• Title, Summary, Keyword: Audit Model

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A Study on the Traffic Patterns of Dangerous Goods Carriers in Busan North and Gamcheon Port (부산 북항·감천항의 위험화물운반선 통항패턴에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kim, Se-Won;Lee, Yun-Sok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2017
  • As a preliminary study of enter or leaving traffic patterns of the Korea main port, port Management Information System (Port-MIS) data was used to check the volume of vessels entering and leaving the port of Busan, and three consecutive days from each seasons were selected for study. Selected 12-day General Information Center on Maritime Safety & Security (GICOMS) data was also used to analyze the traffic pattern in the main traffic lane of Busan port for dangerous goods carrier. Also, the distance between dangerous goods carriers and Oryukdo breakwater of east breakwater in the main traffic lane was analyzed. Collision probability was estimated using the cumulative probability distribution function of the normal distribution for the maritime traffic safety audit scheme based on the assumption that a ship's trajectory has a normal distribution for a section of the route. However, in case of entry or leaving thorough the Oryukdo breakwater and entry thorough the east breakwater, ship's sailing trajectories were revealed not to follow a normal distribution via regularity testing using a KS-test and SW-test. Especially in the north port, the tendency of the right side of the ship to pass was remarkable. It is desirable to develop a traffic model suitable for the characteristics of the port rather than to apply general traffic theories, and to apply this model to a maritime traffic safety diagnosis, so further research is needed.

An Analysis of Referrals, Nursing Diagnosis, and Nursing Interventions in Home Care - Wonju Christian Hospital Community Health Nursing Service - (가정간호 기록지 분석 - 원주기독병원 가정간호 보건활동을 중심으로 -)

  • Suh, Mi-Hae;Huh, Hae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.3
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 1996
  • Home Health Care is one part of the total health care system. It includes health care services that link the hospital to the community. While it is important for early discharge patients, home care is also important for people with chronic illnesses or handicapping conditions. In 1989 the Korean government passed a law that opened the way for formal development of home health care services beginning with education programs to certify nurses for home care, and then demonstration home care services. Part of the mandate of the demonstration projects was evaluation of home care services. This study was done in order to provide basic data that would contribute to the development of records that could be used for evaluation through a retrospective audit and to examine the care that had been given in Home Care at Wonju Christian Hospital over a twenty year period from 1974 to 1994. The purposes of the study were : to identify to characteristics of the clients who had received home care, to identify the reasons for client referrals, to identify the nursing problems of these clients, to identify the nursing care provided to these clients, and to identify differences in these areas over the twenty year period. The study was a descriptive study involving a retrospective audit of the client records. Demographic data on all clients were included : 4,171 clients from 2,564 families. Data on referrals, nursing diagnosis and nursing interventions were from even numbered records which had a patient problem list included in the record, 2,801 clients, Frequencies and ANOVA were used in the analysis. The results of the study showed that the majority of the clients were from Wonju city /county. There were more women than men related to the high number of postpartum clients(1,300). The high number of postparttum clients and newborns was also evident in the age distribution. An the number of maternal-child clients decreased over the 20 years, the mean age of the clients increased significantly. Other factors also contributed to this change ; as increasing number of clients with brain injuries or with cancer, and fewer children with burns, osteomyelitis and tuberculosis. There was a decrease in the mean number of visits and mean length of coverage, reflecting a movement towards a short term acute care model. The number of new clents dropped sharply after 1985. The reasons for this are : the development of other treatment alternatives for clients, the establishment of an active wellbaby clinic, many more options plus a decreasing number of new cases of Hansen's Disase, and insurance that allows people with burns to be kept in hospital until skin grafts are healed. Socioeconomic changes have resulted in an increase in the number of cases of cancer, stroke, head injuries following car accidents, and of diabetes. Of the 2,801 client records, 2,541(60.9%) contained a written referral but for 1,802 it contained only the medical diagnosis. The number of records with a referral requesting specific nursing care was 739(29.1%). Many family members who were identified as in need of nursing care had no written referral. Analysis of the patient problem list showed that 41.9% of the enteries were nursing diagnoses. Others incuded medical diagnosis, symptoms, and plans. The most frequently used diagnoses were alteration in nutrition, less than body requirements(115 entries), alteration in skin integrity(114), knowledge deficit(111), pain(78), self-care deficit(66), and alteration in pattern of urinary elimination(50). These are reflected in the NANDA categories for which the highest number of diagnosis was in the Exchanging pattern(446), followed by Moving(178), Feeling(136) and Knowing (115). Analysis of the frequency of interventions showed that exercise and teaching about exercise was the most frequent intervention, followed by teaching concering the need for follow-up care, checking vital signs, managing nutritional problems, managing catheters, giving emotional support, changing dressings, teaching about medication, teaching (subject not specified), teaching about diet, IM and IV medications or fluid, and skin care, in that order. Recommendations included: development of a record that would allow for efficient recording of frequently used nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions: expansion of the catchment area for Home Care at Wonju Christian Hospital ; expansion of the service to provide complication prevention, rehabilitation services, and support to increase the health maintenance /health promotion of the people being served as well as providing client dentered care ; and development of a clinical record that will allow efficient data collection from records, even though the recording is done by a variety of health care providers.

