• Title, Summary, Keyword: Avoiding abuse

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A Study on Typology and the Casual factors of Elderly-abuse (노인학대 유형화 및 유형결정요인 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Kyung;Kim, Mee-Hye
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.1165-1178
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this study are developing the new types of elderly abuse and finding the variables affecting the new elderly abuse type. And This is at suggesting the intervention strategies preventing the elderly abuse. The 350 cases of elderly abuse reported in Elder Protection Agency was analysed. Data is analyzed by using statistical techniques including cluster analysis and logit-regression. New type of elderly abuse is "violent elderly abuse" and "avoiding elderly abuse". Violent elderly abuse is very connected with directly violence speech and behavior and avoiding elderly abuse is connected with neglect and abandonment, self-neglect. The elderly's instrumental activity of daily living and education, the offender's sex and education and living together type of the elderly - the offender, and the offender's care burden are the casual factors of the new type of elderly abuse. Based on the results, the various service programmes for the abused elderly is developed and implemented.

Validation of Nursing-sensitive Patient Outcomes: Focused on Abuse Outcomes (간호결과분류(NOC)에 대한 타당성 검증 - 학대 결과를 중심으로 -)

  • Yom, Young-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.506-515
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to validate abuse outcomes included Nursing Outcomes Classification(NOC) developed by Johnson and Maas at the University of Iowa. A sample of 71 nurse experts working in university affiliated hospitals participated in this study. They were asked to rate indicators that examplified the outcomes on a scale of 1 (indicator is not at all characteristic) to 5(indicator is very characteristic). A questionnaire with an adaptation of Fehring's methodology was used to establish the content validity of outcomes. The results were as follows: 1. All indicators were considered to be 'supporting' and no indicators were considered to be 'nonsupporting'. 2. 'Abuse Recovery : Emotional' attained an OCV score of 0.780 and was the highest OCV score among abuse outcomes. The highest indicator was 'demonstration of positive interpersonal relationship'. 3. 'Abuse cessation' attained an OCV score of 0.739 and was the lowest OCV score among abuse outcomes. The highest indicator was 'physical abuse has ceased'. 4. 'Abuse Protection' attained an OCV score of 0.743 and the highest indicator was 'plans for avoiding abuse'. 5. 'Abuse Recovery: Financial' attained an OCV score of 0.762 and the highest indicator was 'court-ordered benefits received'. 6. 'Abuse Recovery: Physical' attained an OCV score of 0.767 and the highest indicator was 'resolution of physical health problem'. 7. 'Abuse Recovery: Sexual' attained an OCV score of 0.768 and the highest indicator was 'expression of confidence with gender identity'. More outcomes need to be validated and outcomes sensitive to Korean culture need to be developed.

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Effects of Husbands' Emotional abuse on Wives' Depression: Focusing on the Wives whose Husbands had Completed Batterer Intervention Program (가정폭력 치료프로그램 이수자의 정서적 폭력이 아내의 우울에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Yun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.185-209
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of husbands' emotional abuse on wives' depression and mediating effects of marital adjustment and coping. The subject of this study is wives of men who had completed batterer intervention programs at domestic violence counselling centers. In order to investigate the effect of emotional abuse, among the 116 questionnaires collected by wives the cases in which physical violence was reported were excluded. Ultimately, a total of 77 cases were analyzed using the Partial Least Square method of structural equation model methodology. The key findings from this study are as follows. First, the wives in this study showed a high rate of exposure to emotional abuse by their husbands although the physical violence was gone. Second, emotional abuse by husbands significantly affected depression on their wives. Third, marital adjustment was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between the emotional abuse and the depression. Fourth, a mediating effect from passive coping was revealed; in particular, avoiding was the most powerful factor explaining the relationship between the emotional abuse and the depression. However, active coping failed to mediate the relationship between the emotional abuse and the depression.

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Exposure to Violence and Coping Behavior during the Clinical Practice of Nursing Students (임상실습 중 간호대학생의 폭력 경험과 대처 행동)

  • Oh, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Og Son;Lee, Kee-Lyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.5325-5335
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate violence experiences and coping behaviors of nursing students when they were doing clinical practice. Data were collected from 250 nursing students from 10th of November to 10th of December in 2014 using questionnaires. 231 questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. 98.7% of the subject have experienced violence. Most frequently mentioned setting where violences were experienced was psychiatric unit, abusers were patient. Most frequent violence type was verbal abuse(97.4%) followed by physical threatening(76.2%). Most frequent coping behavior was enduring(87.8%) followed by avoiding(83.2%). In this study, most of nursing students experienced violence during the clinical practice. They need to be better protected from violence during the clinical practice. It is needed various active effort and programs to prevent violence and to help students cope more against violence in their practice.

