• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asp. spp

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Studies on the Classification of Aspergillus spp. by Fluorence Antibody Reaction (형광항체반응(螢光抗體反應)에 의(依)한 Aspergillus spp.의 분류(分類)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Moon, Hi-Joo;Kim, Sung-Kon;Lee, Bae-Ham
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1973
  • Author investigated fluorence antibody reaction for the antigenic relationships between Asp niger group, Asp flavus and Asp parasiticus which was indicated as follows: 1. It was concluded that there are complete differences in the antigenic properties each other because it has not cross reaction, therefore identification of strains will be simpley classified. 2. A complete cross reaction between Asp flavus and Asp parasitic us in the Asp flavus groups existed, accordingly this reaction could not identified the strain and classified between Asp. flavus and Asp. parasiticus. 3. This experiment also followed with the separated each strains from the origin (Meju, Nuruk, ATCC, NRRL), but there no differences. From the above results, this method could be classified between Asp flavus group and Asp niger group in the genus Aspergillus, but classification of Asp. flavus and Asp. parasiticus should hardely conclude with this method.

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Studies on the Processing of Sardine Meal Koji Using Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus spp.를 이용한 Sardine Meal Koji제조에 관한 연구)

  • KIM Dong-Soo;KIM Young-Myoung;KOO Jae-Geun;LEE Young-Chul;WOO Sang-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 1990
  • To substitute the soy-sauce 'koji' used in fish sauce processing with molded sardine meal(MSM) 'koji', the culture conditions of MSM be inoculated with Aspergillus spp. were investigated. To prepare the MSM, Asp. awamori(KFCC. 11439), Asp. guercinus (KFCC. l1595), Asp. niger(KFCC. 11239), Asp. oryzae(KFCC. 32343), and Asp. sojae(KFCC. 11559) were inoculated upon the chopped sardine with $20\%$ (w/w) corn starch after steriling it at $121^{\circ}C$ for 15min. Sporulation time cultured with Asp. spp. at $30^{\circ}C$ was 48hrs and color of mycelium on the surface of MSM inoculated with Asp. awamari and Asp. oryzae were black, that of MSM inoculated with the other strains were yellowish brown. The activity of protease and lipase from the MSM were increased till the 72hrs of culture at $30^{\circ}C$, while the content of trimethylamine was decreased after 96hrs of culture period at same condition with exception of Asp. niger. Asp. oryzae and Asp. sojae showed superior in pro-tease and lipase activity in comparison with the other strains, and maximum activity of protease and lipase of MSM was observed after 72hrs of culture period. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of MSM inoculated with Asp. oryzae and Asp. sojae were pH 9.0, $30\~35^{\circ}C$ and pH $6\~7$, $35^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Studies on the Serological Classification for Korean aspergilli (한국산 Aspergilli의 혈청학적 분류방법)

  • 문희주;이배함
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 1974
  • Of the Asp. spp. isolated by the Institute of Applied Microbiology, Kon-Kuk University, 7 strains were selected for the study of the immunological differencences among them using gel precipitation test. The strains were the following types : 1 type of flavus and 2 types of oryzae were isolated from Meju ; 1 type of flavus from Nuruk ; and each one type of flavus, parasiticus and oryzae from Kokja.Asp.flavus from ATCC, Asp. parasiticus nad Asp. niger NRRL strains were also used in the study as a standard. From this study, several points can be raised ; 1) There was no common antigenic property between Asp. niger and Asp. flavus, because of no formation of reaction line. Therefore, all strains could be easily distinguished. 2) There was common antigenic property, that is, the formation of reaction line between Asp. flavus and Asp. parasticus. Accordingly two strains could not be easily distinguished by the gel precipitation test. 3) Each type of oryzae, parasiticus and flavus of Asp. flavus group had common antigen one another as well as specific antigens only in the difference of the reaction lines, so they could be easily identified in the gel precipitation test. 4) Each isolated strain from Meju and Nuruk appeared to be identical. 5) It was shown that the gel precipitation test of serological methods was very useful for the classification of Asp. spp.

