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Antagonistic Interaction between Quinclorac and Bensulfuron-methyl on Growth of the Rice Plants (Quinclorac과 Bensulfuron-methyl의 혼합처리(混合處理)에서 벼의 생장(生長)에 대한 제초제간(除草劑間) 길항작용(拮抗作用))

  • Kwon, Oh-Yeon;Kwon, Yong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.288-294
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    • 1997
  • Field and pot expeiments were carried out to evaluate the interaction between quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl on growth of the rice plants(Oryza sativa L. cv. Choocheongbyeo) at 20, 45, 65 days-old stages. Quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl showed antagonistic interaction at both stages, which were detected by the Chisaka's method at isobles of 10% growth inhibition. The antagonism indices were -0.63 and -1.67 at 20 and 65 days-old seedling stages, respectively. Leaf-rolling of rice occurred when quinclorac was applied at 600g ai/ha or more at 20 days-old seedling stage, while it occured at the dose of 900g ai/ha at 65 days-old stage. Bensulfuron-methyl reduced plant height and dry weight as well as tiller production at both stages. Leaf-rolling of rice was reduced when mixture of quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl was applied due to antagonism of the two herbicides. High temperatures increased the phytotoxicity of bensulfuron-methyl, while the phytotoxicity caused by quinclorac alone was not responsive to temperature. The antagonistic effect between quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl increased at low temperature as tested by the Colby's method.

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An Optimum Control Time of Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi in No - tillage Dry Seeded Rice (벼 무경운(無耕耘) 건답직파재배시(乾畓直播栽培時) 둑새풀 방제적기(防除適期) 구명(究明))

  • Hwang, C.D.;Park, S.T.;Kim, S.Y.;Lee, K.Y.;Kim, S.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 1997
  • A field experiment was conducted to determine an optimum control time of water foxtail(Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi), a most troublesome weed, in no-tillage dry seeded rice. Paraquat, a non-selective herbicide, was applied at 1.5 days interval from March 15 to May 15 at a concentration of 3,000ml per hectar and its control efficacy to A. aequalis was recorded before and after seed sowing. In addition. other characters such as decayed injury of A. aequalis to rice seedling, and its influence of seedling stand were also investigated in relation to rice grain yield. Dry weight of A. aequalis was rapidly increased with delay in control time from 42g/$m^2$at March 15 to 237g/$m^2$ at May 15. The amount of its regrowth at seeding time was highest with 68.3g, when paraquat was applied at March 15, then decreased thereafter and it was less than 6.2g when paraquat was applied after April 15 which indicates above 98% control rate. The control rate of A. aequalis, at 30 days after paraquat application way likewise similar to that the seeding time. Rice seedling stands in the plot treated with paraquat before April 15 were not affected by decayed injury of A. aequalis while decayed injury of 3 to 4 degree for those after April 30 application was noted. Dwarf virus disease on rice seedling due to occurrence of A. aequalis was not observed when A. aequalis was controled from March 30 to May 15 while it was occurred in the plot of March 15 application and the untreated control. The control plot of A. aequalis at April 15 had the highest grain yield with 4.79ton/10a. Based on control rate of A. aequalis, seedling stands of rice, virus disease, and rice grain yield, the most suitable control time of A. aequalis in no-tillage dry seeded rice is considered to be about April 15.

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Status and Prospect of Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Rice Field of Korea (한국 논에서 제초제 저항성잡초 발생 현황과 전망)