Bordetella bronchiseptica bateriophage suppresses B. bronchiseptica-induced inflammation in swine nasal turbinate cells

  • Park, Ga Young;Lee, Hye Min;Yu, Hyun Jin;Son, Jee Soo;Park, Sang Joon;Song, Kyoung Seob
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.1383-1388
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    • 2018
  • The development of therapeutic bacteriophages will provide several benefits based on an understanding the basic physiological dynamics of phage and bacteria interactions for therapeutic use in light of the results of antibiotic abuse. However, studies on bacteriophage therapeutics against microbes are very limited, because of lack of phage stability and an incomplete understanding of the physiological intracellular mechanisms of phage. The major objective of this investigation was to provide opportunity for development of a novel therapeutic treatment to control respiratory diseases in swine. The cytokine array system was used to identify the secreted cytokines/chemokines after Bordetella bronchiseptica infection into swine nasal turbinate cells (PT-K75). We also performed the real-time quantitative PCR method to investigate the gene expression regulated by B. bronchiseptica infection or bacteriophage treatment. We found that B. bronchiseptica infection of PT-K75 induces secretion of many cytokines/chemokines to regulate airway inflammation. Of them, secretion and expression of IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 are increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, membrane-bound mucin production via expression of the Muc1 gene is increased in B. bronchiseptica-infected PT-K75 cells. However, cytokine production and Muc1 gene expression are dramatically inhibited by treatment with a specific B. bronchiseptica bacteriophage (Bor-BRP-1). The regulation of cytokine profiles in B. bronchiseptica-induced inflammation by B. bronchiseptica bacteriophage is essential for avoiding inappropriate inflammatory responses. The ability of bacteriophages to downregulate the immune response by inhibiting bacterial infection emphasizes the possibility of bacteriophage-based therapies as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy in swine respiratory tracts.

Preoperative assessment of geriatric patients (노인환자의 수술전평가)

  • Sung, Tae-Yun;Cho, Choon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 2017
  • Geriatric patients are vulnerable to stress associated with surgery. The preoperative assessment of elderly patients plays an important role in their perioperative care, in terms of risk identification, preoperative optimization, and the avoidance of postoperative complications. The preoperative assessment of geriatric patients may require multidisciplinary consultation and include a consideration of neurocognitive function, functional status, frailty, nutrition, substance abuse, polypharmacy, and decision-making capacity, as well as a meticulous evaluation of comorbidities. Preoperative laboratory tests should be ordered after a review of the medical charts, history, and physical examination. Any abnormal findings should be well documented. Cardiac and pulmonary complications are common in elderly patients. Risk identification according to surgical invasiveness, the continuation or cessation of medication, and preoperative risk-reduction strategies should be considered. Renal function should be evaluated and the dosage of medications should be adjusted based on the glomerular filtration rate, not serum levels of creatinine alone. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, delirium, frailty, functional dependence, malnutrition, and polypharmacy are associated with poor postoperative outcomes; risk factors should be screened for and corrected preoperatively, if possible. Delays in the operation and prolonged operative times increase morbidity. Despite its importance, there are still no standardized preoperative assessment guidelines for Korean geriatric patients. Further studies should evaluate the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of a preoperative geriatric assessment targeting the actual medical environment of Korea. Medical conditions should be optimized and proactive risk-reduction strategies should be used as part of a comprehensive preoperative assessment to improve surgical outcomes while avoiding a functional decline after surgery.

Dehydrating and bacterial elimination effects of fecal dehydrating system for reducing bovine mastitis derived from environmental contamination (환경유래 젖소유방염 저감을 위한 우분뇨 탈수 시스템의 탈수 및 유방염 원인체 제균 효과 규명)

