• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian dust

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An Analysis of Air Pollution Effect in Urban Area Related to Asian Dust on All-cause and Cause-specific Mortality in Seoul, Korea, 2000-2006 (도시 대기오염의 위해 평가에 있어서 황사효과 분석 -서울시 총사망 및 원인별 사망률에 미치는 영향-)

  • Son, Ji-Young;Cho, Yong-Sung;Kim, Yoon-Shin;Lee, Jong-Tae;Kim, Yeon-Jung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to compare the relative risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality associated with Asian dust events, and especially to investigate the effects on the susceptible population such as the elderly and children, which were based on the data in Seoul from 2000 to 2006. Both of the study periods with/without Asian dust days, respiratory-cause mortality was the highest, followed by cardiovascular-cause mortality and all-cause mortality in sequence among mortality related to air pollution for all-aged group. As to susceptible group, the relative risk of mortality is the highest for +65 yrs group among all-cause mortality. According to comparison of mortality with/without Asian dust days, the relative risk of all-cause mortality is larger in the model with Asian dust days than the one in the model without Asian dust days among all age group (except for under 15 yrs group) and all air pollutants. The relative risk of cause-specific mortality (except for ozone in under 15 yrs group in case of respiratory-cause mortality, and ozone in all age group and over 65 yrs group in case of cardiovascular-cause mortality) per IQR increase of each pollutant is larger in the model without Asian dust days.

Grain-Size Distribution of Source Areas of Asian Dust (Yellow Sand) in China

  • Yi, Hi-Il;Shin, Im-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.77-79
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    • 2007
  • The source regions of Asian Dusts (Yellow Sands) in the western part of China are investigated, and the soil samples are collected samples for approximately 15 days during the spring of 2005. Particle sizes of sediments are analyzed and compared with each other. These grain-size analyses from the source areas can be compared Particle sizes between loess deposits and desert sands in western part of China and desert areas show distinctive differences. Loess deposits are predominantly composed of fine sands and silts. The distinction between the final characteristics of Asian Dust particles arrived in Korea and characteristics during transportation can be recognized comparison with the Asian Dust particles collected where the dust particles settled down. The characteristics of Asian Dust particle sizes can provide the basic information regarding the transportation history from the source region.

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A study on the prediction model of attenuation influence of satellite communication signal by Asian dust (황사로 인한 위성통신신호 감쇠영향 예측모델 연구)

  • Cho, Seung-Jae;Hong, Wan-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.821-827
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents the prediction model of attenuation characteristics of satellite communication signals operating in the range from 1 to 20GHz, associated with the effects of the Asian Dust. And this paper analyze the effects of the Asian Dust in theory that dust particles size and density, OPC, signal levels, exponentail distribution and the permittivity. The prediction model of the dust attenuation was got, combining the formula of the complex dielectric constant of Asian dust. Expressions for specific attenuation and attenuation are derived in terms of the height, visibility. Therefore it make an investigate to the prediction model of attenuation characteristics continuously.

Depolarization Ratio Retrievals Using AERONET Sun Photometer Data

  • Lee, Kyung-Hwa;Muller, Detlef;Noh, Young-Min;Shin, Sung-Kyun;Shin, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 2010
  • We present linear particle depolarization ratios (LPDRs) retrieved from measurements with an AERONET Sun photometer at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea ($35.10^{/circ}N$, $126.53^{\circ}E$) between 19 October and 3 November 2009. The Sun photometer data were classified into three categories according to ${\AA}$ngstr$\ddot{o}$ exponent and size distribution: 1) pure Asian dust (19 October 2009), 2) Asian dust mixed with urban pollution observed in the period from 20-26 October 2009, and 3) clean conditions (3 November). We show that the LPDRs can be used to distinguish among Asian dust, mixed aerosol, and non-Asian dust in the atmosphere. The mean LPDR of the pure Asian dust case is 23 %. Mean LPDRs are 13 % for the mixed case. The lowest mean LPDR is 6 % in the clean case. We compare our results to vertically resolved LPDRs (at 532 nm) measured by a Raman LIDAR system at the same site. In most cases, we find good agreement between LPDRs derived with Sun photometer and measured by LIDAR.