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The Effect of Benevolence and Communication on Commitment and Switching Intentions : The Automobile Parts Buyer's Perspective (자동차 부품 제조업체와 공급업체 간의 선의와 의사소통이 몰입과 교체의도에 미치는 영향: 구매자의 관점을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hong-Keun;Lee, Phil-Soo;Kim, Min-Seong;Lee, Yong-Ki
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.129-144
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    • 2014
  • This study is to examine the effect of mutualistic benevolence, altruistic benevolence, and communication on affective commitment, calculative commitment, and switching intentions and investigate how two commitment dimensions play mediating roles between two benevolence constructs and communication, and switching intentions. For these purposes the author developed a structural model which consists of several constructs. In this model, benevolence factor that consists of mutualistic benevolence and altruistic benevolence, and communication were proposed to affect two commitment constructs and result in, increase switching intentions. Thus, two commitment constructs(e.g., affective and calculative commitment) were proposed as core mediating variables between mutualistic benevolence, altruistic benevolence, and communication, and switching intentions. The data were collected from 210 automobile parts buyers and were analyzed using frequency, reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis and SEM (structural equation model) with SPSS/WIN 20.0 and AMOS 20.0. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling with AMOS 20.0 and SPSS Win/PC 20.0. The result of the overall model analysis appeared as follows: ${\chi}2=224.885$, d.f=123(${\chi}2/df=1.828$), p=0.000, GFI=.898, AGFI=.859, IFI=.967, NFI=.930, TLI=.958, RMSEA=.063, CFI=.966. Since the result of the overall model analysis demonstrated a good fit, we could further analyze our data. The findings can be summarized as follows: According to structural equation modeling analysis, firstly, mutualistic benevolence has direct effects on calculate commitment and affective commitment. Secondly, altruistic benevolence has a positively direct effect on calculate commitment. Thirdly, communication has a statistically direct effect on affective commitment. Fourthly, calculative commitment has direct effects on affective commitment and switching intentions. Lastly, affective commitment has a direct effect on switching intentions.

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Energy Efficiency Evaluation of IT based Ship Energy Saving System-(1) : Ship Handling Simulator Test Results (IT 기반의 선박에너지절감시스템 성능평가 방법-(1) : 육상시험 수행 결과)

  • Yoo, Yun-Ja
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.465-472
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    • 2015
  • SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan) guidelines for a ship's GHG reduction include a machinery modification of hull, an installation of energy efficiency enhanced attachment in hardware methods. It is also possible to bring a ship energy efficiency improvement by fuel-efficient operations or in other software methods. Hardware modification or installation on ship can bring financial burdens to a ship company compared to its improvement expectation. On the other hand, Software based energy-saving technology can be applicable on various ship types, and it is also expected high efficiency of ship energy use compared to hardware based technology in perspective of the investment costs and efficiency. In this paper, it is described that the ship handling simulator based evaluation was carried out using representative ship model of bulk, container and VLCC. Simulation environments were separated into 6 conditions according to the sea-state and weather condition, and the operation results were compared with those before and after energy saving system applied The container ship showed the largest FOC save rate after energy saving system applied although the others also showed energy save rate after using the system.