  • Park, Tae-Seon;Lee, In-Yong;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Park, Hong-Kyu;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Kang, Ui-Gum
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.119-133
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    • 2011
  • Sulfonylurea (SU)-resistant weeds include seven annual weeds such as Monochoria vaginalis, Scirpus juncoides and Cyperus difformis, etc., and three perennial weeds of Scirpus planiculmis, Sagittaria pigmaea and Eleocharis acicularis as of 2010 since identification Monochoria korsakowii in the reclaimed rice field in 1998. The Echinochloa oryzoides resistant to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors has been confirmed in wet-direct seeding rice field of the southern province, Korea in 2009. In the beginning of occurrence of SU-resistant weeds the M. vaginalis, S. juncoides and C. difformis were rapidly and individually spreaded in different fields, however, theses resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same filed as time goes by. The resistant biotype by weed species demonstrated about 10- to 1,000-fold resistance, base on $GR_{50}$ (50% growth reduction) values of the SU herbicides tested. And the resistant biotype of E. oryzoides to cyhalofop-butyl, pyriminobac-methyl, and penoxsulam was about 14, 8, and 11 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype base on $GR_{50}$ values. In history of paddy herbicides in Korea, the introduction of SU herbicides including besulfuron-metyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl that control many troublesome weeds at low use rates and provide excellent crop safety gave farmers and many workers for herbicide business refreshing jolt. The products and applied area of SU-included herbicides have been rapidly increased, and have accounted for about 69% and 96%, respectively, in Korea. The top ten herbicides by applied area were composed of all SU-included herbicides by 2003. The concentrated and successive treatment of ACCase and ALS inhibitors for control of barnyardgrass in direct-seeded rice led up to the resistance of E. oryzoides. Also, SU-herbicides like pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and imazosulfuron which are effective to barnyardgrass can be bound up with the resistance of E. oryzoides. The ALS activity isolated from the resistant biotype of M. korsakowii to SU-herbicides tested was less sensitive than that of susceptible biotype. The concentration of herbicide required for 50% inhibition of ALS activity ($I_{50}$) of the SU-resistant M. korsakowii was 14- to 76-fold higher as compared to the susceptible biotype. No differences were observed in the rates of [$^{14}C$]bensulfuron uptake and translocation. ALS genes from M. vaginalis resistant and susceptible biotypes against SU-herbicides revealed a single amino acid substitution of proline (CCT), at 197th position based on the M. korsakowii ALS sequence numbering, to serin (TCT) in conserved domain A of the gene. Carfentrazone-ethyl and pyrazolate were used mainly to control SU-resistant M. vaginalis by 2006, the early period, in Korea. However, the alternative herbicides such as benzobicyclone, to be possible to control simultaneously the several resistant weeds, have been developing and using broadly because the several resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same filed. The top ten herbicides by applied area in Korea have been occupied by products of 3-way mixture type including herbicides with alternative mode of action for the herbicide resistant weeds. Mefenacet, fentrazamide and cafenstrole had excellent controlling effects on the ACCase and ALS inhibitors resistant when they were applied within 2 leaf stage.

Differential Tolerance of Rice Cultivars to Mesotrione-Contained Herbicides (Mesotrione 함유 제초제에 대한 벼 생태형간 약해반응 차이)

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Yeo, Un-Sang;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Park, Sung-Tae;Lee, Jong-Hee;Jeong, Kuk-Hyun;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Song, You-Chun;Kang, Hang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.300-307
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    • 2010
  • Greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate tolerance of six rice cultivars, three Indica${\times}$Japonica rice (long grain, cv. Dasanbyeo, Segejinmi and Hanareumbyeo) and three Japonica rice (short grain, Nampyung, Ilpumbyeo and Junamjosaeng) cultivars, to mesotrione+pretilachlor (MP) and bensulfuron-methyl+mesotrione+pretilachlor+pyriftalid (BMPP) in transplanting rice. Two herbicides were applied at 90 g and 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ to three to four leaf stage rice at 5 and 15 days after transplanting, respectively. Related study was also conducted to compare $GR_{50}$ for Indica${\times}$Japonica and Japonica rice cultivars at different MP rates. Response to two herbicides varied with respect to rice cultivars and herbicide rates. All Indica${\times}$Japonica rice cultivars exhibited susceptible to both MP and BMPP as reflected by increased visual injury, shorter plant height and higher plant dry matter reduction when compared with nontreated rice cutlivars. The degree of foliar chlorosis by MP at 90 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ was 5~6 at 7 days after treatment(DAT) but it was decreased to 3~6 at 14DAT. The degree of leaf chlorosis treated with 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ MP was 6~7 at 7DAT and it was also decreased to 3~8 at 14 DAT. The plant hight of Indica${\times}$Japonica rices was inhibited by 18~43% at application of 90 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ MP and 30~50% at 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ MP. The dry matter reduction was greater than that of plant height inhibition, showing 46~73% at 90 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ MP and 65~82% at 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ MP. Similar leaf chlorosis injury and growth inhibition of rice cultivars was observed in the BMPP treatment. The injury and growth inhibition by MP and BMPP increased with increase in herbicide rate from 90 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$ to 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$. However, most of the Japonica cultivars are tolerant to MP and BMPP at both rates. There was no visible leaf chlorosis but plant height and dry matter production were slightly reduced at 180 g a.i. $ha^{-1}$. Based on $GR_{50}$ value determined in reduction of shoot dry weight for MP, the Indica${\times}$Japonica rice showed 12.9 fold lower compared with the Japonica rice. The result indicates that rice cultivars vary in tolerance to herbicides of MP and BMPP and Indica${\times}$Japonica rices were more susceptible than the Japonica rices to the MP and BMPP.

