• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asynchronous

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Application of OGC WPS 2.0 to Geo-Spatial Web Services (공간정보 웹 서비스에서 OGC WPS 2.0 적용)

  • YOON, Goo-Seon;LEE, Ki-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.16-28
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    • 2016
  • Advancing geo-spatial web technologies and their applications require compatible and interoperable heterogeneous browsers and platforms. Reduction of common or supporting components for web-based system development is also necessary. If properly understood and applied, OGC-based standards can be utilized as effective solutions for these problems. Thus, OGC standards are central to the design and development of web-based geo-spatial systems, and are particularly applicable to web services, which contain data processing modules. However, the application for OGC WPS 2.0 is at an early stage as compared with other OGC standards; thus, this study describes a test implementation of a web-based geo-spatial processing system with OGC WPS 2.0 focused on asynchronous processing functionality. While a binary thresholding algorithm was tested in this system, further experiments with other processing modules can be performed on requests for many types of processing from multiple users. The client system of the implemented product was based on open sources such as jQuery and OpenLayers, and server-side running on Spring framework also used various types of open sources such as ZOO project, and GeoServer. The results of geo-spatial image processing by this system implies further applicability and extensibility of OGC WPS 2.0 on user interfaces for practical applications.

ICFGO : UI Concealing and Dummy Flow Insertion Method for Inter-Procedural Control Flow Graph Obfuscation (ICFGO : Inter-Procedural Control Flow Graph 난독화를 위한 UI 은닉 및 Dummy Flow 삽입 기법)

  • Shim, Hyunseok;Jung, Souhwan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 2020
  • For the obfuscation of Flow Analysis on the Android operating system, the size of the Flow Graph can be large enough to make analysis difficult. To this end, a library in the form of aar was implemented so that it could be inserted into the application in the form of an external library. The library is designed to have up to five child nodes from the entry point in the dummy code, and for each depth has 2n+1 numbers of methods from 100 to 900 for each node, so it consists of a total of 2,500 entry points. In addition, entry points consist of a total of 150 views in XML, each of which is connected via asynchronous interface. Thus, the process of creating a Inter-procedural Control Flow Graph has a maximum of 14,175E+11 additional cases. As a result of applying this to application, the Inter Procedure Control Flow Analysis too generates an average of 10,931 edges and 3,015 nodes with an average graph size increase of 36.64%. In addition, in the APK analyzing process showed that up to average 76.33MB of overhead, but only 0.88MB of execution overhead in the user's ART environment.

Design of Translator for generating Secure Java Bytecode from Thread code of Multithreaded Models (다중스레드 모델의 스레드 코드를 안전한 자바 바이트코드로 변환하기 위한 번역기 설계)

  • 김기태;유원희
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Industrial Systems Conference
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    • pp.148-155
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    • 2002
  • Multithreaded models improve the efficiency of parallel systems by combining inner parallelism, asynchronous data availability and the locality of von Neumann model. This model executes thread code which is generated by compiler and of which quality is given by the method of generation. But multithreaded models have the demerit that execution model is restricted to a specific platform. On the contrary, Java has the platform independency, so if we can translate from threads code to Java bytecode, we can use the advantages of multithreaded models in many platforms. Java executes Java bytecode which is intermediate language format for Java virtual machine. Java bytecode plays a role of an intermediate language in translator and Java virtual machine work as back-end in translator. But, Java bytecode which is translated from multithreaded models have the demerit that it is not secure. This paper, multhithread code whose feature of platform independent can execute in java virtual machine. We design and implement translator which translate from thread code of multithreaded code to Java bytecode and which check secure problems from Java bytecode.

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An Animal Study on Electrohydraulic Type Ventricular Assist Device (전기 유압식 심실보조장치의 동물실험 연구)

