• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian dust

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Source Identification for Asian Dust Deposited on Domestic Area Using Sr-Nd Isotope Ratios in Spring, 2007 (Sr-Nd 동위원소를 이용한 국내 퇴적황사의 발원지 규명: 2007년 봄철 황사)

  • Youm, Seung-Jun;Lee, Pyeong-Koo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.315-326
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    • 2008
  • Recently, the occurrence and intensity of Asian Dust have dramatically increased in Korean peninsula, resulting in severe damages to the domestic social and economic field. The most useful way to prevent the damage of Asian Dust is the restraint of the occurrence of Asian Dust itself. However, Asian dust is the one of the natural phenomena, thus there is a basic limit to manage the Asian Dust. Though it is impossible to restrain the occurrence of Asian Dust in short time at present, it is a urgent matter to minimize the damage of Asian Dust. It is necessary to construct the basic data for understanding the harmfulness of Asian Dust, and to elucidate the source area of Asian Dust in connection with the maleficence of itself. In this study, the source area of Asian Dust in spring, 2007, is investigated using the Sr-Nd isotopic ratios which is the most common method to trace the source of geological materials. The relationships of Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that Asian Dust was originated from Central Loess Plateau and/or Ordos desert in spring, 2007.

Comparison of ADAM's (Asian Dust Aerosol Model) Results with Observed PM10 Data (황사농도 단기예측모델의 PM10 농도와 실측 PM10 농도의 비교 - 2006년 4월 7~9일 황사 현상에 대해 -)

  • Cho, Changbum;Chun, Youngsin;Ku, Bonyang;Park, Soon-Ung;Lee, Sang-Sam;Chung, Yun-Ang
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 2007
  • Simulation results of Asian Dust Aerosol Model (ADAM) for the period of April 7-9, 2006 were analyzed, comparing with observed PM10 data. ADAM simulated around ten times lower than on-site PM10 concentration in the source regions: Zhurihe, Tongliao, Yushe, Dalian and Huimin. As the result of this low concentration, transported amounts of Asian Dust were under-estimated as well. In order to quantify a forecasting accuracy, Bias and RMSE were calculated. Even though remarkably negative Biases and high RMSEs were observed, ADAM simulation had followed well up the time of dust outbreak and a transported path. However, the emission process to generate dust from source regions requires a great enhancement. The PM10 concentration at the surface reached up to $2,300{\mu}gm^{-3}$ at Baeknyoungdo and Seoul (Mt. Gwanak), up to $1,750{\mu}gm^{-3}$ at KGAWO about 18:00 LST in April 8, respectively; however, ADAM did not simulate the same result on its second peak. It is considered that traveling Asian dust might have been lagged over the Korean peninsula by the blocking of surface high pressure. Moreover, the current RDAPS's 30 km grid resolution (which ADAM adopts as the meteorological input data) might not adequately represent small-scale atmospheric motions below planetary boundary layer.

Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties of an Asian Dust and Haze Episodes Observed at Seoul in 2010 (2010년 서울에서 관측한 황사와 연무사례의 물리, 화학, 광학적 특성비교)

  • Song, Seungjoo;Kim, Jeong Eun;Lim, Eunha;Cha, Joo-Wan;Kim, Jhoon
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated physicochemical and optical characteristics for three episodes of Asian dust, stagnant haze and long-range transport haze and for one clean day. $PM_{10}$ mass concentration during Asian dust and two haze days was increased by 2~9 times compared to that of clean episode. During Asian dust episode, coarse particle concentration was increased and the mass concentration of calcium in a coarse mode ($1.8{\sim}10{\mu}m$) was $5.4{\mu}g/m^3$ which was 7 times higher than that of clean episode. The calcium was presented as a form of $CaCO_3$ in a coarse mode. During the two haze episodes, fine particle (< $1.8{\mu}m$) concentration was increased and secondary inorganic pollutants such as sulfate, ammonium and nitrate composed of 90% of the total ions. $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$ were dominant in a fine mode for stagnant haze episode. But they were the most dominant form in both fine mode and coarse mode for long-range transport haze episode. According to the optical properties for each episode (Asian dust, stagnant haze and long-range transport haze) were classified as dust, black carbon and mixture, respectively.