The Study about Application of LEAP Collimator at Brain Diamox Perfusion Tomography Applied Flash 3D Reconstruction: One Day Subtraction Method (Flash 3D 재구성을 적용한 뇌 혈류 부하 단층 촬영 시 LEAP 검출기의 적용에 관한 연구: One Day Subtraction Method)

  • Choi, Jong-Sook;Jung, Woo-Young;Ryu, Jae-Kwang
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Flash 3D (pixon(R) method; 3D OSEM) was developed as a software program to shorten exam time and improve image quality through reconstruction, it is an image processing method that usefully be applied to nuclear medicine tomography. If perfoming brain diamox perfusion scan by reconstructing subtracted images by Flash 3D with shortened image acquisition time, there was a problem that SNR of subtracted image is lower than basal image. To increase SNR of subtracted image, we use LEAP collimators, and we emphasized on sensitivity of vessel dilatation than resolution of brain vessel. In this study, our purpose is to confirm possibility of application of LEAP collimators at brain diamox perfusion tomography, identify proper reconstruction factors by using Flash 3D. Materials and methods: (1) The evaluation of phantom: We used Hoffman 3D Brain Phantom with $^{99m}Tc$. We obtained images by LEAP and LEHR collimators (diamox image) and after 6 hours (the half life of $^{99m}Tc$: 6 hours), we use obtained second image (basal image) by same method. Also, we acquired SNR and ratio of white matters/gray matters of each basal image and subtracted image. (2) The evaluation of patient's image: We quantitatively analyzed patients who were examined by LEAP collimators then was classified as a normal group and who were examined by LEHR collimators then was classified as a normal group from 2008. 05 to 2009. 01. We evaluate the results from phantom by substituting factors. We used one-day protocol and injected $^{99m}Tc$-ECD 925 MBq at both basal image acquisition and diamox image acquisition. Results: (1) The evaluation of phantom: After measuring counts from each detector, at basal image 41~46 kcount, stress image 79~90 kcount, subtraction image 40~47 kcount were detected. LEAP was about 102~113 kcount at basal image, 188~210 kcount at stress image and 94~103 at subtraction image kcount were detected. The SNR of LEHR subtraction image was decreased than LEHR basal image about 37%, the SNR of LEAP subtraction image was decreased than LEAP basal image about 17%. The ratio of gray matter versus white matter is 2.2:1 at LEHR basal image and 1.9:1 at subtraction, and at LEAP basal image was 2.4:1 and subtraction image was 2:1. (2) The evaluation of patient's image: the counts acquired by LEHR collimators are about 40~60 kcounts at basal image, and 80~100 kcount at stress image. It was proper to set FWHM as 7 mm at basal and stress image and 11mm at subtraction image. LEAP was about 80~100 kcount at basal image and 180~200 kcount at stress image. LEAP images could reduce blurring by setting FWHM as 5 mm at basal and stress images and 7 mm at subtraction image. At basal and stress image, LEHR image was superior than LEAP image. But in case of subtraction image like a phantom experiment, it showed rough image because SNR of LEHR image was decreased. On the other hand, in case of subtraction LEAP image was better than LEHR image in SNR and sensitivity. In all LEHR and LEAP collimator images, proper subset and iteration frequency was 8 times. Conclusions: We could archive more clear and high SNR subtraction image by using proper filter with LEAP collimator. In case of applying one day protocol and reconstructing by Flash 3D, we could consider application of LEAP collimator to acquire better subtraction image.