Validation of a New Design of Tellurium Dioxide-Irradiated Target

  • Fllaoui, Aziz;Ghamad, Younes;Zoubir, Brahim;Ayaz, Zinel Abidine;Morabiti, Aissam El;Amayoud, Hafid;Chakir, El Mahjoub
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.1273-1279
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    • 2016
  • Production of iodine-131 by neutron activation of tellurium in tellurium dioxide ($TeO_2$) material requires a target that meets the safety requirements. In a radiopharmaceutical production unit, a new lid for a can was designed, which permits tight sealing of the target by using tungsten inert gaswelding. The leakage rate of all prepared targets was assessed using a helium mass spectrometer. The accepted leakage rate is ${\leq}10^{-4}mbr.L/s$, according to the approved safety report related to iodine-131 production in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor (TRIGA: Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics). To confirm the resistance of the new design to the irradiation conditions in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor's central thimble, a study of heat effect on the sealed targets for 7 hours in an oven was conducted and the leakage rates were evaluated. The results show that the tightness of the targets is ensured up to $600^{\circ}C$ with the appearance of deformations on lids beyond $450^{\circ}C$. The study of heat transfer through the target was conducted by adopting a one-dimensional approximation, under consideration of the three transfer modes-convection, conduction, and radiation. The quantities of heat generated by gamma and neutron heating were calculated by a validated computational model for the neutronic simulation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. Using the heat transfer equations according to the three modes of heat transfer, the thermal study of I-131 production by irradiation of the target in the central thimble showed that the temperatures of materials do not exceed the corresponding melting points. To validate this new design, several targets have been irradiated in the central thimble according to a preplanned irradiation program, going from4 hours of irradiation at a power level of 0.5MWup to 35 hours (7 h/d for 5 days a week) at 1.5MW. The results showthat the irradiated targets are tight because no iodine-131 was released in the atmosphere of the reactor building and in the reactor cooling water of the primary circuit.

Directions for Developing Database Schema of Records in Archives Management Systems (영구기록물관리를 위한 기록물 데이터베이스 스키마 개발 방향)

  • Yim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Dae-Wook;Kim, Eun-Sil;Kim, Ik-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.34
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    • pp.57-105
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    • 2012
  • The CAMS(Central Archives Management System) of NAK(National Archives of Korea) is an important system which receives and manages large amount of electronic records annually from 2015. From the point of view in database design, this paper analyzes the database schema of CAMS and discusses the direction of overall improvement of the CAMS. Firstly this research analyzes the tables for records and folders in the CAMS database which are core tables for the electronic records management. As a result, researchers notice that it is difficult to trust the quality of the records in the CAMS, because two core tables are entirely not normalized and have many columns whose roles are unknown. Secondly, this study suggests directions of normalization for the tables for records and folders in the CAMS database like followings: First, redistributing the columns into proper tables to reduce the duplication. Second, separating the columns about the classification scheme into separate tables. Third, separating the columns about the records types and sorts into separate tables. Lastly, separating metadata information related to the acquisition, takeover and preservation into separate tables. Thirdly, this paper suggests considerations to design and manage the database schema in each phase of archival management. In the ingest phase, the system should be able to process large amount of records as batch jobs in time annually. In the preservation phase, the system should be able to keep the management histories in the CAMS as audit trails including the reclassification, revaluation, and preservation activities related to the records. In the access phase, the descriptive metadata sets for the access should be selected and confirmed in various ways. Lastly, this research also shows the prototype of conceptual database schema for the CAMS which fulfills the metadata standards for records.