  • Kim, Dong Hyeok;Lim, Jung Ju;Lee, Jin Ju;Kim, Dae Geun;Chang, Hong Hee;Lee, Seung Joo;Lee, Yun Beom;Chang, Dong Il;Lee, Hu Jang;Min, Won-Gi;Kim, Sang Hun;Oh, Kwon Young;Kim, Suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2009
  • Bovine mastitis is an important disease causing serious economic loss in dairy production and food poison in public health. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the major causative agents of bovine mastitis. These bacteria were found in milk and environmental condition such as feces, water, soil and so on. Bovine mastitis causative micro-organisms can survive in 1-2 weeks in feces and bed complexes. Low level of percentage of water content (PWC) of feces and bed complexes can reduce the spreading of bovine mastitis incidence from environmental contamination. In this study, we developed the fecal dehydrating system and determined the elimination rates of bovine mastitis causative agent from feces and bed complexes. To develop the fecal dehydrating system, the screw pressurized dehydrating system was used and the maximum rate of dehydrating was reached to 52% PWC using 90% PWC (wet base) of fecal and bed complexes. The elimination rates of the dehydrating system for E. coli and S. aureus were reached at 41.19 $\pm$ 7.84% to 62.55 $\pm$ 8.71% in various percentages of PWC of feces and bed complexes (80, 85 and 90%). These results suggested that the application of fecal dehydrating system would reduce the exposure of dairy cattle to bovine mastitis causing agents contaminated feces and bed complexes, and can be used for environmental bovine mastitis control avoiding misuse or abuse of chemical disinfectants and antibiotics in dairy farm.

A Study on the Policy of Reserved Forests in Korea - mainly, on the designation and cancellation of reserved forests - (보안림정책논고(保安林政策論考) - 보안림(保安林)의 지정(指定) 및 해제(解除)를 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Choe, Kyu-Ryun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1965
  • In this study, the present institution of reserved forests in Korea has been criticized through the analysis of the present situation of reserved forests in Korea, and mainly, on designation and cancellation of them because of this important institution thought as restriction of forest ownership. Reserved forest land in Korea as of the end of 1962 is 996,915 chungbo in area, or about 14.8% of the total forest land area, 6,750,324 chungbo in Korea, and we can find that the area of reserved forest land has increased remarkably since the Liberation in 1945, in comparison with about 180,000 chungbo-a little over 1% of the total forest land area, 16,000,000 chungbo, through Southern and Northern Korea till the Liberation in 1945. This fact clearly proves that Korean forests are extremely devastated since the Liberation in 1945, and in Korea we can find that reserved forest policy is very important in forest policy, consequently, reserved forest institution must be dealt with care. Moreover, the area of reserved forest land, 996,915 chungbo, which is divided into 43,820 chungbo of national forest land, 59,302 chungbo of public forest land, 893,793 chungbo of private forest land, and private forest land is excellently large, or about 89.7% of the total area of reserved forest land. In this number, we may understand the fact that reserved forests have the most influences on private forests, therefore, we may recognize that it is necessary for reserved forest constitution which is infringement of private right to be carried out carefully. From the first beginning, the institution of reserved forests is serious restriction to the forest ownership. Consequently, when the area of reserved forest land grows, it interferes seriously with the free forest management and the desire for forest own ership is decreased, at the same time, forest enterprise results in obstruction. Especially, Korean forests are destroyed extremely at present, so, intensification of reserved forest institution is unavoidable for completion of the national aim which forests have, but the author thinks that reserved forest institution must be as avoidable as possible, and we have to obtain good results by supervision of forest management which is regulated in the Forest Law. Consequently, designation of reserved forests must be minimized, and although forests were already designated as reserved forests they must be cancellated as fast as fast as possible and put them free in the owner's hands when they are in cancellation conditions. According to the provision of Article 18 of the Forest Law concrete cases designated as a reserved forest are enumerated for the purpose of maintaining the forest ownership and avoiding to give the forest authorities a free hand in order to protect forest owners from one-sided damage. Therefore, the forest authorities must not abuse the institution of reserved forests, and it is not good tendency to give only the authorities a free hand in eesignation and cancellation of reserved forests, and especially, when the forest owners object to that, establishing some legal organization like the reserved forest council in each province in order to hear about impartial opinions, and it is more suitable than administrative disposal by the same organization. The compensation of damages for reserved forests by the provision of Article 25 of the Forest Law is a different problem by forest policy, but the results of compensation of damages regulated in the Forest Law are wholly lacking up to now, the author thinks that this is caused to poor forest cover, the forest owner's unconcern and insincerity of administrative authorities. Therefore, the government must enlarge the range of compensation and minimize the forest owner's economic sacrifice, also, the government must mollify the conditions of the legal restrictions to reserved forests, and harmonize with functions of national conservation and economy. This means that it is necessary to modify the restrictive conditions for the effective utilization of forest resources within the range in which can be attained the purpose of designation, from permanent prohibition of cutting. Except the reserved forests of fish habitat, public sanitation, maintaining scenery and navigational mark ect., most of reserved forests are prohibited from cutting, and the present situation of forests in Korea are extremely devastated and those forests are not so expected in cancellation possibility in near future. Therefore, when the forest owners apply for national purchase of those reserved forests, the government had better nationalize them, protect and manage to reduce the forest owner's economic sacrifice.