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Seedling - Emergence of Rice, Weedy Rice, and Echinochloa species Sown before Wintering and in the Early Spring (월동전(越冬前) 초춘(初春)에 파종(播種)한 재배(栽培)벼, 잡초성(雜草性)벼 및 피의 출현특성(出現特性))

  • Kwon, Y.W.;Lee, B.W.;Kim, D.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.88-99
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    • 1996
  • In recent years dry direct-seeding of rice has been encouraged by the government and increasingly practiced by farmers in Korea. This has been bringing up an increased occurrence of weedy rites. Some farmers in the southern region dare to sow the rice before winter after harvest, while most farmers wish to sow as early as possible in the spring to secure the growing period, and to disperse the intensive labor in early May. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of moving the sowing of rice to an earlier date under dry direct-seeding, and to elucidate the nature of emergence of an old strain of rice, weedy rites, and barnyardgrasses tinder this farming practice and their adaptive competence over present cultivate. The presently recommended rice cultivar, Dongjinbyo and an old rice strain, Dadajo which prevailed in early 1900s, almost could not emerge from soil deeper than 6cm and could emerge to only 5.3% at best from 1cm deep loamy soil field when the seeds were sown on Nov. 28. However, two strains of weedy rites being weedy for over 200 years emerged by 17.0 to 63.0% from the loamy and sandy clay loam field 1 to 6cm deep. Emergence of the weedy rites was greater in the loamy soil and at a shallow depth, and negligible from the soil depth of 9cm. Barnyardgrasses sown on Nov. 28 emerged by 13.4 to 51 % from the 1 to 3cm deep loamy soil, and 8.6 to 46.7% from the 1cm deep sandy clay loam. Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli emerged more than var. praticola, and var. oryzicola least. Most of the non-emerged barnyardgrasses seem to have entered secondary dormancy. Seeding rice a month earlier than the season lowered the emergence of Dongjinbyo by ca. 10, 18, and 26%, respectively at 1, 3, and 6cm soil depths, indicating that moving the seeding date a month earlier is impractical. The old strain, Dadajo sown in the soil at a depth of 6cm responded similarly. However, the strain has shown a significantly higher ability in emergence from 9cm deep soil. Weedy rices sown a month earlier A month earlier sown weedy rices have shown very similar emergence rates at various soil depths to those sown on May 1. Barnyardgrasses have also shown similar emergence rates when sown between April 3 and May 1. Like barnyardgrasses, the old strain and weedy rices apparantly posessed a greater adaptability to emerge under lower temperatures, and from deeper soil ; Dongjinbyo${\leq}$ Echinochloa species in that order. However, emergence- speed under lower temperature(sown on April 3) was faster in the order of weedy rice

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Studies on Characteristics of Sprouting and Occurrence on paddy field of Water Chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi) (올방개 괴경(塊莖)의 맹아(萌芽) 특성(特性)과 본답(本畓)에서의 발생(發生)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, H.D.;Park, J.S.;Park, K.Y.;Choi, Y.J.;Yu, C.J.;Rho, Y.D.;Kwon, Y.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.264-281
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    • 1996
  • As a consequence of wide use of herbicides, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi became a dorminant problem weed for rice cultivation in Korea. To understand the establishment of the weed, experiments on physio-ecological characteristics were carried out sprouting and occurrence, the results could be summarized as follows: Sprouting percentage remained 68 to 73% until the time of field emergence, indicating many of the them are still dormant. The proportion of the dormant tubers were greater for the smaller than the bigger tubers. Apical dominance was apparent in sprouting, with 84% of tuber sprouted from only one of the apical buds. Tubers sprouted from 2 or 3 buds were less than 20%, and were mostly from the bigger tubers. When the shoot growth was compared, by controlling the others, ones from apical and the next 3 buds showed similar vigorous growth, but the later ones showed poorer growth. For the longevity of tubers, deep soil storage appeared to be better than storage in temperature controlled room to 2~$3^{\circ}C$. Emergence of E. kuroguwai was better in clay soil than in sand, and the possible depth for emergence in clay soil appeared to be up to 21cm, but was 15cm in sand. When tubers were exposed to salt solutions before emergence tests, E. kuroguwai appeared to be much sensitive to salts than S.planiculmis. Among the tubers formed in previous year, 12.7% remained still viable until the end of next crop season, but with relatively strong dormancy. The first emergence was about 10 days after planting at ordinary cropping seasons, and the days to the maximum shoot number stage were 60~90 from planting. The duration was extended at early transplanting, and shoot number, leaves per shoot, and tubers developed per plant were also greater at early plantings. The 6th order offshoots were developing when E. kuroguwai was planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced and the number of tubers, runner and rhizome lengths was also reduced.

