• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian dust

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Estimation of Hourly Emission Flux of Asian Dust Using Empirical Formulas in the Source Area (경험식을 이용한 발원지 황사의 시간별 발생량 추정)

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Lee, Seong-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.539-549
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate hourly Asian dust emission flux in springtime by using the optimized Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF) in order to accurately predict the horizontal flux of Asian dusts. Asian dust emission flux using 5 empirical formulas such as US EPA, Park and Inn, Wang, The Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) and Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) were calculated and compared by using classified land-use types and size distribution at various locations in China and Mongolia together with the hourly meteorological elements of the WRF model. As a result, the empirical formula in US EPA among them, which was considered the various conditions such as vegetation, soil type and terrain, was better than the other 4 empirical formulas. However, these formulas were adjusted hourly and vertically in time and space because there was different order and time resolution of dust emissions from original empirical formulas.

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Artificial Sand Dust (ASD) Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

  • Kim, Jung-Ha;Lee, Tae-Jin;Im, Jee-Aee;Lee, Duk-Chul
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2014
  • Asian sand dust is known to promote various respiratory symptoms or disorders. For the prevention of harmful health effects by Asian sand dust, the best strategy is known to avoid or reduce exposure to the Asian sand dust. Several studies have shown that Korean red ginseng (RG) has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. The study aimed to clarify the effect of Korean red ginseng intake on lung inflammation responses to artificial sand dust (ASD) similar to Asian sand dust. BALB/c mice were divided into five groups (n=12) of control (saline), ovalbumin (OVA), OVA with ASD, OVA plus RG with ASD, and OVA plus dexamethasone (DEXA) with ASD. Histopathologic evaluation of lung was conducted. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-${\gamma}$, IL-13, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and eotaxin within bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were measured by ELISA. OVA+ASD group significantly increased concentrations of IL-5, IL-13, MCP-1, and eotaxin (P<0.01) compared to the control. OVA+ASD+RG group showed significant decreased levels of IL-2, IL-13, MCP-1 and eotaxin (P<0.01) compared with OVA+ASD. Between RG and DEXA treatment groups, there was no significant difference in all cytokines and chemokines. The inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in treatment groups with RG or DEXA compared to OVA+ASD group. This study suggests a beneficial effect of Korean RG administration in preventing inflammation of lung resulting from Asian sand dust.

The Study on the Quantitative Dust Index Using Geostationary Satellite (정지기상위성 자료를 이용한 정량적 황사지수 개발 연구)

  • Kim, Mee-Ja;Kim, Yoonjae;Sohn, Eun-Ha;Kim, Kum-Lan;Ahn, Myung-Hwan
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.267-277
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    • 2008
  • The occurrence and strength of the Asian Dust over the Korea Peninsular have been increased by the expansion of the desert area. For the continuous monitoring of the Asian Dust event, the geostationary satellites provide useful information by detecting the outbreak of the event as well as the long-range transportation of dust. The Infrared Optical Depth Index (IODI) derived from the MTSAT-1R data, indicating a quantitative index of the dust intensity, has been produced in real-time at Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) since spring of 2007 for the forecast of Asian dust. The data processing algorithm for IODI consists of mainly two steps. The first step is to detect dust area by using brightness temperature difference between two thermal window channels which are influenced with different extinction coefficients by dust. Here we use dynamic threshold values based on the change of surface temperature. In the second step, the IODI is calculated using the ratio between current IR1 brightness temperature and the maximum brightness temperature of the last 10 days which we assume the clear sky. Validation with AOD retrieved from MODIS shows a good agreement over the ocean. Comparison of IODI with the ground based PM10 observation network in Korea shows distinct characteristics depending on the altitude of dust layer estimated from the Lidar data. In the case that the altitude of dust layer is relatively high, the intensity of IODI is larger than that of PM10. On the other hand, when the altitude of dust layer is lower, IODI seems to be relatively small comparing with PM10 measurement.

Seasonal Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particles in Iksan, Korea

  • Kang, Gong-Unn;Kim, Nam-Song;Rhim, Kook-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.543-555
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    • 2006
  • During a twenty-day period in 2005, a nine-stage Andersen cascade impactor was used to determine the seasonal size distribution of atmospheric particles and its inorganic ion species sampled for 24hr in Iksan city, located southwest of the Korean peninsula. Samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ion species using Dionex-100 ion chromatograph. Average fine and coarse mass concentrations of atmospheric particles were, respectively, 31.4 and $82.6{\mu}g\;m^{-3}$ in spring and 35.8 and $73.4{\mu}g\;m^{-3}$ in fall-winter during the sampling period of 2005, while measurements of 69.8 and 9.9 were obtained in the sampling period of summer, The size distribution of particulate mass concentration during the non-Asian dust period was generally bimodal, whereas the size distribution of particulate mass concentration during the Asian dust period was unimodal due to the significant increase of coarse particles, which originated from long-range transport of soil dust particles from loess regions of the Asian continent. Among ionic species, $SO{_4}^{2-},\;NH{_4}^+,\;K^+$ were mainly distributed in fine particles due to their characteristics of emission sources and gas-to-particle conversion, while $Na^+,\;Mg^{2+}\;and\;Ca^{2+}$ were dominantly in coarse particles. However, $NO_3{^-}\;and\;Cl^-$ were distributed in both coarse particles and fine particles. Although $SO{_4}^{2-}$ was mainly distributed in fine particles, the size distributions of $SO{_4}^{2-}$ in coarse mode were significantly increased during the Asian dust events compared to those during the non-Asian dust period. $Ca^{2+}$ showed the most abundant species in the atmospheric particles during the Asian dust period. $NH{_4}^+$ was found to mainly exist as $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ in fine particles.

