• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian dust

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The Aerosol Characteristics in Coexistence of Asian Dust and Haze during 15~17 March, 2009 in Seoul (짙은 황사와 연무가 공존한 대기의 에어러솔 특성 - 2009년 3월 15~17일 -)

  • Lee, Hae-Young;Kim, Seung-Bum;Kim, Su-Min;Song, Seung-Joo;Chun, Young-Sin
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.168-180
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    • 2011
  • The variation of the physicochemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in coexistence of the heavy Asian Dust and Haze observed from $15^{th}$ to $17^{th}$ March 2009 in Seoul was scrutinized through the mass and ion concentration observations and synoptic weather analysis. Although the ratio of PM1.0/PM10 was constant at 0.3 (which is typical during Asian Dust period in Korea) during the measurement period, both PM10 and PM1.0 mass concentrations were 3~6 times and 2~4 times higher than that of clear days, respectively. Water-soluble ion components accounted for 30~50% of PM10 and 50~70% of PM1.0 mass concentration. One of the secondary pollutants, $NO_3^-$ was found to be associated with $Ca^{2+}$ and $Na^+$ in coarse mode indicating that the aerosol derived from natural source was affected by anthropogenic pollutants. While the acidity of the aerosols increased in fine mode when the stagnation of weather patterns was the strongest (March $16^{th}$), the alkalinity increased in coarse mode when new air masses arrived with a southwestern wind after ending a period of stagnation (March $17^{th}$). In the selected case, SOR (Sulfur Oxidation Ratio, $nSO_4^{2-}/[nSO_4^{2-}+nSO_2]$) and NOR (Nitrogen Oxidation Ratio, $nNO_3^-/[nNO_3^-+nNO_2]$) values of ion components were higher than the general values during Asian Dust period. These results imply that dust aerosols could be mixed with pollutants transported from China even in heavy Asian Dust cases in Korea.

Comparison of Chemical Compositions of Size-segregated Atmospheric Aerosols between Asian Dust and Non-Asian Dust Periods at Background Area of Korea

  • Kim, Won-Hyung;Song, Jung-Min;Ko, Hee-Jung;Kim, Jin Seog;Lee, Joung Hae;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.3651-3656
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    • 2012
  • The size-segregated atmospheric aerosols have been collected at 1100 m site of Mt. Halla in Jeju, a background area in Korea, using 8-stage cascade impact air sampler during Asian dust and non-Asian dust storm periods. Their ionic and elemental species were analyzed, in order to examine the pollution characteristics and composition change between Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods. The major ionic species such as nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NH_4{^+}$, and $K^+$ were predominantly distributed in the fine particles (below $2.1{\mu}m$ diameter), and besides the $NO_3{^-}$ was distributed more in coarse particle fraction than fine particle. On the other hand, the typical soil and marine species i.e., nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $Na^+$, $Cl^-$, and $Mg^{2+}$, were mostly existed in the coarse particles (over $2.1{\mu}m$ diameter). As well in the elemental analysis of aerosols, the major soil-originated Al, Fe, Ca, and others showed prominently high concentrations in the coarse particle fraction, whereas the anthropogenic S and Pb were relatively high in the fine particle fraction. From the comparison of aerosol compositions between Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods, the concentrations of the soil-originated species such as nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Ba, Sr have increased as 2.7-4.2 times during the Asian dust periods. Meanwhile the concentrations of nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ have increased as 1.4 and 2.0 times, and on the contrary $NH_4{^+}$ concentrations have a little bit decreased during the Asian dust periods. Especially the concentrations of both soil-originated ionic and elemental species increased noticeably in the coarse particle mode during the dust storm periods.

Numerical Study on the Change of PM10 Profile by Asian dust

  • Cho, Chang-Bum;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Lee, Yong-Seob;Bang, So-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.533-539
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    • 2007
  • The research was conducted to simulate and interpret the change of $PM_{10}$ profile by Asian dust using the CALPUFF modeling system for the period April 6 through 18, 2001. The results, which are represented a daily variation of $PM_{10}$ concentration before and after Asian dust, was located between a minimum concentration of $50{\mu}g/m^3$ and a maximum concentration of $100{\mu}g/m^3$, Most concentration peaks in the $PM_{10}$ profile were shown within a level below 500 m and had a pattern that rapidly increased up the peak and decreased after the peak to 1000 m. Even though the shapes of the vertical profile during Asian dust days were similar to non-Asian dust days, no rapid change vertically was observed. In particular, the vertical profile on 1200 LST and 1800 LST was noticeably shifted to the higher concentrations, which means $PM_{10}$ in the atmosphere was changed into a vertically and horizontally heterogeneous form under the Asian dust event. Finally, it is con-firmed that the simulation result from CALPUFF might schematically sketched atmospheric $PM_{10}$ profiles and their change by Asian dust throughout the comparison with profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients, which were acquired from Lidar measurement at KGAWO.

Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacteria Community and Diversity in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, during March 2016, Asian Dust Event (2016년 한국 경기도의 3월 황사기간 동안 부유세균 군집과 다양성에 대한 메타지노믹 분석)

  • Jang, Jun Hyeong;Kim, Ji Hye;Bae, Kyung-seon;Kim, Jeong Myeong;Lee, Won seok;Chung, Hyen-mi;Park, Sangjung;Seo, Taegun
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.491-498
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Bacterial abundance and community compositions have been examined in Asian dust events, clarifying their impacts on public health. This study aims to determine the bacterial community compositions and viable bacteria in Asian dust particles in the Asian dust or non-Asian dust event of March 2016. Methods: The dust samples were collected using the high volume air sampler or high volume cascade impactor, and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified using PCR, followed by pyrosequencing. Bacterial diversity index, richness estimate and community composition in the particles were analyzed from the sequencing data using Mothur software. Results: The results showed that the diversity and richness during Asian dust events were higher than them in non-Asian dust events. The total bacterial community analysis showed that at the phylum Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the most dominant of Asian dust events and non-Asian dust events. In addition, the bacterial colony counts were higher during Asian dust event, comparing with non-Asian dust event. Conclusions: This study showed that bacterial community and richness of Asian dust samples was more complex and higher than non-Asian dust samples in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, which could affect public health and environment. Thus, the continuous monitoring of Asian dust could be an alternative for managing airborne bacteria.

The Study on Occurrence of Asian Dust and Their Controlling Factors in Korea (한국의 황사 출현에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sun-Young;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.675-690
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    • 2009
  • This paper aims to analyze number of Asian dust days and their controlling factors in Korea. Asian dust days, Arctic oscillation index, Antarctic oscillation index and Eurasian snow cover data were used in this study. The number of Asian dust days was increasing after the middle 1980s. The number of Asian dust days was concentrated in April. The number of Asian dust days was increased second half (5.1 days) than first half (3.2 days) of the study period. The number of Asian dust days had positive relationship with winter Arctic oscillation index and Antarctic oscillation index. When the Arctic oscillation index and Antarctic oscillation index is positive, the Asian dust days will be increased. The number of Asian dust days had negative relationship with the Eurasian snow cover. When the Eurasian snow cover will be decreased, the Asian dust days will be increased.

A Retrieval of Vertically-Resolved Asian Dust Concentration from Quartz Channel Measurements of Raman Lidar (라만 라이다의 석영 채널을 이용한 고도별 황사 농도 산출)

  • Noh, Young-Min;Lee, Kwon-Ho;Lee, Han-Lim
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.326-336
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    • 2011
  • The Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) observation provides a specific knowledge of the temporal and vertical distribution and the optical properties of the aerosols. Unlike typical Mie scattering Lidars, which can measure backscattering and depolarization, the Raman Lidar can measure the quartz signal at the ultra violet (360 nm) and the visible (546 nm) wavelengths. In this work, we developed a method for estimating mineral quartz concentration immersed in Asian dust using Raman scattering of quartz (silicon dioxide, silica). During the Asian dust period of March 15, 16, and 21 in 2010, Raman lidar measurements detected the presence of quartz, and successfully showed the vertical profile of the dust concentrations. The satellite observations such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) confirmed spatial distribution of Asian dust. This approach will be useful for characterizing the quartz dominated in the atmospheric aerosols and the investigations of mineral dust. It will be especially applicable for distinguishing the dust and non-dust aerosols in studies on the mixing state of Asian aerosols. Additionally, the presented method combined with satellite observations is enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring for Asian dust.

A study on GEO satellite signals in L - to Ka-band affected by Asian Sand Dust

  • Hong Wan-Pyo
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 2005
  • This paper represents an attempt to bring together and analyses the measurement data measured by the Satellite Signal Monitoring Center in Korea and the Korea Meteorological Administration/Korea Meteorological Research Institute in close cooperation with this study team. This paper presents the signal characteristic of GEO satellite operating in frequency range 1 to 20GHz associated with Asian Sand Dust (the so-called Yellow Sand Dust). The downlink signal power (dBm) for L-, S-, C-, Ku-, and Ka-band frequencies from GEO satellites were measured in a clear weather and in Asian Sand Dust weather by the Satellite Signal Monitoring Center. The measured signal power(dBm) were compared to the total number concentration and size distribution of Sand Dust that were measured by the Korea Meteorological Administration/Korea Meteorological Research Institute and the possible correlation between these sets data were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the downlink signal level (dBm) of GEO satellite is attenuated by Asian Sand Dust. Hitherto, merger information has been reported as to the influence of sand dust on satellite communications operating in regions affected by sand dust.

