• Title, Summary, Keyword: Asian biodiversity

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Core Habitat Zonation for Selected Endangered Species using Remote Sensing and GIS

  • Khant, Aung Pyeh;Tripathi, Nitin K.
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.15-17
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    • 2003
  • One of the most serious problems that the world is facing is the loss of biodiversity and habitats as a result of environmental degradation. There are several strategies to protect the habitats and biodiversity within a certain region such as establishing protected areas; monitoring the remaining forests and managing the landscape within limits have been employed. In this study, Predicted Habitat Distribution Model (simple spatial modeling) was developed using vegetation types, land use and land cover, DEM, slope, drainage, roads, human settlement areas and minimum habitat requirements of each species. Then, based on the checklist of presence and absence of each species, the final habitat maps for selected endangered species are generated. Integration of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) has proven a very effective tool to generate wildlife habitat maps at various levels. An effecting mapping could be performed based on satellite remote sensing and modeling biodiversity indicators in GIS.

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Biodiversity and Conservation of Indian Sheep Genetic Resources - An Overview -

  • Bhatia, S.;Arora, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1387-1402
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    • 2005
  • Indian subcontinent is a rich source of diverse ovine germplasm, and only very few countries have such a large number of breeds with wide genetic diversity. This vast ovine biodiversity in India is being eroded rapidly and more than 50% of sheep breeds are currently under threat. It is noteworthy that the characterization of Indian sheep breeds was last done in the first half of the century since then no recent estimates are available and surveys in majority of the regions/breeds are far from complete. Starting in 1985 National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal, India, therefore, initiated activities aimed at determining the status and compiling information on indigenous farm animals including sheep. This report represents attempts made to date on the basis of field/literature surveys and additional activities on molecular characterization to ascertain their status including distribution, population changes, breed diversities and risk status. The need, mode and mechanisms of conservation are also described. Involvement of several agencies for evaluation, improvement, conservation programmes and recommendations made for effective characterization and conservation of sheep biodiversity are highlighted. This publication would promote action particularly at national level to improve the information base on domestic Indian breeds of sheep and provide input into national domestic sheep diversity conservation policy decisions.

Reports of Drawida (Oligochaeta: Moniligastridae) from far East Asia

  • Blakemore, Robert J.;Lee, Seunghan;Seo, Hong-Yul
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.127-166
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    • 2014
  • Moniligastrids are an important yet often ignored earthworm group commonly found in cultivated soils, especially paddy, in the tropical East. Seven new taxa are: Drawida koreana austri, D. koreana nanjiro, D. koreana shindo, D. odaesan, D. jeombongsan, D. companio and D. csuzdii Blakemore spp. or sub-spp. nov. from Korea. Drawida csuzdii is the first new species from North Korea since Lumbricidae Eisenia koreana (Zicsi, 1972). Historical East Asian moniligastrids are reviewed chronologically and Drawida barwelli (Beddard, 1886), D. japonica (Michaelsen, 1892) and D. siemsseni Michaelsen, 1910 are compared on their museum types. These three taxa were thought similar and related to D. nepalensis Michaelsen, 1907 and its possible synonym D. burchardi Michaelsen, 1903 (priority!) and both of these to prior D. uniqua (Bourne, 1887). Indian Drawida calebi Gates, 1945 is compared to new material of D. japonica from Japan, and D. willsi Michaelsen, 1907 to the new sub-species of D. koreana Kobayashi, 1938 from Korea. Where available, mtDNA COI gene barcodes are provided to help objective determinations and a phylogram is provided with outgroup Ocnerodrilidae Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895) itself found in rice paddy/irrigation. The challenge now is comparison of all early taxa in their various homelands in order to assess the genetic variability and taxonomic boundaries acceptable, especially for unpigmented D. barwelli and also for pink/grey D. japonica and blue/grey D. koreana. A checklist of moniligastrids is appended showing 22 species from China (including Hainan and Taiwan), 21 from Korea, nine from Japan and the Drawida ghilarovi Gates, 1969 species-complex from far eastern Russian (Siberia). Recent Drawida dandongensis Zhang & Sun, 2014 from Sino-Korean border is misdescribed and cannot be meaningfully compared to any other Drawidas.

Oil supplementation improved growth and diet digestibility in goats and sheep fed fattening diet

  • Candyrine, Su Chui Len;Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh;Ebrahimi, Mahdi;Chen, Wei Li;Rezaei, Siamak;Goh, Yong Meng;Abdullah, Norhani;Liang, Juan Boo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.533-540
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study evaluated the growth, digestibility and rumen fermentation between goats and sheep fed a fattening diet fortified with linseed oil. Methods: Twelve 3 to 4 months old male goats and sheep were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups in a $2(species){\times}2$ (oil levels) factorial experiment. The treatments were: i) goats fed basal diet, ii) goats fed oil-supplemented diet, iii) sheep fed basal diet, and iv) sheep fed oil-supplemented diet. Each treatment group consisted of six animals. Animals in the basal diet group were fed with 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrates at a rate equivalent to 4% of their body weight. For the oil treatment group, linseed oil was added at 4% level (w:w) to the concentrate portion of the basal diet. Growth performance of the animals was determined fortnightly. Digestibility study was conducted during the final week of the feeding trial before the animals were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid for rumen fermentation characteristics study. Results: Sheep had higher (p<0.01) average daily weight gain (ADG) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than goats. Oil supplementation did not affect rumen fermentation in both species and improved ADG by about 29% and FCR by about 18% in both goats and sheep. The above enhancement is consistent with the higher dry matter and energy digestibility (p<0.05), as well as organic matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p<0.01) in animals fed oil- supplemented diet. Sheep had higher total volatile fatty acid production and acetic acid proportion compared to goat. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that sheep performed better than goats when fed a fattening diet and oil supplementation at the inclusion rate of 4% provides a viable option to significantly enhance growth performance and FCR in fattening sheep and goats.

