho, Kwang Keun;Choi, Eun Young;Choi, In Soon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1256-1261
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    • 2017
  • ${\beta}$-glucan is a constituent of the cell wall of fungi, yeast and plants. It plays an important role in the immune system such as activation of immunocyte, release of pro-inflammatory and anti-cancer effect. The immune system maintains a healthy immune homeostasis. However, when pathogenic substances enter the body, immune homeostasis can break down and disease can be triggered. Therefore, we studied a substance that regulates immune homeostasis. The purpose of the study we demonstrated whether the ${\beta}$-glucan can be applied to the immune-modulation effects in human monocytic THP-1 cells. ${\beta}$-glucan was incubated in THP-1 cells at various concentrations. The $TNF-{\alpha}$ mRNA expression and protein levels were analyzed by ELISA and Real-time PCR. Additionally, the expression of MAPKs (p38 and JNK), $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 were analyzed by western blot. ${\beta}$-glucan enhanced the production of $TNF-{\alpha}$ mRNA expression and protein levels in human monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, activation of MAPKs (p38 and JNK) and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 induced by ${\beta}$-glucan were increased. The study suggests that ${\beta}$-glucan contributes to immune-stimulation effect by production $TNF-{\alpha}$ in human monocytic THP-1 cells, and that MAPKs and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 are involved in the process. Synthetically, we have suggested ${\beta}$-glucan may be improved to immune system effect in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

Immuno enhancing and chemopreventing agent from mushroom mycelial culture (버섯균사체 배양물로부터 면역증진 기능성 소재 개발)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2007
  • This study relates to low and medium molecular weight isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan produced by submerged liquid culture of Agaricus blazei, a method of producing the isoflavone-B-D-glucan using autolysis enzyme of Agaricus blazei mycelia, and use of the isoflavone-B-D-glucan for anti-cancer and immunoenhancing effect. In acordance with one aspect of the present study, it deals with a method of producing isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan, which comprises the followings; 1) culturing and separating mushroom mycelia, 2) producing low-medium molecular weight isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan from high molecular weight one. The cytotoxicity on human cnacer cell line (Caco-2, MCF-7), the expression of Cyclin D, Bcl-2, Bax protein, p21 protein, p53 protein in MCF-7 cells assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and other immuno related factors such as TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-1B activities were examined. Structural identification of isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan which showed cytotoxicity against cancer cell and immunoenhancing effects was carried by separation with DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, TLC, HPLC, IR, NMR. Clinical test for the cancer patients (n=119) for 6 month was carried out, and immunoenhancing factors (NK. cell number, ratio of T4/T8) were checked. We concluded the identified isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan has immuno enhancing effects and could be useful for cancer chemoprevention.

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버섯균사체 배양물로부터 면역증진 기능성 소재 개발

  • Kim, Jeong-Ok
    • Food preservation and processing industry
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.11-13
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    • 2007
  • This study relates to low and medium molecular weight isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan produced by submerged liquid culture of Agaricus blazei, a method of producing the isoflavone-B-D-glucan using autolysis enzyme of Agaricus blazei mycelia, and use of the isoflavone-B-D-glucan for anti-cancer and immunoenhancing effect. In acordance with one aspect of the present study, it deals with a method of producing isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan, which comprises the followings; 1) culturing and separating mushroom mycelia, 2) producing low-medium molecular weight isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan from high molecular weight one. The cytotoxicity on human cnacer cell line (Caco-2, MCF-7), the expression of Cyclin D, Bcl-2, Bax protein, p21 protein, p53 protein in MCF-7 cells assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and other immuno related factor such as TNF-a and IL-1B activities were examined. Structural identification of isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan which shoed cytotoxicity against cancer cell and immunoenhancing effects was carried by separation with DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, TLC, HPLC, IR, NMR, Clinical test for the cancer patients (n=119) for 6 month was carried out, and immunoenhancing factors(NK cell number, ratio of T4/T8) were checked. We concluded the identified isoflavone-${\beta}$-D-glucan has immuno enhancing effects and could be useful for cancer chemoprevention.

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Effects of ${\beta}-glucan$ from Lentinus edodes and Hordeum vulgare on Blood Glucose and Lipid Composition in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice (표고버섯과 보리에서 추출한 ${\beta}-glucan$이 Alloxan 유발 당뇨 마우스의 혈당 및 지질 성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Ji-Young;Yoon, Ki-Ju;Yoon, Hae-Kyung;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.802-807
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    • 2001
  • Effects of ${\beta}-glucan$ from Lentinus edodes and hordeum vulgare on blood glucose and lipid composition were investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male ICR mice by the injection of alloxan into the tail vein at a dose of 75 mg/kg. The ${\beta}-glucan$ were administered orally for 10 days and the normal and alloxan-control group were orally administered with saline. The body weight gain and food intake were monitored every day and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol were determined at last day. Also the weight of liver, heart, spleen and kidney were determined. The ${\beta}-glucan$ from Lentinus edodes and hordeum vulgure lowered significantly body weight gain in alloxan-induced diatetic mice (p<0.05) and plasma glucose levels compared to that of alloxan-control group. Plasma triglyceride level in B500 was lowered in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The ${\beta}-glucan$ of hordeum vulgare lowered weight of liver significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was assumed that ${\beta}-glucan$ from hordeum vulgare have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obese effects by reducing body weight gain and decreasing serum glucose and triglyceride level.

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