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Analysis of Metadata Standards of Record Management for Metadata Interoperability From the viewpoint of the Task model and 5W1H (메타데이터 상호운용성을 위한 기록관리 메타데이터 표준 분석 5W1H와 태스크 모델의 관점에서)

  • Baek, Jae-Eun;Sugimoto, Shigeo
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.32
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    • pp.127-176
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    • 2012
  • Metadata is well recognized as one of the foundational factors in archiving and long-term preservation of digital resources. There are several metadata standards for records management, archives and preservation, e.g. ISAD(G), EAD, AGRkMs, PREMIS, and OAIS. Consideration is important in selecting appropriate metadata standards in order to design metadata schema that meet the requirements of a particular archival system. Interoperability of metadata with other systems should be considered in schema design. In our previous research, we have presented a feature analysis of metadata standards by identifying the primary resource lifecycle stages where each standard is applied. We have clarified that any single metadata standard cannot cover the whole records lifecycle for archiving and preservation. Through this feature analysis, we analyzed the features of metadata in the whole records lifecycle, and we clarified the relationships between the metadata standards and the stages of the lifecycle. In the previous study, more detailed analysis was left for future study. This paper proposes to analyze the metadata schemas from the viewpoint of tasks performed in the lifecycle. Metadata schemas are primarily defined to describe properties of a resource in accordance with the purposes of description, e.g. finding aids, records management, preservation and so forth. In other words, the metadata standards are resource- and purpose-centric, and the resource lifecycle is not explicitly reflected in the standards. There are no systematic methods for mapping between different metadata standards in accordance with the lifecycle. This paper proposes a method for mapping between metadata standards based on the tasks contained in the resource lifecycle. We first propose a Task Model to clarify tasks applied to resources in each stage of the lifecycle. This model is created as a task-centric model to identify features of metadata standards and to create mappings among elements of those standards. It is important to categorize the elements in order to limit the semantic scope of mapping among elements and decrease the number of combinations of elements for mapping. This paper proposes to use 5W1H (Who, What, Why, When, Where, How) model to categorize the elements. 5W1H categories are generally used for describing events, e.g. news articles. As performing a task on a resource causes an event and metadata elements are used in the event, we consider that the 5W1H categories are adequate to categorize the elements. By using these categories, we determine the features of every element of metadata standards which are AGLS, AGRkMS, PREMIS, EAD, OAIS and an attribute set extracted from DPC decision flow. Then, we perform the element mapping between the standards, and find the relationships between the standards. In this study, we defined a set of terms for each of 5W1H categories, which typically appear in the definition of an element, and used those terms to categorize the elements. For example, if the definition of an element includes the terms such as person and organization that mean a subject which contribute to create, modify a resource the element is categorized into the Who category. A single element can be categorized into one or more 5W1H categories. Thus, we categorized every element of the metadata standards using the 5W1H model, and then, we carried out mapping among the elements in each category. We conclude that the Task Model provides a new viewpoint for metadata schemas and is useful to help us understand the features of metadata standards for records management and archives. The 5W1H model, which is defined based on the Task Model, provides us a core set of categories to semantically classify metadata elements from the viewpoint of an event caused by a task.