Use of Water Buffalo for Environmental Conservation of Waterland - Review -

  • Georgoudis, A.G.;Papanastasis, V.P.;Boyazoglu, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1324-1331
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    • 1999
  • The aim of this paper is to propose the preservation of buffaloes not only as productive livestock, but also as a part of the biodiversity of wetlands and especially of the Greek wetlands. The water buffalo used to be an integral part of the biodiversity of many Greek wetland ecosystems, enriched their landscape, and provided invaluable services and products to the rural people and to the economy in general. Its total population before the 1950s was over 100,000 animals. Presently, it is found only in four wetland sites in Macedonia and Thrace and in the estuaries of Rivers Gallikos and Axios, with a total population of a few hundred animals. These wetlands are Ramsar Sites. Even this small population is threatened with immediate extinction because of the rapidly changing rural socio-economic conditions and the expansion of cultivated fields into wet meadows. Farmers and consumers are rapidly losing contact with this mammal and its products. This species possesses minimum requirements for treatment and is characterized by the ability of utilizing roughage of variable nutritional value. These factors are promising to render buffalo breeding a valuable branch of the Greek livestock sector, which can also contribute to the maintenance of the wetlands.

Biodiversity Conservation & World Natural Heritage in Bangladesh (방글라데시의 생물다양성 보전 및 세계자연유산)

  • Nayna, Omme Kulsum;Lee, Sang Don
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2017
  • Bangladesh is a South Asian country with subtropical monsoonal climate between the intersection of the Indo-Himalayan and Indo-Chinese sub-regions, is known as biodiversity hotspot of the Asian region. The country has different types of forest like deciduous forest, evergreen forest, mixed forest, haor (wetlands) and mangrove forest. The natural beauty of the country is increased with the presence of so many rivers, longest sea beach of the world, green plants, critical hilly regions and green agricultural forest widely spread here and there. Sundarbans is the world largest mangrove forest and world natural heritage site declared by UNESCO in 1999 situated in Bangladesh and India. About 62 percent of this mangrove forest is situated in Bangladesh and there are so many plants and animals are found in this forest. To meet the increasing demand of the large population most of the natural ecosystem is now altered, deforestation rate is increased, natural habitat of the species is disturbed. Due to the imbalance of the climate and natural system many of the rare species of the world found this region is now endangered and some of the species are extinct. Directly or indirectly they are benefited from natural resources. At present time community, based ecotourism is also an important source of income for rural poor peoples. To protect the natural resources the government is now developed so many conservation acts and policy as well NGOs are also doing work for the conservation of ecosystem and biodiversity. At present transboundary pollutants and so many natural disasters also destruct the natural resources of Bangladesh.

Two New Eisenia Species from South Korea Similar to E. koreana and Comparable to Eisenoides from USA (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

  • Blakemore, Robert J.;Park, Tae Seo
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2012
  • New Korean lumbricids are described: Eisenia gaga Blakemore sp. nov. from remote Gageodo Island and E. sindo Blakemore, sp. nov. from an island at Incheon. Both are comparable to Eisenia koreana (Zicsi, 1972) from near Pyongyang, North Korea. A remarkable yet previously unrecognized similarity to American earthworm Eisenoides carolinensis (Michaelsen, 1910) is discussed, but synonymy is rejected on tenuous morphological grounds (form of nephridial vesicle bladders) with taxonomy supported by objective molecular data (mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcodes).

Recent Advances in Biotechnology Applications to Aquaculture

  • Lakra, W.S.;Ayyappan, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2003
  • Biotechnological research and development are moving at a very fast rate. The subject has assumed greatest importance in recent years in the development of agriculture and human health. The science of biotechnology has endowed us with new tools and tremendous power to create novel genes and genotypes of plants, animals and fish. The application of biotechnology in the fisheries sector is a relatively recent practice. Nevertheless, it is a promising area to enhance fish production. The increased application of biotechnological tools can certainly revolutionise our fish farming besides its role in biodiversity conservation. The paper briefly reports the current progress and thrust areas in the use of synthetic hormones in fish breeding, production of monosex, uniparental and polyploid individuals, molecular biology and transgenesis, biotechnology in aquaculture nutrition and health management, gene banking and the marine natural products.

Snake Venom: A Potent Anticancer Agent

  • Jain, Deepika;Kumar, Sudhir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4855-4860
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    • 2012
  • Since cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and there is an urgent need to find better treatment. In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Currently, the use of chemotherapeutics remains the predominant option for clinical control. However, one of the major problems with successful cancer therapy using chemotherapeutics is that patients often do not respond or eventually develop resistance after initial treatment. This has led to the increased use of anticancer drugs developed from natural resources. The biodiversity of venoms and toxins makes them a unique source from which novel therapeutics may be developed. In this review, the anticancer potential of snake venom is discussed. Some of the included molecules are under clinical trial and may find application for anticancer drug development in the near future.

Drugs from Marine Sources: Modulation of TRAIL Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

  • Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad;Attar, Rukset;Gasparri, Maria Luisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.9045-9047
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    • 2014
  • There have been overwhelming advances in molecular oncology and data obtained through high-throughput technologies have started to shed light on wide ranging molecular mechanisms that underpin cancer progression. Increasingly it is being realized that marine micro-organisms and the biodiversity of plankton are rich sources of various anticancer compounds. Marine derived compounds play major roles in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. More importantly, various agents have been noted to enhance TRAIL induced apoptosis in cancer cells by functionalizing intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In this commentary, a list of marine derived compounds reported to induce apoptosis is discussed.