Study on Perceived Symptoms and Preventive Behaviors during Asian Dust storms among Children, Adults and Elders (황사 기간 동안에 어린이, 성인, 노인에서의 자각증상과 예방행동에 대한 조사연구)

  • Lee, Bo-Eun;Ha, Eun-Hee;Park, Hye-sook;Kwon, Ji-Sook;Shin, Kyung-Rim
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Recently there are scientific evidences for the health effects of Asian dust-storms. Particularly in 2002, the daily average of $PM_10$ exceeded 600 and 700 $\mu{g}/m^3$ in March and April respectively. We examined the effects of Asian dust‐storms on perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors among children, adults, and elders. Method: The subjects of this study were 425 children, 444 adults and 60 elders. A questionnaire survey was carried out on the children and the adults by teachers and on the elders by interviewers to obtain information on demographic variables, perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors, previous respiratory disease, environmental tobacco smoke, and proximity between the house and the road during Asian dust-storms. We analyzed using descriptive statistics, $X^2$ test and multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for potential confounders, we estimated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the children and the elders for perceived symptoms and preventive behaviors. Result: The elders had a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the other groups. The children had a significantly higher prevalence than the adults in getting URI (1.51), coughing (1.68), rhinorrhea (1.46), fever (2.39) and medication for allergy or asthma (1.90). The children had better behaviors than the elders in closing windows (3.57), taking less outdoor recreational activity (2.59) and staying home (2.60). Conclusion: This study suggested that children and elders are susceptible to the effects of Asian dust on health. Health educators should inform these populations about the influence of Asian dust and provide health education for preventive behaviors.

An Effectiveness of Simultaneous Measurement of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 Concentrations in Asian Dust and Haze Monitoring

  • Cho, Changbum;Park, Gilun;Kim, Baekjo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.651-666
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    • 2013
  • This study introduces a novel approach to the differentiation of two phenomena, Asian Dust and haze, which are extremely difficult to distinguish based solely on comparisons of PM10 concentration, through use of the Optical Particle Counter (OPC), which simultaneously generates PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In the case of Asian Dust, PM10 concentration rose to the exclusion of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were below 40%, which is consistent with the conclusion that Asian Dust, as a prime example of the coarse-particle phenomenon, only impacts PM10 concentration, not PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In contrast, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration simultaneously increased with haze. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were generally above 70%. In this case, PM1.0 concentration varies because a haze event consists of secondary aerosol in the fine-mode, and the relative ratios of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration remain intact as these values already subsume PM1.0 concentration. The sequential shift of the peaks in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations also serve to individually track the transport of coarse-mode versus fine-mode aerosols. The distinction in the relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration in an Asian Dust versus a haze event, when collected on a national or global scale using OPC monitoring networks, provides realistic information on outbreaks and transport of Asian Dust and haze.

A Study on the Correlation between Forest Fire Occurrence and Asian Dust during the Spring Season from 2000 to 2008 (2000~2008년 봄철 황사와 산불발생의 관계 분석)

  • Won, Myoung-Soo;Yoon, Suk-Hee;Lee, Woo-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the patterns of forest fire possibly related with Asian dust event and carry out a correlation analysis between forest fire occurrence and existence or not of the Asian dust event during dry seasons i.e. February to May in 2000 to 2008. To study the correlation of forest fire and Asian dust, we surveyed information of Asian dust observations, forest fire statistics, fire danger rating index, weather data such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed of the day occurring the forest fire. As a consequence of analysis, the regional frequency of Asian dust was the highest in Gyeonggi and Chungbuk divisions. Frequencies of forest fire occurrence by the Asian dust events were the highest in the day before three days of the Asian dust event. The highest frequent regions of forest fire occurrence were district of boundary line between Gyeonggi and Western of Gangwon, Chungbuk and Gyeonbuk inland. The correlation between forest fire and fire danger rating index showed the high correlation with the day before three days and after three days of the Asian dust event. These correlation coefficients were 0.50038 and 0.53978 to 1% significance level. The result of analysis between the frequency of forest fire occurrence and wind speed had a highly negative relationship at all the Asian dust days, the day before and after three days. The correlation coefficients had been -0.58623 to -0.61245 to 1% significance level. Relative humidity showed a little of negative relationship with forest fire occurrence in -0.2568(p ${\leq}$ 0.01) for the Asian dust day and -0.35309(p ${\leq}$ 0.01) for next three days. Moreover, at the day before three days of Asian dust events, it was -0.23701 to 1% significance level. However, the mean temperature did not correlate with frequency of forest fire occurrence by Asian dust events at all.