  • 백완기;심상석
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.689-699
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    • 1996
  • An animal experiment was designed for the evaluation of in vivo performance of the newly developed electrohydraulic type ventricular assist device and its influence on the left ventricular function during pal- satile left ventricular assist. Eight adult sheep were incorporated into the study and data were collected from seven sheep. Total as- sist time ranged from 69 minutes to 7 days. The performance of the device was satisfactory both in asyn- chr nous and synchronous mode within the range of given native heart rate. More than 4 liters of device output could be reached within the range of normal left atral pressure without development of negative pressure in the left atrium. Moderate to severe degree of hemolysis was noted as evidenced by significant increase of plasma free hemoglobin level after 3 days of left ventricular support along with the presence of the small amount of thrombi around the floating disc type polymer valve apparatus reflecting that further study and refinement of the device need to be done in regard of biocompatibility and thromboresistance. The hemodynamics showed increase in heart rate (p < 0.05), cardiac output and left ventricular minute work (p < 0.05) after placement of the device at the flow rate of 2.0∼2.5 Llmin. The left atrial pressure, left ventricular pressure and LV dpldt were decreased after the device placement(p < 0.05). The endocardial viability ratio and oxygen contents of the mixed ven us blood and coronary venous blood were all increased (p < 0.05) after the device placement suggesting effective unloading of the left ventricle was accomplished. The myocardial perfusion was thought improved in synchronous counterpulsation as suggested by sig- nificant increase in endocardial viability ratio and coronary venous blood oxygen content in synchronous assist mode comparing with asynchronous mode.

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Radio location algorithm in microcellular wide-band CDMA environment (마이크로 셀룰라 Wide-band CDMA 환경에서의 위치 추정 알고리즘)

  • Chang, Jin-Weon;Han, Il;Sung, Dan-Keun;Shin, Bung-Chul;Hong, Een-Kee
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.2052-2063
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    • 1998
  • Various full-scale radio location systems have been developed since ground-based radio navigation systems appeared during World War II, and more recently global positioning systems (GPS) have been widely used as a representative location system. In addition, radio location systems based on cellular systems are intensively being studied as cellular services become more and more popular. However, these studies have been focused mainly on macrocellular systems of which based stations are mutually synchronized. There has been no study about systems of which based stations are asynchronous. In this paper, we proposed two radio location algorithms in microcellular CDMA systems of which base stations are asychronous. The one is to estimate the position of a personal station at the center of rectangular shaped area which approximates the realistic common area. The other, as a method based on road map, is to first find candidate positions, the centers of roads pseudo-range-distant from the base station which the personal station belongs to and then is to estimate the position by monitoring the pilot signal strengths of neighboring base stations. We compare these two algorithms with three wide-spread algorithms through computer simulations and investigate interference effect on measuring pseudo ranges. The proposed algorithms require no recursive calculations and yield smaller position error than the existing algorithms because of less affection of non-line-of-signt propagation in microcellular environments.

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A Study of Performance Analysis on Effective Multiple Buffering and Packetizing Method of Multimedia Data for User-Demand Oriented RTSP Based Transmissions Between the PoC Box and a Terminal (PoC Box 단말의 RTSP 운용을 위한 사용자 요구 중심의 효율적인 다중 수신 버퍼링 기법 및 패킷화 방법에 대한 성능 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Bang, Ji-Woong;Kim, Dae-Won
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.54-75
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    • 2011
  • PoC(Push-to-talk Over Cellular) is an integrated technology of group voice calls, video calls and internet based multimedia services. If a PoC user can not participate in the PoC session for various reasons such as an emergency situation, lack of battery capacity, then the user can use the PoC Box which has a similar functionality to the MM Box in the MMS(Multimedia Messaging Service). The RTSP(Real-Time Streaming Protocol) method is recommended to be used when there is a transmission session between the PoC box and a terminal. Since the existing VOD service uses a wired network, the packet size of RTSP-based VOD service is huge, however, the PoC service has wireless communication environments which have general characteristics to be used in RTSP method. Packet loss in a wired communication environments is relatively less than that in wireless communication environment, therefore, a buffering latency occurs in PoC service due to a play-out delay which means an asynchronous play of audio & video contents. Those problems make a user to be difficult to find the information they want when the media contents are played-out. In this paper, the following techniques and methods were proposed and their performance and superiority were verified through testing: cross-over dual reception buffering technique, advance partition multi-reception buffering technique, and on-demand multi-reception buffering technique, which are designed for effective picking up of information in media content being transmitted in short amount of time using RTSP when a user searches for media, as well as for reduction in playback delay; and same-priority packetization transmission method and priority-based packetization transmission method, which are media data packetization methods for transmission. From the simulation of functional evaluation, we could find that the proposed multiple receiving buffering and packetizing methods are superior, with respect to the media retrieval inclination, to the existing single receiving buffering method by 6-9 points from the viewpoint of effectiveness and excellence. Among them, especially, on-demand multiple receiving buffering technology with same-priority packetization transmission method is able to manage the media search inclination promptly to the requests of users by showing superiority of 3-24 points above compared to other combination methods. In addition, users could find the information they want much quickly since large amount of informations are received in a focused media retrieval period within a short time.