Aerosol Optical Properties Retrieval and Separation of Asian Dust using AERONET Sun/Sky Radiometer Measurement at the Asian Dust Source Region (황사 발원지에서 선포토미터를 활용한 에어로졸의 광학적 특성 산출과 미세먼지속 황사구분)

  • Shin, Dongho;Noh, Youngmin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2016
  • We present linear particle depolarization ratio at 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm retrieved from measurements with an AERONET sun/sky radiometer at the source region of Asian dust, Dunhuang. The linear particle depolarization ratios are retrieved at the two receptor sites (Gosan and Osaka). The highest linear particle depolarization ratio of 0.34 at 1020 nm is retrieved from nearly pure Asian dust. The linear particle depolarization ratio decreased as the volume concentration of fine-mode particle increased. We can confirm that the ratio of Asian dust is changed by the value of the linear particle depolarization ratio retrieved by AERONET data.

Effects of Artificial Asian Dust on Photosynthesis, Respiration, Growth and Stoma in Five Tree Species (인공황사 처리가 몇 수목의 광합성, 호흡, 생장 및 기공에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Ki Kang;Lee, Don Koo;Park, Yeong Dae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.4
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    • pp.392-398
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    • 2009
  • Artificial Asian dust was treated in this study to compare and determine its effect on growth, photosynthesis, respiration and stomata of 5 species trees. Sophora japonica's growth and respiration using artificial Asian dust treatment which is 10 times of average contents of Asian dust: $5,000{\mu}g{\cdot}m^{-2}$ decreases after 3 weeks while no significant difference in other species. The maximum photosynthesis of Sophora japonica and Betula pendula decreased significantly after 3 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, using artificial Asian dust treatment which is average contents of Asian dust: $500{\mu}g{\cdot}m^{-2}$. At $5,000{\mu}g{\cdot}m^{-2}$ treatment, photosynthesis of both species decreased just after treatment of artificial Asian dust. Quercus acutissima, Quercus mongolica and Acer triflorum have no significant differences. Dust was found inside the Sophora japonica's stomatas under heavy dust treatment when viewed under the light electron microscope. By scanning electron microscopy, the higher rate of stomatal opening of Sophora japonica and Betula pendula was recognized and the size of both stomatas was bigger than other species. This result means that Asian dust has an influence in decreasing the photosynthesis, respiration and growth of some species especially if the stomatas are large.

Chemical Composition Characteristics of Size-fractionated Particles during Heavy Asian Dust Event in Spring, 2010 (2010년 봄철 고농도 황사의 입경별 화학조성 특성)

  • Lee, Dong-Eun;Kim, Won-Hyung;Ko, Hee-Jung;Oh, Yong-Soo;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.325-337
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    • 2013
  • The size-fractionated aerosol samples have been collected at Gosan Site of Jeju Island during the spring season of 2010, in order to examine the chemical composition characteristics of the Asian Dust and Non-Asian Dust particles. The concentrations of ${HCO_3}^-$, Al, and nss-$Ca^{2+}$ in $PM_{10}$ had tremendously increased during the heavy Asian Dust (March 20, 2010). The concentration ratios of Asian Dust to Non-Asian Dust for the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$, ${HCO_3}^-$, Al, Fe, Ti, Mn) were 12.2~30.7, meanwhile those for the anthropogenic species (nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$, ${NH_4}^+$, ${NO_3}^-$, $K^+$, Zn, Pb, and Cu) were 2.9~7.8. During the heavy Asian Dust event, the concentration increase of ${NO_3}^-$ in $PM_{2.5}$ were much more apparent than those of nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ and ${NH_4}^+$, and the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$ and ${HCO_3}^-$) showed much higher concentration increase. The neutralization factor of $NH_3$ was higher than that of $CaCO_3$. However, the neutralization factor of $CaCO_3$ in $PM_{10}$ was exceptionally high during the heavy Asian Dust, showing the evidence of heavy migration of soil particles. From the study for size fractionated particles, it was found that nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ and ${NH_4}^+$ were mostly distributed in fine particle mode, on the other hand, ${NO_3}^-$ existed evenly in both fine and coarse particle modes, and the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Fe, etc.) were mainly in the latter mode. During the heavy Asian Dust, in particular, the concentrations of ${NH_4}^+$, nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$, $K^+$, Zn, and Pb had increased in coarse particle mode as well.

