• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian dust

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Characterization and Control of Vascellum curtisii (Berkeley)Kreisel Causing the Fairy Ring Arcs in the Golf Course in Korea (골프코스에서 페어리링의 원인이되는 Vascellum curtisii의 특징과 방계)

  • Choi, Dae-Hong;Lee, Jung-Han;Kim, Hee-Kyu
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2008
  • We have found the clusters of tiny spiny puffball-like mushrooms growing gregariously in fairy ring (arcs) rimmed by a zone of darker green grass in the golf courses. Macroscopic as well as microscopic characters were examined for the morphology of fruiting body. Exoperidium is thin and densely spiny with minute fibrillae at early stage. The connivent spines were soft and quite persistent. In age, the fibrillae scrumble away with a powdery coating, which leaves white endoperidium becoming pale brown. It's interior was white and fleshy at first, but turns into an olive-colored dust as the gleba, the spore-producing tissue, develops to maturity and loaded with olive-brown spore mass. Then, distinct apical pore developed on the endoperidium. Rudimentary subgleba(sterile base) was narrow, chambered, delineated from the gleba by a membrane in young material. These characters suggested this fungus is a Vascellum, a member of the family Lycoperdaceae. The shapes of the spores were globose, echinulate, $3{\sim}3.5{\mu}m$ in diameter, thick-walled, and olive brown. Capillitial threads were $8-9{\mu}m$ wide, mostly colorless in KOH solution and thin-walled, which designated as "paracapillitium". This is an another character that distinguishes this mushroom from Lycoperdon spp. The spines developed on exoperidium were characteristically connivent; their apices joined together in a point, leaving a space below, which gives the appearance of vault to each group of usually 5 to 6 fibrillae. Based on the above characters, this fungus is identified as Vascellum curtisii (Berkeley). The characters distinguishable this from Lycoperdon pulcherrimum, and Vascellum pretense are discussed in detail. Control trial was also attempted. Strong vertical raking(SVR) followed by applying 500x detergent solution (Spark, Aekyung Co. Seoul) resulted in excellent control over any other treatments. In this plot, fruiting body was not developed throughout the end of mushroom growing season.

Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Over Northeast Asia During 2001 from MODIS and TOMS data (MODIS와 TOMS자료를 이용한 2001년 동북아시아 지역의 대기 에어로졸 모니터링)

  • 이권호;홍천상;김영준
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2004
  • The spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Northeast Asia regions have special importance in the aerosol research for estimation of aerosol radiative forcing parameters and climate change. Aerosol optical and physical properties (AOD and ${\AA}$ngstrom parameter) have been investigated by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) to estimate aerosol characteristics over the study region during 2001. Additionally, aerosol characteristics over the Korean peninsular during Aerosol Characteristic Experiment in Asia (ACE-Asia) Intensive Observation Period (IOP) have been investigated by using satellite observations. The results showed that the daily-observed aerosol data indicate seasonal variations with relatively higher aerosol loading in the spring and very low during the winter. The typical Asian dust case showed higher AOD (>0.7) with lower Angstrom exponent (<0.5) and higher AI (>0.5) that is mainly due to the composition of coarse particles in the springtime. Mean AOD for 2001 at 4 different places showed 0.65$\pm$0.37 at Beijing, 0.31$\pm$0.19 at Gosan, 0.54$\pm$0.26 at Seoul, and 0.38$\pm$0.19 at Kwangju, respectively. An interesting result was found in the present study that polluted aerosol events with small size dominated-aerosol loading around the Korean peninsular are sometimes observed. The origin of these polluted aerosols was thought to East China. Aerosol distribution from satellite images and trajectory results shows the proof of aerosol transport. Therefore, aerosol monitoring using satellite data is very useful.

