• Title, Summary, Keyword: Attenuation Correction Factor

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Metal artifact SUV estimation by using attenuation correction image and non attenuation correction image in PET-CT (PET-CT에서 감쇠보정 영상과 비감쇠보정 영상을 통한 Metal Artifact 보정에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, June;Kim, Jae-II;Lee, Hong-Jae;Kim, Jin-Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2016
  • Purpose Because of many advantages, PET-CT Scanners generally use CT Data for attenuation correction. By using CT based attenuation correction, we can get anatomical information, reduce scan time and make more accurate correction of attenuation. However in case metal artifact occurred during CT scan, CT-based attenuation correction can induce artifacts and quantitative errors that can affect the PET images. Therefore this study infers true SUV of metal artifact region from attenuation corrected image count -to- non attenuation corrected image count ratio. Materials and Methods Micro phantom inserted $^{18}F-FDG$ 4mCi was used for phantom test and Biograph mCT S(40) is used for medical test equipment. We generated metal artifact in micro phantom by using metal. Then we acquired both metal artifact region of correction factor and non metal artifact region of correction factor by using attenuation correction image count -to- non attenuation correction image count ratio. In case of clinical image, we reconstructed both attenuation corrected images and non attenuation corrected images of 10 normal patient($66{\pm}15age$) who examined PET-CT scan in SNUH. After that, we standardize several organs of correction factor by using attenuation corrected image count -to- non attenuation corrected count ratio. Then we figured out metal artifact region of correction factor by using metal artifact region of attenuation corrected image count -to- non attenuation corrected count ratio And we compared standard organs correction factor with metal artifact region correction factor. Results according to phantom test results, metal artifact induce overestimation of correction factor so metal artifact region of correction factors are 12% bigger than the non metal artifact region of correction factors. in case of clinical test, correction factor of organs with high CT number(>1000) is $8{\pm}0.5%$, correction factor of organs with CT number similar to soft tissue is $6{\pm}2%$ and correction factor of organs with low CT number(-100>) is $3{\pm}1%$. Also metal artifact correction factors are 20% bigger than soft tissue correction factors which didn't happened metal artifact. Conclusion metal artifact lead to overestimation of attenuation coefficient. because of that, SUV of metal artifact region is overestimated. Thus for more accurate quantitative evaluation, using attenuation correction image count -to-non attenuation correction image count ratio is one of the methods to reduce metal artifact affect.

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Development of nationwide amplification map of response spectrum for Japan based on station correction factors

  • Maruyama, Yoshihisa;Sakemoto, Masaki
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the characteristics of site amplification at seismic observation stations in Japan were estimated using the attenuation relationship of each station's response spectrum. Ground motion records observed after 32 earthquakes were employed to construct the attenuation relationship. The station correction factor at each KiK-net station was compared to the transfer functions between the base rock and the surface. For each station, the plot of the station correction factor versus the period was similar in shape to the graphs of the transfer function (amplitude ratio versus period). Therefore, the station correction factors are effective for evaluating site amplifications considering the period of ground shaking. In addition, the station correction factors were evaluated with respect to the average shear wave velocities using a geographic information system (GIS) dataset. Lastly, the site amplifications for specific periods were estimated throughout Japan.

Deconvolution Based Attenuation Correction for Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography

  • Lee, Nam-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.71 no.7
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    • pp.426-437
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    • 2017
  • For an accurate quantitative reconstruction of the radioactive tracer distribution in positron emission tomography (PET), we need to take into account the attenuation of the photons by the tissues. For this purpose, we propose an attenuation correction method for the case when a direct measurement of the attenuation distribution in the tissues is not available. The proposed method can determine the attenuation factor up to a constant multiple by exploiting the consistency condition that the exact deconvolution of noise-free time-of-flight (TOF) sinogram must satisfy. Simulation studies shows that the proposed method corrects attenuation artifacts quite accurately for TOF sinograms of a wide range of temporal resolutions and noise levels, and improves the image reconstruction for TOF sinograms of higher temporal resolutions by providing more accurate attenuation correction.

Determination of Attenuation Collection Methods According to the Type of Radioactive Waste Drums (방사성폐기물드럼 종류별 감쇠보정방법의 결정)

  • Kwak, Sang-Soo;Choi, Byung-I1;Yoon, Suk-Jung;Lee, Ik-Whan;Kang, Duck-Won;Sung, Ki-Bang
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.309-317
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    • 1997
  • The measured radioactivity of gamma-emitting radionuclides in each radioactive waste drum using the non-destructive waste assay method is underestimated than real radioactivity in radioactive waste drum because the gamma-rays are attenuated within the medium. Therefore, the measured radioactivity should be corrected for the attenuation of gamma-rays. For the correction of the attenuation of gamma-rays, the attenuation correction method should be applied differently by considering the distribution and density of medium in radioactive wastes drum generated from nuclear power plants. In this study, the model drums were fabricated for simulating five types of radioactive waste drums generated from nuclear power plant and the optimum methods of the attenuation correction were experimentally determined to analyze the activity of radionuclides in the waste drum accurately using the segmented gamma scanning system. With the determination of the attenuation correction methods from the experimental results the transmission method and the average density method for the miscellaneous waste drum, the transmission method and the differential peak absorption method for the shielded miscellaneous waste drum were used to measure the density of medium in waste drums. Also, the average density method and the differential peak absorption method for the spent resin drum, the paraffin solidified drum, and the spent filter drum were used.