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A cross-sectional study on prevalence rate and contributing factors of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography (초음파로 진단된 지방간의 유병율 조사 및 그 유발인자에 대한 연구)

  • Ahn, Jae-Eog;Ham, Jung-Oh;Hwang, Kyu-Yoon;Kim, Joo-Ja;Lee, Byung-Kook;Nam, Tack-Sung;Kim, Joung-Soon;Kim, Hun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.195-210
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    • 1991
  • Fatty liver is caused by derangement of fat metabolism and can be reversed by removal of contributing factors. The contributing factors of fatty liver is known to be overweight, chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and drug abuse such as tetracycline. This study was carried out on 1335 persons who visited 'Soon Chun Hyang Human Dock Center' from March to June 1990. In analysis of the data, prevalence of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram by age and sex, laboratory finding between fatty liver group and normal group, and odds ratio of known contributing factors, were compared. The results obtained are as following ; 1) The prevalence rate of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram is 29.6% in male and 11.5% in female. 2) Age groups with high prevalences are $40{\sim}50's$ in male (32.0%) and 50's in female (24.5%). 3) The fatty liver shows significant association with style (p<0.05), whereas not with hepatitis B-virus surface antigen (p>0.05). 4) All laboratory values except alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are elevated significantly in accordance with the degree of fatty liver (p<0.01). 5) Fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram showed so strong associations with body index, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyl transferase for males, and body index and fasting blood sugar for females that these factors may be used as supplementary data in establishing diagnosis of fatty liver. 6) Odds ratio of contributing factors are as follows ; If the odds ratio of below 29 year of age is 1.0 then that of $30{\sim}39$ is 1.74 (p=0.33), $40{\sim}49$ is 2.47 (p=0.10), $50{\sim}59$ is 2.86 (p=0.0570), over 60 is 1.81 (p=0.34). If the odds ratio of female is 1.0 then that of male is 5.67 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of body index below zero is 1.0 then that of $0{\sim}9$ is 5.08 (p<0.01), $10{\sim}19$ is 12.37 (p<0.01), $20{\sim}29$ is 29.19 (p<0.01), 30 above is 154.02 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of below 99 mg/dl FBS is 1.0 then that of $100{\sim}120$ is 106 (p=0.76), over 120 is 1.91 (p=0.02). If the odds ratio of below $29{\mu}/1{\gamma}-GT$ is 1.0 then that of $30{\sim}s59$ is 2.11 (p<0.01), $60{\sim}90$ is 1.87 (p<0.05), 90 above is 1.69 (p=0.15). If the odds ratio of below 149 mg/dl TG is 1.0 then $150{\sim}199$ is 1.49 (p=0.05), $200{\sim}250$ is 1.09 (P=0.77), 250 above is 2.53 (p<0.01). In summary, early diagnosis of fatty liver could be made by ultrasonogram supplemented with body index and nm triglyceride. The fatty liver could be preventive by avoiding contributing factors such as obesity, alcohol intake, high blood sugar appropriately.

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Clinical Characeristics of Intracordal Cysts (성대낭종의 임상적 특성)

  • Hong, Ki-Hwan;Park, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Won;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 1999
  • Background and Objectives : The intracordal cysts are more increasingly diagnosed and treated due to advanced laryngeal stroboscopy and laryngeal microsurgical technique. The intracordal cysts are frequently misdiagnosed as vocal polyp or nodule The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical features of intracordal cysts. Materials and Methods : In the present series, 83 cases of the intracordal cysts treated with laryngeal microsurgery are reported. The intracordal cysts are diagnosed preoperatively with indirect laryngoscopy, laryngeal endoscopy, laryngeal stroboscopy and confirmed with laryngeal microsurgical findings and biopsies. Results : Intracordal cysts are 83 of 1900 patients treated with laryngeal microsurgery(4.4%)-ductal cysts are 56 cases and epidermoid cysts are 27 cases. Intracordal cysts are more frequent in women, forties and the frequent site is an anterior third of the true vocal cord. With the indirect laryngoscopic examination, the ductal cysts are frequently misdiagnosed as vocal polyps or nodules but the epidermoid cysts are relatively easily diagnosed. The etiologic factors of the intracordal cysts are suspected as voice abuse and upper respiratory infection. The degree of postoperative voice satisfaction is similar to that of the vocal polyps. Conclusion : Intracordal cysts are frequently misdiagnosed as polyps or nodules, therefore preoperative stroboscopic findings and laryngeal microsurgical findings is important. An ideal treatment is to enucleate the cysts avoiding rupture of cyst and injury of lamina propria of the vocal cord.

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