Study on the Variation of Optical Properties of Asian Dust Plumes according to their Transport Routes and Source Regions using Multi-wavelength Raman LIDAR System (다파장 라만 라이다 시스템을 이용한 발원지 및 이동 경로에 따른 황사의 광학적 특성 변화 연구)

  • Shin, Sung-Kyun;Noh, Youngmin;Lee, Kwonho;Shin, Dongho;Kim, KwanChul;Kim, Young J.
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2014
  • The continuous observations for atmospheric aerosol were carried out during 3 years (2009-2011) by using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea ($35.11^{\circ}N$, $126.54^{\circ}E$). The particle depolarization ratios were retrieved from the observations in order to distinguish the Asian dust layer. The vertical information of Asian dust layers were used as input parameter for the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for analysis of its backward trajectories. The source regions and transport pathways of the Asian dust layer were identified. The most frequent source region of Asian dust in Korea was Gobi desert during observation period in this study. The statistical analysis on the particle depolarization ratio of Asian dust was conducted according to their transport route in order to retrieve the variation of optical properties of Asian dust during long-range transport. The transport routes were classified into the Asian dust which was transported to observation site directly from the source regions, and the Asian dust which was passed over pollution regions of China. The particle depolarization ratios of Asian dust which were transported via industrial regions of China was ranged 0.07-0.1, whereas, the particle depolarization ratio of Asian dust which was transported directly from the source regions to observation site were comparably higher and ranged 0.11-0.15. It is considered that the pure Asian dust particle from source regions were mixed with pollution particles, which is likely to spherical particle, during transportation so that the values of particle depolarization of Asian dust mixed with pollution was decreased.

Pollution Level of Heavy Metals of Asian Dust in Daejeon Area, 2008 (2008년 대전지역에서 발생한 황사의 중금속 오염도)

  • Lee, Pyeong-Koo;Bae, Beob-Geun
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.8-25
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    • 2014
  • The aims of this study were to determine concentrations of selected metals in Asian and non-Asian dust collected in Daejeon, Korea between February 2008 and December 2008 and to estimate the pollution level. The geochemical analyses of Asian dust (AD) and Non Asian dust (NAD) show that the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Zr, Sb, Mo and S reached levels up to 16, 209, 31, 43, 81, 28, 31, 122 and 302 times higher, respectively, than those in uncontaminated Chinese desert soils. These results indicate that both AD and NAD serve as an atmospheric repository for trace and heavymetal accumulation. The the enrichment factor (EF) and pollution index (PI) show that AD and NAD were severely contaminated by S, Mo, Zr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Sb, Cu, and As. All indices for these metals showed either strong or notably high level of pollution relative to Chinese desert soil, principally due to the severe atmospheric pollution derived from anthropogenic activities in heavily industrial Chinese cities. Therefore, Mo, Cd, Zr, As, Cu, Sb, Pb, and Zn are the ones most strongly affected by anthropogenic inputs such as airborne pollutants.

Concentration Characteristics of Atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and TSP during the Asian Dust Storm in Iksan Area (익산지역에서 황사발생시 PM2.5, PM10 TSP의 농도 특성)

  • Kang, Gong-Unn;Kim, Nam-Song;Kim, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.408-421
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    • 2007
  • The concentration characteristics of atmospheric particle matters (PM) including $PM_{2.5},\;PM_{10}$, and TSP were evaluated through the measurement data of PM_{2.5}$ (fine particulate), PM_{10-2.5}$ (coarse particulate), and PM_{over-10}$ collected using a MCI (multi-nozzle cascade impactor) sampler of a three-stage filter pack in spring of 2006 in Iksan area. During the sampling period of 10-15 March and 24 days from 8 April to 2 May, 32 samples for PM of each size fractions were collected, and then measured for PM mass concentrations and water-soluble inorganic ion species. Average concentrations of $PM_{2.5},\;PM_{10}$, TSP were $57.9{\pm}44.1mg/m^3$, $96.6{\pm}89.1mg/m^3$, and $114.8{\pm}99.7mg/m^3$, respectively. Water-soluble inorganic ion fractions to PM mass were found to be 36.5%, 18.0%, and 11.1% for $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_{10-2.5}$ and $PM_{over-10}$, respectively. By showing the high concentrations of PM samples during Asian dust events, those three fractions of PM were distinguished between the samples of Asian dust event and the samples of no event. However, the increase of PM concentrations observed during Asian dust events showed a different pattern for some Asian dust events. The differences of those three fractions in the size distribution may depend on differences on place of occurrence of Asian dust storm and course of transport from China continent to Iksan area in Korea. However, the extent of PM mass contribution during Asian dust events was generally dominated by the coarse particles rather than the fine fraction of PM. The variations of water-soluble inorganic ion species concentration in those three PM fractions between the samples of Asian dust event and the samples of no event were also discussed in this study.