A study of the relationship between corporate governance and real earnings management: Based on foreign investors and growth (기업지배구조와 실제이익조정의 관계 연구: 외국인투자자와 성장성을 중심으로)

  • Kang, Shin-Ae;Kim, Tae-Joong
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - This study conducted empirical research on non-financial corporations listed on the stock exchange from 2001 to 2010, focusing on the effects of corporate governance on real earnings management of corporations. In particular, this study examined primarily the impact of the largest shareholder who could use earnings management to pursue his own self-interest, and foreign investors who played a checking role against the largest shareholders. The study also reviewed the relationship between corporate governance and earnings management while also considering corporate growth. Research design, data, and methodology - As for the measurements of real earnings management, abnormal operating cash flow and abnormal production cost were utilized. As for the independent variables, share ratio of the largest shareholder and affiliate person (M) and share ratio of foreign investors (FT) were leveraged. This study excluded those organizations that had changed their fiscal years, those that had not submitted an audit report, corporations under supervision, delisted corporations, corporations that had changed their business type, and so on, from the non-financial corporations out of the publicly traded corporations whose fiscal year ended in December from 2001 to 2010 in addition, KIS values were utilized for the corporate financial data in the study. To verify whether management structure and growth had an impact on real earnings management of a corporation through empirical analysis, a multiple regression analysis model was applied. Result - First, as a result of the analysis, the share ratio (M) of the largest shareholder and affiliate person was found to have a significant positive correlation with abnormal cash flow from operations(ACF) and abnormal production cost (APD). When controlling the growth, the share ratio (M) of the largest shareholder and affiliate person was found to have an insignificant correlation with abnormal cash flow from operations(ACF) but a significant correlation with abnormal production cost (APD). Second, foreign ownership (FT) was found to have a significant positive correlation with abnormal cash flow from operations(ACF) and abnormal production cost (APD) at the confidence level of 1 percent when not including the growth dummy. When controlling the growth, foreign ownership (FT) was found to have a significant negative correlation with abnormal cash flow from operations (ACF) and with abnormal production cost (APD). Conclusion - The results imply that the largest shareholder is closely related to earnings management through real activities regardless of corporate growth. It is also possible to determine from these results that foreign investors are related to earnings management through real activities when not considering corporate growth, but that they would reduce earnings management in the case of considering the growth. Thus, this study verified along with the existing studies that foreign investors were conducting the control function on controlling shareholders.

Prediction of Chinese Cabbage Yield as Affected by Planting Date and Nitrogen Fertilization for Spring Production (정식시기와 질소시비 수준에 따른 봄배추의 생육량 추정)

  • Lee, Sang Gyu;Seo, Tae Cheol;Jang, Yoon Ah;Lee, Jun Gu;Nam, Chun Woo;Choi, Chang Sun;Yeo, Kyung-Hwan;Um, Young Chul
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 2012
  • The average annual and winter ambient air temperatures in Korea have risen by $0.7^{\circ}C$ and $1.4^{\circ}C$, respectively, during the last 30 years. The continuous rise in temperature presents a challenge in growing certain horticultural crops. Chinese cabbage, one most important cool season crop, may well be used as a model to study the influence of climate change on plant growth, because it is more adversely affected by elevated temperatures than warm season crops. This study examined the influence of transplanting time, nitrogen fertilizer level and climate parameters, including air temperature and growing degree days (GDD), on the performance of a Chinese cabbage cultivar (Chunkwang) during the spring growing season to estimate crop yield under the unfavorable environmental conditions. The chinese cabbage plants were transplanted from Apr. 8 to May 13, 2011 when 3~4 leaves were occurred, at internals of 7 days and cultivated with 3 levels of nitrogen fertilization. The data from plants transplanted on Apr. 22 and 29, 2012 were used for the prediction of yield as affected by planting date and nitrogen fertilization for spring production. In our study, plant dry weight was higher when the seedlings were transplanted on 15th (168 g) than on 22nd (139 g) of April. There was no significant difference in the yield when plants were grown with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. The values of correlation coefficient ($R^2$) between GDD and number of leaves, and between GDD and dry weight of the above-ground plant parts were 0.9818 and 0.9584, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer did not provide a good correlation with the plant growth. Results of this study suggest that the GDD values can be used as a good indicator in predicting the top biomass yield of Chinese cabbage.