A Study on Transition of Rice Culture Practices During Chosun Dynasty Through Old References IX. Intergrated Discussion on Rice (주요(主要) 고농서(古農書)를 통(通)한 조선시대(朝鮮時代)의 도작기술(稻作技術) 전개(展開) 과정(過程) 연구(硏究) - IX. 도작기술(稻作技術)에 대(對)한 종합고찰(綜合考察))

  • Guh, J.O.;Lee, S.K.;Lee, E.W.;Lee, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 1992
  • From the beginning of the chosun dynasty, an agriculture-first policy was imposed by being written farming books, for instance, Nongsajiksul, matched with real conditions of local agriculture, which provided the grounds of new, intensive farming technologies. This farming book was the collection of good fanning technologies that were experienced in rural farm areas at that time. According to Nongsajiksul, rice culture systems were divided into "Musarmi"(Water-Seeded rice), /"Kunsarmi"(dry-seeded rice), /transplanted rice and mountainous rice (upland rice) culture. The characteristics of these rice cultures with high technologies were based of scientific weeding methods, improved fertilization, and cultivation works using cattle power and manpower tools systematically. Reclamation of coastal swampy and barren land was possible in virtue of fire cultivation farming(火耕) and a weeding tool called "Yoonmok"(輪木). Also, there was an improved hoe to do weeding works as well as thinning and heaping-up of soil at seeding stages of rice. Direct-seeded rice culture in flat paddy fields were expanded by constructing the irrigation reservoirs and ponds, and the valley paddy fields was reclaimed by constructing "Boh(洑)". These were possible due to weed control by irrigation waters, keeping soil fertility by inorganic fertilization during irrigation, and increased productivity of rice fields by supplying good physiological conditions for rice. Also, labor-saving culture of rice was feasible by transplanting but in national-wide, rice should not basically be transplanted because of the restriction of water use. Thus, direct-seeded rice in dry soils was established, in which rice was direct-seeded and grown in dry soils by seedling stages and was grown in flooded fields when rained, as in the book "Nongsajiksul". During the middle of the dynasty(AD 1495-1725), the excellent labor-saving farmings include check-rowing transplanting because of weeding efficiency and availability in rice("Hanjongrok"), and, nurserybed techniques (early transplanting of rice) were emphasized on the basis of rice transplanting ["Nongajibsung"]. The techniques for deep plowing with cattle powers and for putting more fertilizers were to improve the productivity of labor and land, The matters advanced in "Sanlimkyungje" more than in "Nongajibsung" were, development of "drybed of rice nursery stock", like "upland rice nursery" today, transplanting, establishment of "winter barly on drained paddy field, and improvement of labor and land-productivity in rice". This resulted in the community of large-scale farming by changing the pattern of small-farming into the production system of rice management. Woo-hayoung(1741-1812) in his book "Chonilrok" tried to reform from large-scale farmings into intensive farmings, of which as eminent view was to divide the land use into transplanting (paddy) and groove-seeding methods(dry field). Especially as insisted by Seo-yugo ("Sanlimkyungjeji"), the advantages of transplanting were curtailment of weeding labors, good growth of rice because of soil fertility of both nurserybed and paddy field, and newly active growth because rice plants were pulled out and replanted. Of course, there were reestimation of transplanting, limitation of two croppings a year, restriction of "paddy-upland alternation", and a ban for large-scale farming. At that period, Lee-jiyum had written on rice farming technologies in dry upland with consider of the land, water physiology of rice, and convenience for weeding, and it was a creative cropping system to secure the farm income most safely. As a integrated considerations, the followings must be introduced to practice the improved farming methods ; namely, improvement of farming tools, putting more fertilizers, introduction of cultural technologies more rational and efficient, management of labor power, improvement of cropping system to enhance use of irrigation water and land, introduction of new crops and new varieties.