Study on the Effect of Long-range Transport of Fine Particles at a Gwangju Area in spring of 2016 (광주지역 미세먼지의 장거리이동 영향 연구 - 2016년 봄철 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Cheol-Soo;Jung, Sun-A;Jo, Mi-Ra;Lee, Sang-Bo;Kim, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.373-385
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    • 2017
  • In order to analyze the effect of each component such as fine particles, ion, carbon, and metals on the air quality of Gwangju area due to long-range transport, the change of concentration characteristics was hourly measured in Gwangju Metropolitan City from March to May and air flow cluster analysis using backward trajectory was performed on high PM episodes. Regression analysis between OC and EC concentration showed that OC and EC were emitted by different pollutants. The ratio of OC / EC was $4.5{\pm}3.1$, indicating that the contribution of second OC was high in Gwangju area. As a result of examining the influent communities in four areas, it was found that 53% of the total samples were introduced into the Gwangju area from Shandong province and Shanghai area in the eastern part of China. Overall, the air flow cluster analysis results showed that the concentration of primary pollutants emitted locally and the increase of secondary pollutants introduced from the outside through the atmospheric conversion process during long-range transport of the air mass combined with the concentration of $PM_{2.5}$. The analysis of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ and the major components of $PM_{2.5}$ in the Gwangju area in spring will be useful for basic research on fine particles and Asian dust effect research.

Characteristics of Particulate Carbon in the Ambient Air in the Korean Peninsula (한반도 권역별 대기 중 입자상 탄소 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Yeong-jae;Park, Mi-kyung;Jung, Sun-a;Kim, Sun-jung;Jo, Mi-ra;Song, In-ho;Lyu, Young-sook;Lim, Yong-jae;Kim, Jung-hoon;Jung, Hae-jin;Lee, Sang-uk;Choi, Won-Jun;Ahn, Joon-young;Lee, Min-hee;Kang, Hyun-jung;Park, Seung-myeong;Seo, Seok-jun;Jung, Dong-hee;Hyun, Joo-kyeong;Park, Jong-sung;Hwang, Tae-kyung;Hong, You-deog;Hong, Ji-hyung;Shin, Hye-jung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.330-344
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    • 2015
  • Semi-continuous measurements of $PM_{2.5}$ mass, organic and elemental carbon were made for the period of January to October 2014, at six national air monitoring stations in Korea. OC and EC concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation with the highest in winter (January) and the lowest in summer (August). In winter, the high carbonaceous concentrations were likely influenced by increased fuel combustion from residential heating. OC and EC concentrations varied by monitoring stations with 5.9 and $1.7{\mu}g/m^3$ in Joongbu area, 4.2 and $1.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in Honam area, 4.0 and $1.3{\mu}g/m^3$ in Yeongnam area, 3.7 and $1.6{\mu}g/m^3$ in Seoul Metropolitan area, 3.0 and $0.8{\mu}g/m^3$ in Jeju Island, 2.9 and $0.7{\mu}g/m^3$ in Baengnyeong Island respectively. The concentrations of OC and EC comprised 9.6~ 15.5% and 2.4~ 4.7% of $PM_{2.5}$. Urban Joongbu area located adjacent to the intersection of several main roads showed the highest carbon concentration among six national air monitoring station. On the other hand, background Baengnyeong Island showed the lowest carbon concentration and the highest OC/EC ratio (4.5). During the haze episode, OC and EC were enhanced with increase in $PM_{2.5}$ about 1.3~ 3 and 1.3~ 4.0 times respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC in the Asian dust case are about 1~ 2.4 times greater than in the nondust case. The origins of air mass pathways arriving at Seoul, using the backward trajectory analysis, can be mostly classified into 6 groups (Sector I Northern Korea including the sea of Okhotsk, Sector II Northern China including Mongolia, Sector III Southern China, Sector IV South Pacific area, Sector V Japan, Sector VI Southern Korea area). When an air mass originating from northern China and Mongolia, the OC concentrations were the most elevated, with a higher OC/EC ratio (2.4~ 3.3), and accounting for 17% of $PM_{2.5}$ mass on average.