Evaluation of Incident Detection Algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster (돌발상황 검지알고리즘의 실증적 평가 (APID, DES, DELOS, McMaster를 중심으로))

  • Nam, Doo-Hee;Baek, Seung-Kirl;Kim, Sang-Gu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2004
  • This paper is designed to report the results of development and validation procedures in relation to the Freeway Incident Management System (FIMS) prototype development as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research and Development program. The central core of the FIMS is an integration of the component parts and the modular, but the integrated system for freeway management. The whole approach has been component-orientated, with a secondary emphasis being placed on the traffic characteristics at the sites. The first action taken during the development process was the selection of the required data for each components within the existing infrastructure of Korean freeway system. After through review and analysis of vehicle detection data, the pilot site led to the utilization of different technologies in relation to the specific needs and character of the implementation. This meant that the existing system was tested in a different configuration at different sections of freeway, thereby increasing the validity and scope of the overall findings. The incident detection module has been performed according to predefined system validation specifications. The system validation specifications have identified two component data collection and analysis patterns which were outlined in the validation specifications; the on-line and off-line testing procedural frameworks. The off-line testing was achieved using asynchronous analysis, commonly in conjunction with simulation of device input data to take full advantage of the opportunity to test and calibrate the incident detection algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster. The simulation was done with the use of synchronous analysis, thereby providing a means for testing the incident detection module.

Reproductive Ecology of the Dusky Mud Hopper, Periophthalmus modestus in Western Korea (한국 서해산 말뚝망둥어, Periophthalmus modestus의 번식생태)

  • Yang, Hyoung-Su;Chung, Ee-Yung;Sin, Moon-Seup;Choi, Dae-Up
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.306-317
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    • 2007
  • Reproductive cycle with the gonad developmental phases, first sexual maturity, spawning frequency, sex ratio of the dusky mud hopper, Periophthalmus modestus were investigated by histological observations. Monthly variations of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) began to increase in May and reached a maximum in June when the gonad was getting mature during the period of higher ground (water) temperature-long day length. Changes in the GSI showed a negative correlation to the HSI, but coincided with the fatness index. The reproductive cycle can be classified into five successive stages: in female, early growing stage (April to May), late growing stage (April to May), mature stage (May to June), ripe and spent stage (June to August), and recovery and resting stage (August to March); in males, growing stage (April to May), mature stage (May to June), ripe and spent stage (June to August), and recovery and resting stage (August to March); According to the frequency distributions of egg diameters during the breeding season, Periophthalmus modestus is presumed to be a summer breeder, asynchronous group and polycyclic species to spawn 2 times or more during the spawning season. Total eggs and mature eggs in absolute fecundity and relative fecundity (per cm) increased with the increase of body length. Total eggs and mature eggs in absolute fecundity and relative fecundity (per g) did not increase with the increase of body weight. Percentages of first sexual maturity of females and males ranging from 5.1 to 5.5 cm in body length are over 50%, and 100% for fish over 7.1 cm in body length. The sex ratios of females to males over 5.1 cm in body length were not significantly different from a 1 : 1 sex ratio.

The Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward HSDPA Service and Intention to Use: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Asia and Europe (대영향(对影响)HSDPA복무적태도화사용의도적인소적연구(服务的态度和使用意图的因素的研究): 재아주화구주지간적(在亚洲和欧洲之间的)-개과문화비교(个跨文化比较))