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Changes of Enzymatic Activities during the Fermentation of Soybean-Soypaste by Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus spp.에 의한 콩된장 발효 과정중의 효소활성 변화)

  • Joo, Hyun-Kyu;Kim, Nam-Dae;Yoon, Ki-Suk
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 1989
  • This study was carried out as a preliminary test to investigate the improvement of soysauce and soybean paste for natural food. The soybean was treated on raw, soaked, roasted, and steamed condition and it was maked that rice koji was inoculated by Asp. oryzae, Asp. niger, Asp. awamori and on natural condition fermented. They were maked raw soybean-soypaste $(S_0)$, soaked soybean-soypaste $(S_1)$, roasted soybean-soypaste $(S_2)$, and steamed soybean-soypaste $(S_3)$ from soybean (60%), rice koji (30%) and salt (10%) respectively in order to investigate the changes of enzymes activity(amylase, protease, lipase and lipoxygenase activity) during fermentation of them. The results obtained were summarized as follows; Amylase activity was in the order of natural fermented microorganisms>Asp. oryzae>Asp. awamori>Asp. niger in the microorganisms, and $S_0>S_1>S_2>S_3$ in the soybean treatments. Protease activity was in the order of natural fermented microorganisms>Asp. niger>Asp. oryzae>Asp. awamori in the microorganisms, and $S_3>S_2>S_1>S_0$ in the soybean treatments. Lipase activity was a similar tendency in the microorganisms, but it was in the order of $S_0>S_1>S_3>S_2$ in the soybean treatments. Lipoxygenase activity was in the order of natural fermented microorganisms>Asp. oryzae>Asp. awamori>Asp. niger in the microorganisms, and $S_0>S_1>S_3>S_2$ in the treatments.

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Control of Aflatoxin and Characteristics of the Quality in Doenjang(soybean paste) Prepared with Antifungal Bacteria (길항미생물에 의한 된장 중 아플라톡신 제어 및 그 품질특성)

  • Kang, Kil-Jin;Park, Jong-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1258-1265
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    • 2000
  • In oder to acquire microbial agents that can be utilized for control of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus. flavus and Asp. parasiticus, antifungal bacteria were isolated. Antifungal bacteria was identified as Bacillus spp. based on morphology and physico-biochemical characteristics. Amount of aflatoxin $B_1$ from Doenjang(soybean paste) prepared with Asp. flavus, Asp. parasiticus, antifungal bacteria(Bacillus sp.), or mixture of Asp. flavus and Asp. parasiticus was 27.2 ppb, 30.3 ppb, 3.4 ppb, and 3.7 ppb, respectively. Aflatoxin $B_1$ was not detected from Doenjang(control) and Doenjang prepared with antifungal bacteria. Content and compositions of free sugars, fatty acid, organic acid and free amino acid in Doenjang prepared with Asp. flavus and Asp. parasiticus, antifungal bacteria and mixture of Asp. flavus and Asp. parasiticus were not significantly different. For volatile flavor compounds of Doenjang prepared with antifungal bacteria, 2-pentyl furan and butanoic acid were disappeared or reduced, while octadecene compounds were produced. However, those of Doenjang prepared with Asp. flavus or Asp. parasiticus and Doenjang(control) were not significantly different. These results suggested that the antifungal bacteria(Bacillus sp.) inhibited production of aflatoxin and that antifungal bacteria did not effect the quality of Doenjang.

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Comparative analysis of amino acid contents of the fruiting bodies in Ganoderma spp. (영지버섯 균주별 자실체의 아미노산함량 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Jae-Han;Noh, Hyung-Jun;Kang, Don-Ho;Lee, Jee-Young;Lee, Min-Jung;Park, Hye-Sung;Sung, Gi-Ho;Jhune, Chang-Sung
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2012
  • Ingredient content for the general composition of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were analyzed by the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sp. The results obtained are as followes. The ASI 7004 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(His, Ile, Leu, Phe, Thr, Val) and the non-essential amino acids(Ala, Ser, Gly). In addition, The ASI 7002 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(Lys) and the non-essential amino acids(Asp, Glu). ASI 7022 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(Met) and the non-essential amino acids(Pro). In General, contents of Amino acid was higher than Phellinus.

Mutation Patterns of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE Genes Related to Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Ureaplasma Species Isolated from Urogenital Specimens (비뇨생식기계 검체로부터 분리된 Ureaplasma 종의 Fluoroquinolone 내성과 관련된 gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE 유전자의 돌연변이 양상)