Retrieval of Dust Backscatter Coefficient using Quartz Raman Channel in Lidar Measurements (석영 라만 채널을 이용한 황사 후방 산란 계수 산출)

  • Noh, Young-Min;Mueller, Detlef;Lee, Han-Lim
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2012
  • We present a retrieval method to obtain dust backscatter coefficient from the mixed Asian dust and pollutant layer. In the present study, vertically resolved quartz (silicon dioxide, silica) concentration was calculated using Raman scattering signals from quartz at 546 nm. Dust concentration was obtained based on typical mass percentage of quartz in Asian dust. The highest value of dust concentration at 3.7 km in March 21, 2010 was 22.3 and 10.9 ${\mu}gm^{-3}$ according to the quartz percentage in Asian dust as 65 and 30% based on literature survey, respectively. OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds) simulations were conducted to calculate dust backscatter coefficient. The retrieved dust concentration was used as an input parameter for the OPAC calculations. Utilization of quartz Raman channel in Lidar measurements is considered useful for distinguishing optical properties of dust and nondust aerosol in the mixing state of Asian dust.

Performance Analysis of Simulation of Asian Dust Observed in 2010 by the all-Season Dust Forecasting Model, UM-ADAM2 (사계절 황사단기예측모델 UM-ADAM2의 2010년 황사 예측성능 분석)

  • Lee, Eun-Hee;Kim, Seungbum;Ha, Jong-Chul;Chun, Youngsin
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.245-257
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    • 2012
  • The Asian dust (Hwangsa) forecasting model, Asian Dust Aerosol Model (ADAM) has been modified by using satelliate monitoring of surface vegetation, which enables to simulate dusts occuring not only in springtime but also for all-year-round period. Coupled with the Unified Model (UM), the operational weather forecasting model at KMA, UM-ADAM2 was implemented for operational dust forecasting since 2010, with an aid of development of Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) for usage UM. The performance analysis of the ADAM2 forecast was conducted with $PM_{10}$ concentrations observed at monitoring sites in the source regions in China and the downstream regions of Korea from March to December in 2010. It was found that the UM-ADAM2 model was able to simulate quite well Hwangsa events observed in spring and wintertime over Korea. In the downstream region of Korea, the starting and ending times of dust events were well-simulated, although the surface $PM_{10}$ concentration was slightly underestimated for some dust events. The general negative bias less than $35{\mu}g\;m^{3}$ in $PM_{10}$ is found and it is likely to be due to other fine aerosol species which is not considered in ADAM2. It is found that the correlation between observed and forecasted $PM_{10}$ concentration increases as forecasting time approaches, showing stably high correlation about 0.7 within 36 hr in forecasting time. This suggests the possibility that there is potential for the UM-ADAM2 model to be used as an operational Asian dust forecast model.

Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination by PM10 Inflow Pathways while Asian Dust in Gwangju (광주지역 황사시 미세먼지 유입경로별 중금속 오염도 평가)

  • Yang, Yoon-Cheol;Lee, Se-Haeng;Park, Byoung-Hoon;Jo, Gwang-Un;Yoon, Sang-Hoon;Park, Ji-Young;Jang, Dong;Chong, Ji-hyo;Bae, Seok-Jin;Jeong, Suk-Kyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of fine dust PM10 and heavy metals in PM10 in Asian dust flowing into Gwangju from 2013 to 2018. The migration pathways of Asian dust was analyzed by backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model, and the change of heavy metal concentration and heavy metal content per 1 ㎍/㎥ of fine dust PM10 in Gwangju area were analyzed. Also, the characteristics of the heavy metals were analyzed using the correlation between the heavy metals in PM10. As a result of analyzing Asian dust entering the Gwangju region for 6 years, the average concentration of PM10 measured in Asian dust was 148 ㎍/㎥, which was about 4.5 times higher than in non-Asian dust, 33 ㎍/㎥. A total of 13 Asian dust flowed into the Gwangju during 6 years, and high concentration of PM10 and heavy metals in that were analyzed in the C path flowing through the Gobi/Loess Plateau-Korean Peninsula. As a result of the correlation analysis, in case of Asian dust, there was a high correlation between soil components in heavy metals, so Asian dust seems to have a large external inflow. On the other hand, in case of non-Asian dust, the correlation between find dust PM10 and artificial heavy metal components was high, indicating that the influence of industrial activities in Gwangju area was high.