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The Status, Problems and Countermeasure of Direct Rice Seeding in Honam Province - On Weed control - (호남지방(湖南地方) 직파재배(直播栽培)의 현황(現況), 문제점(問題點) 및 대책(對策) - 잡초방제적(雜草防除的) 측면(側面)에서 -)

  • Ryang, Hwan-Seung;Kim, Jong-Seog
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.271-291
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to survey the situation of direct rice seeding in Honam province in Korea to investigate problems and seek countermeasure of weed control in direct rice seeding. The total area of direct rice seeding in the south-western part of Korea (Chonbuk, Chonnam, and Chungnam) was 1650.8ha (732.1ha for direct seeding in dry field and 918.7ha for direct seeding in flooding field) in 1992. The followings are summary of the study. 1. In case of direct rice seeding in dry field, butachlor EC and G at 3 to 5 DAS was mostly selected by farmers to control weeds in dry field. Benthiocarb or chlornitrofen was also used in few cases. At 10 to 14 DAS just before rice emergence, tank misture of butachlor EC and paraquat was treated by some farmers. At 35 to 40 days, after flooding mixture of sulfonylurea derivatives was sequentially applied. Surviving weeds including barnyardgrass were finally controlled by mixture of bentazon+quinclorac WP foliage application. 2. In case of direct rice seeding in flooding field, weed control were mostly unsuccessful partially due to wrong selection of herbicide and missing the optimum application time. Three relatively successful weed control in the survey were summarized as follows. 1) Oxadiazon EC, butachlor or benthiocarb were treated just after puddling(5 to 7 days before seeding). then mixture of bentazone+quinclorac WP or sulfonylurea derivatives was sequently applied to control remaining weeds at 20 days after seeding. 2) Mixtures of bensulfuronmethyl+dimepiperate G, pyrazosulfuronethyl+molinate G, or bensulfuronmethyl+mefenacet+dymron G were applied at 11 days after puddling when barnyardgrass were at 2.0 leaf stage. Phytotoxicity was not found in case of mixture of bensulfuronmethyl+dimepiperate G but found in the other two cases but disappeared later. 3) Mixtures of bensulfuronmethyl+quinclorac G., pyrazosulfuronethyl+quinclorac G or betazone and quinclorac G were treated after 18 to 20 days after puddling when barnyardgrass was within 3.0 leaf stage. It showed good weed control in both annuals and perrenials without phytotoxicity. On the contrary, other sulfonylurea derivatives such as middle periodic herbicide showed poor weed control against barnyardgrass, so that sequential treatment of bentazone+quinclorac WP mixture was required. 3. Herbicidal characteristics and optimum application time of 45 rigistered herbicides in Korea were analyzed to discover new substitute for quinclorac mixture, that showed excellent weed control against barnyardgrass at its 3 leaf stage or older. The analysis revealed that 70% of herbicides were for preemergence and the others were post periodic herbicide. Most farmers favor to apply herbicide when rice seedlings completely rooted, at this time barnyardgrass are at 2.5-3.0 leaf stage. Therefore herbicide of which optimum application time had long is required. In this study. 6 middle periodic herbicides among sulfonylurea derivatives and 2 quinclorac mixture were selected and evaluated their weeding spectrums at different leaf stage of barnyardgrass in both soil application in flooding condition and foliage application in dry paddy field. The order of weeding spectrum in magnitude was as follows : bentazone+quinclorac WP> bentazone + quinclorac G>bensulfuronmethyl + quinclorac G>pyrazosulfuronethyl + quinclorac G> pyrazosulfuronethyl + Molinate G>bensulfuronmethyl + mefenacet + dymron G>bensulfuronmethyl + mefenacet G>bensulfuron methyl+benthiocarb G. The above results coincided with that of the survey. In conclusion, there is no proper substitute for quinclorac mixrure, which can control barnyardgrass at 3.0 leaf stage or even older. Therefore quinclorac should be supplied continuously to farmers in order to anchor direct rice seeding in Korea. Author suggested the followings to eastablish direct rice seeding technology effectively and quickly : 1) A tentatively named "The research committee for direct rice seeding" which was composed of farmers. researchers and goberment. should be eastablished to cooperate effectively. 2) Development of a pricise direct rice seeding machine for both dry and flooding paddy field. which is workable regardless of condition and varieties of seeds. 3) Study on protecting rice seed and seedling from sparrows. 4) Systematic studies of weed control techniques in direct rice seeding to standardize herbicide application. 5) Studies on farm-land reformation. techniques of precise land preparation. and direct rice seeding using an airplane.

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