  • Cho, Eun-Jung;Hwang, Yu Yean;Koo, Bon-Kyeong;Park, Jesoep;Kim, Young Kwon;Kim, Sunghyun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2016
  • Ureaplasma species can normally colonize in the bodies of healthy individuals. Their colonization is associated with various diseases including non-gonococcal urethritis, chorioamnionitis, neonatal meningitis, and prematurity. In 2012, the sum of the resistant and intermediate resistant rates of Ureaplasma spp. to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was 66.08% and 92.69%, respectively. DNA point mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV are commonly responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Each enzyme is composed of two subunits encoded by gyrA and gyrB genes for DNA gyrase and parC and parE genes for topoisomerase IV. In the current study, these genes were sequenced in order to determine the role of amino acid substitutions in Ureaplasma spp. clinical isolates. From December 2012 to May 2013, we examined mutation patterns of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) in Ureaplasma spp. DNA sequences in the QRDR region of Ureaplasma clinical isolates were compared with those of reference strains including U. urealyticum serovar 8 (ATCC 27618) and U. parvum serovar 3 (ATCC 27815). Mutations were detected in all ofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, however no mutations were detected in drug-susceptible isolates. Most of the mutations related to fluoroquinolone resistance occurred in the parC gene, causing amino acid substitutions. Newly found amino acid substitutions in this study were Asn481Ser in GyrB; Phe149Leu, Asp150Met, Asp151Ile, and Ser152Val in ParC; and Pro446Ser and Arg448Lys in ParE. Continuous monitoring and accumulation of mutation data in fluoroquinolone-resistant Ureaplasma clinical isolates are essential to determining the tendency and to understanding the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance.

Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Xylose (Glucose) Isomerase from Streptomyces chibaensis J-59

  • Joo, Gil-Jae;Shin, Jae-Ho;Heo, Gun-Young;Kwak, Yun-Young;Choi, Jun-Ho;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2001
  • Xylose (glucose) isomerase was purified to homogeneity from cell-extracts of Streptomyces chibaensis J-59 via ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme is a homotetramer with a native molecular mass of 180 kDa and a subunit molecular mass of 44 kDa. The amino acid N-terminal sequence of glucose isomerase from S. chibaensis J-59 was determined to be Ser-Tyr-Gln-Pro-Thr-Pro-Glu-Asp-Arg-Phe-Thr-Phe-Gly-Leu. The first 14 amino acids of the N-terminal sequence of the enzyme showed strong analogies with N-terminal sequences of glucose isomerase produced by other Streptomyces spp. The optimum pH and temperature for activity were 7.5 and 85, respectively. The purified enzyme required $Mg^{2+}$, $Co^{2+}$, and $Mn^{2+}$ for the activity, $Mg^{2+}$ being the most effective. The enzyme was not inhibited by $Ca^{2+}$, but was inhibited by $Hg^{2+}$, $Ag^+$, and $Cu^{2+}$. The $K_m$, $V_{max}$, and $k_{cat}$ values of S. chibaensis J-59 isomerase for glucose were 83 mM, 40.9 U/mg, and $1,843min^{-1}$, respectively. In the presence of $Co^{2+}$, cell-free enzymes retained 100% without loss of activities by the heat-treatment at $70^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The enzyme retained 50% residual activity after heating at $85^{\circ}C$ for 13.5 h, at $90^{\circ}C$ for 126 min. The enzyme is more thermostable than any other glucose isomerases of Streptomyces spp.

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Hygienic Studies on Agricultural Products in Yungnam District (part I) Isolation of Aflactoxin producing Strains (영남지방 농산물에 대한 위생학적 연구 (제1보) Aflatoxin 생성균의 분리)

  • ;;;;James J. Pestka
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 1989
  • To isolate the aflatoxin producing strains from agricultural products in Youngnam districts, rice(59), meju(30), corn(32), barley(58), soil(33), peanut(30), soybean(45), and unhulled barley(60) were collected from markets or homes. From 342 sample sources, 280 strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated. As a result of screening by TLC, 29 strains expressed fluorescent spot and four strains have a same Rf value of standard aflatoxins, and the percentage of contamination from aflatoxin producing strains was 1.3%, and those strains were estimated as Aspergillus flavus group by the examine of characteristics and morphology.

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Effects of Raw Materials and Various Molds on the Production of Koji

  • Yi, Sang-Duk;Yang, Jae-Seung;Lee, Gyu-Hee;Park, Seong-Hyun;Oh, Man-Jin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2001
  • Alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities were higher in koji with 40% water than that with 30 and 50% water, and A. oryzae exhibited very high alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities compared to A. sojae and A. niger. Acidic, neutral and alkaline protease activities also showed higher activities in koji prepared with flour, Korean wheat powder and soybean powder with 40% water based on the weight of the sample. Alpha-amylase, acidic, neutral and alkaline protease activities of all the koji samples according to incubation periods increased until 3~4 days of incubation and maintained nearly the same level or slightly decreased after 5 days of incubation. The protease activities of A. oryzae and A. sojae showed nearly the same trend regardless of differences in substrate conditions and koji materials, but those of A. niger showed a lower activity than those of A. oryzae and A. sojae. These results suggest that the preparation of koji is possible with Korean wheat powder and soybean powder and A. sojae can be utilized as a new strain for fermented foods using soybean as the main materials to increase functional properties and produce products having a new taste and flavor.

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