• Title/Summary/Keyword: Australia

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Assessing synoptic wind hazard in Australia utilising climate-simulated wind speeds

  • Sanabria, L.A.;Cechet, R.P.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.131-145
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    • 2012
  • Severe wind is one of the major natural hazards in Australia. The component contributors to economic loss in Australia with regards to severe wind are tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and subtropical (synoptic) storms. Geoscience Australia's Risk and Impact Analysis Group (RIAG) is developing mathematical models to study a number of natural hazards including wind hazard. This paper discusses wind hazard under current and future climate conditions using RIAG's synoptic wind hazard model. This model can be used in non-cyclonic regions of Australia (Region A in the Australian-New Zealand Wind Loading Standard; AS/NZS 1170.2:2011) where the wind hazard is dominated by synoptic and thunderstorm gust winds.

A PRACTITIONERS VIEW OF MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMNOLOGY

  • IMBERGER J.;ANTENUCCI J.;BRUCE L.;DUCAS A.;EWING T.;FEAVER S.;HIPSEY M.;IMERITO A.;LAM C.;MORILLO S.;ROMERO J.;SHIMIZU K.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.11-12
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    • 2005
  • With the great advances in process understanding, sensor and instrumentation technology and modelling capability it is important to ask what if any practical benefits can the lake manager and operator look forward to. Here, we examine some of the more important problems facing operators of drinking reservoirs, hydro-lakes and lakes used predominantly for recreation and the environment. In drinking reservoirs the main problems originate from increased loadings of nutrients leading to increased biomass and biomass that may give rise to toxins, of anthropogenic chemicals such as metals and synthetic organics and of pathogens of different types. Hydro-lakes are predominantly plagued by problems arising from low oxygen levels in the hypolimnion and in recreational and environmentally sensitive lakes the biggest challenge for the operator is to maintain an existing or establish a new trophic hierarchy or protect the water body from foreign species. The control variables that are at an operator's disposal are the choice of lake water level, the modification of the water colunm stratification via a de-stratification system, the modification of the lake flow path with flow intervention. curtains, intervention in the catchments to modify the loadings flowing into a lake, manipulation of the trophic chain with introduction of new species and chemical dosing, the latter being of marginal use in a large lake. Each of these options is cost effective under certain-circumstances. We endeavour to provide a users guide for their application and show how, especially new instrumentation and modelling methodologies may be used to achieve an effective intervention.

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Risk Factors for Poorer Breast Cancer Outcomes in Residents of Remote Areas of Australia

  • Roder, David;Zorbas, Helen;Kollias, James;Pyke, Chris;Walters, David;Campbell, Ian;Taylor, Corey;Webster, Fleur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.547-552
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    • 2013
  • To investigate patient, cancer and treatment characteristics in females with breast cancer from more remote areas of Australia, to better understand reasons for their poorer outcomes, bi-variable and multivariable analyses were undertaken using the National Breast Cancer Audit database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand. Results indicated that patients from more remote areas were more likely to be of lower socio-economic status and be treated in earlier diagnostic epochs and at inner regional and remote rather than major city centres. They were also more likely to be treated by low case load surgeons, although this finding was only of marginal statistical significance in multivariable analysis (p=0.074). Patients from more remote areas were less likely than those from major cities to be treated by breast conserving surgery, as opposed to mastectomy, and less likely to have adjuvant radiotherapy when having breast conserving surgery. They had a higher rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. Further monitoring will be important to determine whether breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy utilization increase in rural patients following the introduction of regional cancer centres recently funded to improve service access in these areas.

Korean Children's Perception of English Language Acquisition and Cultural Adaptation in Australia

  • Park, Joo-Kyung
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.127-152
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the number of students to choose to study in Australia has been increasing significantly. The purpose of this study is to examine how Korean primary school children perceive their own English language learning and cultural adaptation in Australia. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 34 Korean children aged 8-13 who were attending primary schools in Brisbane, Queensland. The study results show that they made diverse efforts to learn English language and culture in Australia, such as making English-speaking friends, watching TV/video/DVD, reading English books, and studying with a foreign tutor. Their English listening and writing abilities were thought to be improved most, followed by speaking, reading and cultural understanding after studying in Australia. The subjects were mostly satisfied with their study and life in Australia but they had difficulties with communicating in English, homesickness, foods, weather, insects, and discrimination. In particular, they had problems with understanding classes conducted all in English and participating in the classroom activities due to their low level of English ability and understanding of Australian classroom culture. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications for educators both in Australia and Korea.

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Factors Predictive of Treatment by Australian Breast Surgeons of Invasive Female Breast Cancer by Mastectomy rather than Breast Conserving Surgery

  • Roder, David;Zorbas, Helen;Kollias, James;Pyke, Chris;Walters, David;Campbell, Ian;Taylor, Corey;Webster, Fleur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.539-545
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    • 2013
  • Background: The National Breast Cancer Audit Database of the Society of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand is used by surgeons to monitor treatment quality and for research. About 60% of early invasive female breast cancers in Australia are recorded. The objectives of this study are: (1) to investigate associations of socio-demographic, health-system and clinical characteristics with treatment of invasive female breast cancer by mastectomy compared with breast conserving surgery; and (2) to consider service delivery implications. Materials and Methods: Bi-variable and multivariable analyses of associations of characteristics with surgery type for cancers diagnosed in 1998-2010. Results: Of 30,299 invasive cases analysed, 11,729 (39%) were treated by mastectomy as opposed to breast conserving surgery. This proportion did not vary by diagnostic year (p>0.200). With major city residence as the reference category, the relative rate (95% confidence limits) of mastectomy was 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) for women from inner regional areas and 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for those from more remote areas. Low annual surgeon case load (${\leq}10$) was predictive of mastectomy, with a relative rate of 1.08 (1.03, 1.14) when compared with higher case loads. Tumour size was also predictive, with a relative rate of 1.05 (1.01, 1.10) for large cancers (40+ mm) compared with smaller cancers (<30 mm). These associations were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Results confirm previous studies showing higher mastectomy rates for residents of more remote areas, those treated by surgeons with low case loads, and those with large cancers. Reasons require further study, including possible effects of surgeon and woman's choice and access to radiotherapy services.

Challenges of Wood Modification Process for Plantation Eucalyptus: A Review of Australian Setting

  • GHANI, Ros Syazmini Mohd;LEE, Man Djun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.191-209
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    • 2021
  • Australia has significant wood resources in its native forest, but the resource available for harvest becomes lesser due to the conversion of native forest to conservation reserves. The natural occurrences of bushfires, droughts, and cyclones are highly destructive, making the situation worse. The shortage of wood resources is having a significant negative impact on Australia because wood is so scarce that they cannot meet domestic demands, especially durable wood. Australia cleared approximately 100 million hectares of its land to establish forest plantations, and two million trees were planted. However, most of these plantations are for pulpwood production; however, their application for high-value products is limited due to their undesirable properties. Wood modification is a process of improving unfavorable wood properties to be utilized for a wide range of applications. Australia has not adopted any of these modification processes; it still depends on the less toxic wood preservative to treat wood. This study focuses on the recent advancement in industrial wood modification worldwide and how it may be used to modify Eucalyptus wood for high-value applications. The opportunities and suggestions for Eucalyptus wood modification in Australia will be discussed. Before the study concludes, the future of commercial wood modification for Eucalyptus plantation in Australia will also be presented.