  • Jung, Hae-Sung;Shin, Jong-Kuk;Park, Min-Sook;Jung, Hong-Seob;Hooley, Graham;Lee, Nick;Kwak, Hyok-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 2009
  • HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) is a 3.5-generation asynchronous mobile communications service based on the third generation of W-CDMA. In Korea, it is mainly provided in through videophone service. Because of the diffusion of more powerful and diversified services, along with steep advances in mobile communications technology, consumers demand a wide range of choices. However, because of the variety of technologies, which tend to overflow the market regardless of consumer preferences, consumers feel increasingly confused. Therefore, we should not adopt strategies that focus only on developing new technology on the assumption that new technologies are next-generation projects. Instead, we should understand the process by which consumers accept new forms of technology and devise schemes to lower market entry barriers through strategies that enable developers to understand and provide what consumers really want. In the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are suggested as the most important factors affecting the attitudes of people adopting new technologies (Davis, 1989; Taylor and Todd, 1995; Venkatesh, 2000; Lee et al., 2004). Perceived usefulness is the degree to which a person believes that a particular technology will enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use is the degree of subjective belief that using a particular technology will require little physical and mental effort (Davis, 1989; Morris and Dillon, 1997; Venkatesh, 2000). Perceived pleasure and perceived usefulness have been shown to clearly affect attitudes toward accepting technology (Davis et al., 1992). For example, pleasure in online shopping has been shown to positively impact consumers' attitudes toward online sellers (Eighmey and McCord, 1998; Mathwick, 2002; Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1997). The perceived risk of customers is a subjective risk, which is distinguished from an objective probabilistic risk. Perceived risk includes a psychological risk that consumers perceive when they choose brands, stores, and methods of purchase to obtain a particular item. The ability of an enterprise to revolutionize products depends on the effective acquisition of knowledge about new products (Bierly and Chakrabarti, 1996; Rothwell and Dodgson, 1991). Knowledge acquisition is the ability of a company to perceive the value of novelty and technology of the outside (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990), to evaluate the outside technology that has newly appeared (Arora and Gambaradella, 1994), and to predict the future evolution of technology accurately (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Consumer innovativeness is the degree to which an individual adopts innovation earlier than others in the social system (Lee, Ahn, and Ha, 2001; Gatignon and Robertson, 1985). That is, it shows how fast and how easily consumers adopt new ideas. Innovativeness is regarded as important because it has a significant effect on whether consumers adopt new products and on how fast they accept new products (Midgley and Dowling, 1978; Foxall, 1988; Hirschman, 1980). We conducted cross-national comparative research using the TAM model, which empirically verified the relationship between the factors that affect attitudes - perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived pleasure, perceived risk, innovativeness, and perceived level of knowledge management - and attitudes toward HSDPA service. We also verified the relationship between attitudes and usage intention for the purpose of developing more effective methods of management for HSDPA service providers. For this research, 346 questionnaires were distributed among 350 students in the Republic of Korea. Because 26 of the returned questionnaires were inconsistent or had missing data, 320 questionnaires were used in the hypothesis tests. In UK, 192 of the total 200 questionnaires were retrieved, and two incomplete ones were discarded, bringing the total to 190 questionnaires used for statistical analysis. The results of the overall model analysis are as follows: Republic of Korea x2=333.27(p=0.0), NFI=0.88, NNFI=0.88, CFI=0.91, IFI=0.91, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.90, AGFI=0.84, UK x2=176.57(p=0.0), NFI=0.88, NNFI=0.90, CFI=0.93, IFI=0.93, RMR=0.062, GFI=0.90, AGFI=0.84. From the results of the hypothesis tests of Korean consumers about the relationship between factors that affect intention to use HSDPA services and attitudes, we can conclude that perceived usefulness, ease of use, pleasure, a high level of knowledge management, and innovativeness promote positive attitudes toward HSDPA mobile phones. However, ease of use and perceived pleasure did not have a direct effect on intention to use HSDPA service. This may have resulted from the fact that the use of video phones is not necessary for everyday life yet. Moreover, it has been shown that attitudes toward HSDPA video phones are directly correlated with usage intention, which means that perceived usefulness, ease of use, pleasure, a high level of knowledge management, and innovativeness. These relationships form the basis of the intention to buy, contributing to a situation in which consumers decide to choose carefully. A summary of the results of the hypothesis tests of European consumers revealed that perceived usefulness, pleasure, risk, and the level of knowledge management are factors that affect the formation of attitudes, while ease of use and innovativeness do not have an effect on attitudes. In particular, with regard to the effect value, perceived usefulness has the largest effect on attitudes, followed by pleasure and knowledge management. On the contrary, perceived risk has a smaller effect on attitudes. In the Asian model, ease of use and perceived pleasure were found not to have a direct effect on intention to use. However, because attitudes generally affect the intention to use, perceived usefulness, pleasure, risk, and knowledge management may be considered key factors in attitude development from which usage intention arises. In conclusion, perceived usefulness, pleasure, and the level of knowledge management have an effect on attitude formation in both Asian and European consumers, and such attitudes shape these consumers' intention to use. Furthermore, the hypotheses that ease of use and perceived pleasure affect usage intention are rejected. However, ease of use, perceived risk, and innovativeness showed different results. Perceived risk had no effect on attitude formation among Asians, while ease of use and innovativeness had no effect on attitudes among Europeans.

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