Variations of Airborne Fungal Spore Composition due to the Asian Dust Trajectories (황사 이동 경로에 따른 대기 부유 곰팡이 포자의 변화)

  • 김종호;여환구
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2004
  • Asian Dust samples were collected in the ambient air of Seosan, Western Korea, in spring of 2000∼2002. PM (Particulate Matter) concentrations were 199,8$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ in the first Asian Dust period (March, 23∼24) and 249.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ in the second period (April, 7∼9) of 2000. Compared with the concentrations in 2000, relatively low PM concentrations, 157.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ were measured in the periods of 2001 (April, 24∼26). Especially high PM concentration 953.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ were measured in the periods of 2002 (March, 21∼22). The variation in the PM concentration was observed according to the time for the formation of Asian dust. Considering the particle size distributions of Asian dust, a high concentration was also observed in coarse particle region. The results of backward trajectory model showed the route of the dust storms from northern area of Mongol and Gobi desert. Various mycelia grown from fungal spores were observed on the PM samples and identified at the genus level. All the genera from the three years (2000∼2002), Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Basipetospora, Epicoccum and Monotospora are hyphomycetes in the division Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycota). Fungal composition on the dust sample in March, 2000 was similar to the result of March, 2002. However, the result of April, 2001 was obviously different from the other dust periods. The variations of fungal compositions between the dust periods could be caused by the trajectories of the dust storms.

Forecast Sensitivity Analysis of An Asian Dust Event occurred on 6-8 May 2007 in Korea (2007년 5월 6-8일 황사 현상의 예측 민감도 분석)

  • Kim, Hyun Mee;Kay, Jun Kyung
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.399-414
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    • 2010
  • Sand and dust storm in East Asia, so called Asian dust, is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon. Mostly in spring, dust particles blown into atmosphere in the arid area over northern China desert and Manchuria are transported to East Asia by prevailing flows. An Asian dust event occurred on 6-8 May 2007 is chosen to investigate how sensitive the Asian dust transport forecast to the initial condition uncertainties and to interpret the characteristics of sensitivity structures from the viewpoint of dynamics and predictability. To investigate the forecast sensitivities to the initial condition, adjoint sensitivities that calculate gradient of the forecast aspect (i.e., response function) with respect to the initial condition are used. The forecast aspects relevant to Asian dust transports are dry energy forecast error and lower tropospheric pressure forecast error. The results show that the sensitive regions for the dry energy forecast error and the lower tropospheric pressure forecast error are initially located in the vicinity of the trough and then propagate eastward as the surface low system moves eastward. The vertical structures of the adjoint sensitivities for the dry energy forecast error are upshear tilted structures, which are typical adjoint sensitivity structures for extratropical cyclones. Energy distribution of singular vectors also show very similar structures with the adjoint sensitivities for the dry energy forecast error. The adjoint sensitivities of the lower tropospheric pressure forecast error with respect to the relative vorticity show that the accurate forecast of the trough (or relative vorticity) location and intensity is essential to have better forecasts of the Asian dust event. Forecast error for the atmospheric circulation during the dust event is reduced 62.8% by extracting properly weighted adjoint sensitivity perturbations from the initial state. Linearity assumption holds generally well for this case. Dynamics of the Asian dust transport is closely associated with predictability of it, and the improvement in the overall forecast by the adjoint sensitivity perturbations implies that adjoint sensitivities would be beneficial in improving the forecast of Asian dust events.

The Characteristics of Asian Dust and Comprehensive Countermeasure (황사의 발생전망과 종합대책)

  • Kim, Yong-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2008
  • Asian Dust is a seasonal phenomenon which affects much of East Asia mostly in spring. The dust and sand storm originate in the deserts of Mongolia. northern China, and Kazakhstan. Asian Dust is carried eastward by prevailing winds, and pass over China, the Korean Peninsula. and Japan. In recent years, Republic of Korea, China, and Japan have participated in projects associated with implementation of observation network and reforestation in the source region. The information of Asian Dust can be exchanged in real time among the east Asian countries through the international co-operation.

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