• Title, Summary, Keyword: Australia

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Assessing synoptic wind hazard in Australia utilising climate-simulated wind speeds

  • Sanabria, L.A.;Cechet, R.P.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.131-145
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    • 2012
  • Severe wind is one of the major natural hazards in Australia. The component contributors to economic loss in Australia with regards to severe wind are tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and subtropical (synoptic) storms. Geoscience Australia's Risk and Impact Analysis Group (RIAG) is developing mathematical models to study a number of natural hazards including wind hazard. This paper discusses wind hazard under current and future climate conditions using RIAG's synoptic wind hazard model. This model can be used in non-cyclonic regions of Australia (Region A in the Australian-New Zealand Wind Loading Standard; AS/NZS 1170.2:2011) where the wind hazard is dominated by synoptic and thunderstorm gust winds.

Risk Factors for Poorer Breast Cancer Outcomes in Residents of Remote Areas of Australia

  • Roder, David;Zorbas, Helen;Kollias, James;Pyke, Chris;Walters, David;Campbell, Ian;Taylor, Corey;Webster, Fleur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.547-552
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    • 2013
  • To investigate patient, cancer and treatment characteristics in females with breast cancer from more remote areas of Australia, to better understand reasons for their poorer outcomes, bi-variable and multivariable analyses were undertaken using the National Breast Cancer Audit database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand. Results indicated that patients from more remote areas were more likely to be of lower socio-economic status and be treated in earlier diagnostic epochs and at inner regional and remote rather than major city centres. They were also more likely to be treated by low case load surgeons, although this finding was only of marginal statistical significance in multivariable analysis (p=0.074). Patients from more remote areas were less likely than those from major cities to be treated by breast conserving surgery, as opposed to mastectomy, and less likely to have adjuvant radiotherapy when having breast conserving surgery. They had a higher rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. Further monitoring will be important to determine whether breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy utilization increase in rural patients following the introduction of regional cancer centres recently funded to improve service access in these areas.

Korean Children's Perception of English Language Acquisition and Cultural Adaptation in Australia

  • Park, Joo-Kyung
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.127-152
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the number of students to choose to study in Australia has been increasing significantly. The purpose of this study is to examine how Korean primary school children perceive their own English language learning and cultural adaptation in Australia. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 34 Korean children aged 8-13 who were attending primary schools in Brisbane, Queensland. The study results show that they made diverse efforts to learn English language and culture in Australia, such as making English-speaking friends, watching TV/video/DVD, reading English books, and studying with a foreign tutor. Their English listening and writing abilities were thought to be improved most, followed by speaking, reading and cultural understanding after studying in Australia. The subjects were mostly satisfied with their study and life in Australia but they had difficulties with communicating in English, homesickness, foods, weather, insects, and discrimination. In particular, they had problems with understanding classes conducted all in English and participating in the classroom activities due to their low level of English ability and understanding of Australian classroom culture. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications for educators both in Australia and Korea.

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Factors Predictive of Treatment by Australian Breast Surgeons of Invasive Female Breast Cancer by Mastectomy rather than Breast Conserving Surgery

  • Roder, David;Zorbas, Helen;Kollias, James;Pyke, Chris;Walters, David;Campbell, Ian;Taylor, Corey;Webster, Fleur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.539-545
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    • 2013
  • Background: The National Breast Cancer Audit Database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand is used by surgeons to monitor treatment quality and for research. About 60% of early invasive female breast cancers in Australia are recorded. The objectives of this study are: (1) to investigate associations of socio-demographic, health-system and clinical characteristics with treatment of invasive female breast cancer by mastectomy compared with breast conserving surgery; and (2) to consider service delivery implications. Materials and Methods: Bi-variable and multivariable analyses of associations of characteristics with surgery type for cancers diagnosed in 1998-2010. Results: Of 30,299 invasive cases analysed, 11,729 (39%) were treated by mastectomy as opposed to breast conserving surgery. This proportion did not vary by diagnostic year (p>0.200). With major city residence as the reference category, the relative rate (95% confidence limits) of mastectomy was 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) for women from inner regional areas and 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for those from more remote areas. Low annual surgeon case load (${\leq}10$) was predictive of mastectomy, with a relative rate of 1.08 (1.03, 1.14) when compared with higher case loads. Tumour size was also predictive, with a relative rate of 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for large cancers (40+ mm) compared with smaller cancers (<30 mm). These associations were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Results confirm previous studies showing higher mastectomy rates for residents of more remote areas, those treated by surgeons with low case loads, and those with large cancers. Reasons require further study, including possible effects of surgeon and woman's choice and access to radiotherapy services.