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An Empircal Model of Effective Path Length for Rain Attenuation Prediction (강우감쇠 유효경로 길이 예측을 위한 경험 모델)

  • 이주환;최용석;박동철
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.813-821
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    • 2000
  • The engineering of satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10GHz requires a method for estimating rain-caused outage probabilities on the earth-satellite path. A procedure for predicting a rain attenuation distribution from a point rainfall rate distribution is, therefore, needed. In order to predict rain attenuation on the satellite link, several prediction models such as ITU-R, Global, SAM, DAH model, have been developed and used at a particular propagation condition, they may not be appropriate to a propagation condition in Korean territory. In this paper, a new rain attenuation prediction method appropriate to a propagation condition in Korea is introduced. Based on the results from ETRI measurements, a new method has been derived for an empirical approach with an identification on the horizontal correction factor as in current ITU-R method, and the vertical correction factor has been suggested with decreasing power law as a function of rainfall rate. This proposed model uses the entire rainfall rate distribution as input to the model, while the ITU-R and DAH model approaches only use a single 0.01% annual rainfall rate and assume that the attenuation at other probability levels can be determined from that single point distribution. This new model was compared with several world-wide prediction models. Based on the analysis, we can easily know the importance of the model choice to predict rain attenuation for a particular location in the radio communication system design.

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Dose Attenuation in the Mid-Cranial Fossa with 6 MV Photon Beam Irradiations (6 MV X-선 조사시 중두개와에서의 선량감쇠)

  • Park, Jeong-Ho;Choi, Tae-Jin;Kim, Ok-Bae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1990
  • In X-ray irradiation, dose distribution depends on multiple parameters, one of them being tissue inhomogeneity to change the dose significantly. considerable dose attenuation through the mid-cranial fossa is expected because of various bony structures in it. Dose distribution around the mid-cranial fossa, following irradiation with 6 MV photon beam, was measured with LiF TLD micro-rod, and compared with the expected dose inthe same sites. In our calculation with $C_f$(correction factor), the expected dose attenuation revealed about $3.74\%$ per 1 cm thickness of bone tissue. And the differences between the expected dose with correction for bone tissue and the measured dose by TLD was small, agreeing within an average variation of $\pm0.21\%$.

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The ML scale in southern Korea (한반도 남부 지진의 지역 규모식)

  • 홍태경
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2000
  • The distance correction term -logA0 of the local magnitude scale was estimated for earthquakes in southern Korea using linear least-squares inversion and interpolation scheme. Total 1054 short-period velocity seismograms from 107 local events recorded at hypocentral distances ranging from 10 to 480 km were used in this study. Simulated Wood-Anderson amplitudes were obtained from velocity seismograms with use of revised Wood-Anderson instrument response with static magnification 2080, damping factor 0.7, and natural period 0.8 sec. The estimated distance correction term for southern Korea is found to be -logA0=1.137 log(r/17) + 0.001159(r-17) + 20, where r is hypocentral distance in kilometers. The attenuation rate of this distance correction term falls between those of southern California and eastern North America.

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Calculations of Radiation Measurement-Related Correction Factors (방사선 측정관련 보정인자 계산)

  • Shin, Hee-Sung;Ro, Seung-Gy;Kim, Ho-Dong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2003
  • The self-attenuation factor for an $^{198}Au$ sample and the 0.412 MeV gamma-ray penetration ratio in the circular Al-cover of the radiation detector have been determined using an analytical solution and MCNP code. The results show that the self-attenuation factors obtained from the analytical solution coincide with those of MCNP code for all but the Au sample with the relatively larger radius. Then the maximum difference between the two methods appears to be 9 % in the Au sample of 1.5 mm radius. It also is revealed that the analytical solutions of the 0.412 MeV gamma-ray penetration ratio in the Al-cover of 7.62 cm radius are consistent with those of the MCNP code within the standard deviation.

Setup and Atomic Calibration of Particle Induced X-ray Emission System

  • Song, Jin-Ho;Song, Jae-Bong;;Kim, Jun-Gon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.206.2-206.2
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    • 2014
  • Recently, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis system was installed at the 2MV ion acceleration system in Korea institute science and technology (KIST). This installation is for complement to low atomic resolution of heavy atoms at Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) system. For quantitative analysis, a mass calibration of the PIXE set-up has been done with thin film standards and. The GUPIX software package has been used to process the PIXE spectra and the results are compared with the values from RBS system. Therefore, the instrumental constant H (solid angle and correction factor) is determined relying completely on the GUPIX data base (cross-sections, fluorescence and Coster-Kronig probabilities, stopping powers and attenuation coefficients) for a large set of elements. These H values can be used in future analysis.

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