The Health Effects of Asian Dust in Korea

  • Kwon Ho-Jang
    • 대한예방의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 2004
  • o The risk of being admitted with respiratory disease is increased by 9% on the Asian dust day o The risk of cardiovascular admission is increased by 5% o During the great dust event in 2002, the counts of respiratory admission seems to be increased, but we couldn't observed the epidemic of respiratory disease o The Asian dust events are weakly associated with daily mortality

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Asian Dust Transport during Blocking Episode Days over Korea

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Kim, berly-Strong;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Lim, Yun-Kyu;Oh, In-Bo;Song, Sang-Keun;Bae, Joo-Hyon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2002
  • Asian dust(or yellow sand) occurs mainly in spring and occasionally in winter in east Asia, when the weather conditions are under an upper trough/cut-off low and surface high/low pressure system during blocking episode days associated with the stationary patterns of the upper level jet stream. The transport mechanism for Asian dust during the blocking episode days in spring 2001 was analyzed using the TOMS aerosol index and meteorological mesoscale model 5(MM5). Based on the E vector, an extension of an Eliassen-Palm flux, the blocking episode days were found to be associated with the development of an upper cut-off low and surface cyclones. Concurrently, the occurrence of dust storms was also determined by strong cold advection at the rear of a jet streak, which exhibited a maximum wind speed within the upper jet stream. As such, the transport mechanism for Asian dust from China was due to advection of the isentropic potential vorticity(IPV) and isentropic surfaces associated with tropopause folding. The transport heights for Asian dust during the blocking episode days were found to be associated with the distribution of the isentropes below the IPV At the same time, lee waves propagated by topography affected the downward motion and blocking of Asian dust in China. The Asian dust transported from the dust source regions was deposited by fallout and rain-out with a reinforcing frontogenesis within a surface cyclone, as determined from satellite images using TOMS and GMS5. Accordingly, these results emphasize the importance of forecasting jet streaks, the IPV, and isentropes with geopotential heights in east Asia.

Three Dimensional Monitoring of the Asian Dust by the COMS/GOCI and CALIPSO Satellites Observation Data (천리안 위성 해양탑재체와 위성탑재 라이다 관측자료를 이용한 황사 에어러솔의 3차원 모니터링)

  • Lee, Kwon-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2013
  • Detailed 3 dimensional structure of Asian dust plume has been analyzed from the retrieved aerosol data from two different satellites which are the Korea's $1^{st}$ geostationary satellite, namely the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite (COMS) spacecraft launched in 2010, and the NASA's Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). COMS spacecraft provides the first time resolved aerial aerosol maps by the systematically well-calibrated multispectral measurements from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) instrument. GOCI data are used here to evaluate intensity, spatial distribution, and long-range transport of Asian dust plume during 1~2 May 2011. We found that the strong Asian dust plume showing AOT of 2~5 was lofted to the altitude around 2~4 km above the Earth's surface and transported over Yellow Sea with a speed of about 25 km/hr. The CALIPSO extinction coefficient and particulate depolarization ratio (PDR) profiles confirmed that nonspherical dust particles were enriched in the dust plume. This study is a first example of quantitative integration of GOCI and CALIOP measurements for clarifying the overall structure of an Asian dust event.

Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 in Busan (부산지역 PM10과 PM2.5 중의 금속 농도와 이온농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il;Hwang, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.819-827
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzes the chemical composition of metallic elements and water-soluble ions in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$. $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in Busan during 2010-2012 were $97.2{\pm}67.5$ and $67.5{\pm}32.8{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, and the mean $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ concentration ratio was 0.73. The contribution rate of water-soluble ions to $PM_{10}$ ranged from 29.0% to 58.6%(a mean of 38.6%) and that to $PM_{2.5}$ ranged from 33.9% to 58.4%(a mean of 43.1%). The contribution rate of sea salt to $PM_{10}$ was 13.9% for 2011 and 9.7% for 2012, while that to $PM_{2.5}$ was 17.4% for 2011 and 10.1% for 2012. $PM_{10}$ concentration during Asian dust events was $334.3{\mu}g/m^3$ and $113.3{\mu}g/m^3$ during non-Asian dust events, and the $PM_{10}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 2.95. On the other hand, the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in Asian dust was $157.4{\mu}g/m^3$ and $83.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in Non Asian dust, and the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 1.89, which was lower than that of $PM_{10}$.