Adjustment of Korean Immigrant and Overseas Students in Australia (호주 한인학생의 적응: 교민과 조기유학생을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hye-Kyung
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.63-95
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    • 2005
  • In the era of globalization, a significant number of young students go abroad to learn English. By reviewing the trends and characteristics of this phenomenon, this study will focus on the adjustment of young Korean students in Australia. During June and July 2002, two questionnaire surveys were conducted for year 7 to year 12 Korean students at the Saturday Schools in Sydney Australia and for the youth group at the Sydney Catholic Church. More data was collected from interviews with 31 Korean teachers at the Saturday Schools and Linfield Korean school, as well as observations of the students in the Sydney area. The study divided the students into four groups: 1) Korean immigrant students, whose parents immigrated to Australia; 2) Individual Korean students who went alone to Australia to study; 3) Students whom live in Australia with one parent (usually their mother), whilst the other parent (usually their father) who provides financial support by working in Korea; and 4) students who accompanied their parents whom were dispatched for temporary employment or study in Australia. Moreover the study focused on the following; their academic performance, school activities, motivation, social relations, and their overall satisfaction with their studies and their stay in Australia. The findings indicated that the temporary overseas Korean students, especially those that are not with their parents do not adjust as well as the Korean immigrant students. The students who were not accompanied by their parents to Australia had the most difficulties adjusting as they were more vulnerable and fell behind with their studies. Therefore, the results support the concerns of Korean teachers in Australia about parents sending young students alone abroad.

Survival From Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancer: The Experience of Surgeons Participating in the Breast Audit of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand

  • Roder, David;Silva, Primali de;Zorbas, Helen;Kollias, James;Malycha, Peter;Pyke, Chris;Campbell, Ian;Webster, Fleur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1413-1418
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    • 2012
  • Background: Previous studies generally indicate that synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBBC) have an equivalent or moderately poorer survival compared with unilateral cases. The prognostic characteristics of SBBC would be relevant when planning adjuvant therapies and follow-up medical surveillance. The frequency of SBBC among early breast cancers in clinical settings in Australia and New Zealand was investigated, plus their prognostic significance, using the Breast Cancer Audit Database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand, which covered an estimated 60% of early invasive lesions in those countries. Design: Rate ratios (95% confidence limits) of SBBC were investigated among 35,370 female breast cancer cases by age of woman, histology type, grade, tumour diameter, nodal status, lymphatic/vascular invasion and oestrogen receptor status. Univariate and multivariable disease-specific survival analyses were undertaken. Results: 2.3% of cases were found to be SBBC (i.e., diagnoses occurring within 3 months). The figure increased from 1.4% in women less than 40 years to 4.1% in those aged 80 years or more. Disease-specific survivals did not vary by SBBC status (p=0.206). After adjusting for age, histology type, diameter, grade, nodal status, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor status, the relative risk of breast cancer death for SBBC was 1.17 (95% CL: 0.91, 1.51). After adjusting for favourable prognostic factors more common in SBBC cases (i.e., histology type, grade, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor status), the relative risk of breast cancer death for SBBC was 1.42 (95% CL: 1.10, 1.82). After adjusting for unfavourable prognostic factors more common in SBBC cases (i.e., older age and large tumour diameter), the relative risk of breast cancer death for SBBC was 0.98 (95% CL: 0.76, 1.26). Conclusions: Results confirm previous findings of an equivalent or moderately poorer survival for SBBC but indicate that SBBC status is likely to be an important prognostic indicator for some cases.