Chemical Composition Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosols in Relation to Haze, Asian Dust and Mixed Haze-Asian Dust Episodes at Gosan Site in 2013 (2013년 고산지역 연무, 황사, 연무-황사혼재 대기 에어로졸의 화학조성 특성)

  • Ko, Hee-Jung;Song, Jung-Min;Cha, Joo Wan;Kim, Jeongeun;Ryoo, Sang-Boom;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.289-304
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    • 2016
  • The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols were collected at the Gosan site of Jeju Island in 2013 and analyzed, in order to examine the variation characteristics of the chemical compositions in relation to the haze, Asian dust, and mixed haze-Asian dust episodes. Volume concentrations obtained from the Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) were high in the range of $0.6{\sim}1.0{\mu}m$ particles for haze event, and in the range of $2.0{\sim}10.0{\mu}m$ particles for Asian dust event. For the haze event, nitrate concentrations increased highly as 8.8 and 25.1 times for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$, respectively, possibly caused by the inflow of air mass stagnated in eastern parts of China into Jeju area. For the Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $NO_3{^-}$ and nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$ increased 6.0, 1.5, 1.8 times for $PM_{10}$, and 2.3, 1.3, 1.6 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. Meanwhile, for the mixed haze-Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ increased 13.4 and 3.2 times for $PM_{10}$, and 1.8 and 3.4 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. The $NH_4NO_3$ content was higher than that of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ during the haze event, however it was relatively low during the mixed haze-Asian dust event. The aerosols were acidified mostly by inorganic acids, and especially the nitric acid contributed highly to the acidification during both the haze and the mixed haze-Asian dust events. Meanwhile, the neutralization by ammonia was noticeably high during haze event when the stagnated air mass moved from China.

Changeable Qualitative Characteristics of Mold Aerosols on Each Occasion of Dust Episodes (2000 ~ 2002) in West Korea

  • Yeo, Hwan-Goo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.240-244
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    • 2003
  • Conidia of molds within the Asian dust were captured in the ambient air of mid-west Korea, in springtime of 2000~2002. An eight-stage Cascade impactor and 0.22 $\mu\textrm{m}$ pore size membrane filters were used for the dust samples. Several kinds of molds grown from the samples were identified to the genus level. Those are Aspergillus, Basipetospora, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Monotospora and Penicillium. Relatively diversified mycelia of hyphomycetes were grown on the fine dust sample (1.1~2.1 $\mu\textrm{m}$) in the first year Asian dust episode (23~24 March, 2000). On the other hand, some fluffy molds and dark molds aggregations were grown on even the backup particle sample less than 0.43 $\mu\textrm{m}$ during the second year episode (24~26 April, 2001). The result of the last year episode (21~22 March, 2002) showed various mycelia grown on the sample contained from 1.1 to 2.1 $\mu\textrm{m}$ sized particles, just like the result of the first year episode (23~24 March, 2000). These variations between the episodes might be caused by the difference of the dust origins.

Retrieval of Vertical Single-scattering albedo of Asian dust using Multi-wavelength Raman Lidar System (다파장 라만 라이다 시스템을 이용한 고도별 황사의 단산란 알베도 산출)

  • Noh, Youngmin;Lee, Chulkyu;Kim, Kwanchul;Shin, Sungkyun;Shin, Dongho;Choi, Sungchul
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.415-421
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    • 2013
  • A new approach to retrieve the single-scattering albedo (SSA) of Asian dust plume, mixed with pollution particles, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar system was suggested in this study. Asian dust plume was separated as dust and non-dust particle (i.e. spherical particle) by the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm. The vertical profiles of optical properties (the particle extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm and backscatter coefficient at 355, 532 and 1064 nm) for non-dust particle were used as input parameter for the inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm provides the vertical distribution of microphysical properties of non-dust particle only so that the estimation of the SSA for the Asian dust in mixing state was suggested in this study. In order to estimate the SSA for the mixed Asian dust, we combined the SSA of non-dust particles retrieved by the inversion algorithms with assumed the SSA of 0.96 at 532 nm for dust. The retrieved SSA of Asian dust plume by lidar data was compared with the Aerosol Robotics Network (AERONET) retrieved values and showed good agreement.